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Political advertising

Jan 09, 2016

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Political advertising. The dominant form of candidate communication with the electorate. Political advertising. “Televised political advertising is now the dominant form of communication between candidates and voters in the presidential elections and in most statewide contests” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Political advertisingThe dominant form of candidate communication with the electorate

  • Political advertisingTelevised political advertising is now the dominant form of communication between candidates and voters in the presidential elections and in most statewide contestsKaid, Political advertising

  • http://www.ciadvertising.org/student_account/fall_00/adv382j/derrellwilson/p2/politics.htmlEisenhower Answers America

  • UndecidedsThe swing vote in elections is made up largely of those persons who are relatively ill-informed, have a less-developed ideology and are swayed by late events, advertising and non-policy newsThey often decide the elections, though, and are a major target of candidatesGoing negative can work here

  • Content of political advertisingClose analysis of the actual content of political advertising has been rather limitedRelatively recent area of studyFocused heavily on the presidential campaignAvailability of historic advertisingMost money, most sophisticated advertisingPopular and scholarly focus on presidential contest

  • Issues v. imagesMost advertising focuses on issues rather than image78% of 2000 presidential campaign ads (historic high)However, the percentage of spots with specific policy issue information was much lower than the overall number of issue spotsVague, general statementsClaims without context (often misleading or even false)Researchers have come to conclude that the two are intertwined and inseparable

  • Issues

    Proportion of ads emphasizing issuesFear appealsBush85%19%Kerry79%5%

  • 2004 Issue Mentions (source: Kaid)

    Chart1

    0.270.20.170.220.350.20.150.250.140.03

    0.450.250.190.050.160.190.060.480.050.07

    Economy

    Taxes

    International affairs

    Defense spending

    Terrorism/Homeland security

    War in Iraq/Afghanistan

    Medicare/SS/Elderly

    Health care

    Education

    Environment

    Sheet1

    EconomyTaxesInternational affairsDefense spendingTerrorism/Homeland securityWar in Iraq/AfghanistanMedicare/SS/ElderlyHealth careEducationEnvironment

    Bush27%20%17%22%35%20%15%25%14%3%

    Kerry45%25%19%5%16%19%6%48%5%7%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Kaid: The Television Advertising Battleground in the 2004 Preseidential Election

  • 2004 Candidate character mentions (source: Kaid)

    Chart1

    0.090.250.290.240.10.170.12

    0.070.190.20.480.220.250.28

    Honesty

    Strength

    Compassion

    Competence

    Aggressiveness

    Activeness

    Qualifications

    Sheet1

    HonestyStrengthCompassionCompetenceAggressivenessActivenessQualifications

    Bush9%25%29%24%10%17%12%

    Kerry7%19%20%48%22%25%28%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Negative v. positiveThere has been a significant increase in negativity over the last 30 years

  • Positive v. NegativeChallengers are more likely to engage in negative advertising, while incumbents tend to be positiveChallenger criticizing record, incumbent defending itAttack ads are more common in competitive races Most races against incumbents are long shotsNegative ads are more likely to be sponsored by parties or advocacy groupsNegative ads have more substantive issue information

  • Positive v. negativePositive ads tend to focus on the present or future Negative ads tend to focus on the past and express anger

  • 2000 [all] elections(Wisconsin Ad Project)

    Chart1

    0.46

    0.29

    0.25

    % of aired commercials

    Sheet1

    % of aired commercials

    Positive46%

    Negative29%

    Compare/Contrast25%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Overall appeals

    Chart1

    0.420.58

    0.660.34

    Positive

    Negative

    Sheet1

    PositiveNegative

    Bush42%58%

    Kerry66%34%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Ad themes 2004 (source: Kaid)

    Chart1

    0.420.580.53

    0.660.340.71

    Positive

    Negative

    Attack in ad

    Sheet1

    PositiveNegativeAttack in ad

    Bush42%58%53%

    Kerry66%34%71%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • http://pcl.stanford.edu/campaigns/2008/http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/

  • Attack ads 2004 (source: Kaid)

    Personally attack opponentAnonymous attack on opponentAttack on issuesBush0%95%92%Kerry30%62%59%

  • Goldstein, Lessons learned

  • EmotionCommonly seen by professionals as the most important and effective appealPeople are not persuaded/moved by rational appealsMost political commercial use some form of emotional appeal

  • EmotionThe majority of political advertising relates in some way to emotionTony SchwartzFrank Luntz

    What types of emotion are most often used?FearPrideEspecially national prideHopeLoveFamily

  • Appeals in presidential campaign advertising

    Chart1

    0.570.830.83

    0.810.780.52

    Logical

    Emotional

    Source credibility

    Sheet1

    LogicalEmotionalSource credibility

    Image ads57%83%83%

    Issue ads81%78%52%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Verbal content 2004

    Chart1

    0.810.540.120.19

    0.930.580.190.05

    Logical

    Emotional

    Ethical

    Fear

    Sheet1

    LogicalEmotionalEthicalFear

    Bush81%54%12%19%

    Kerry93%58%19%5%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Emotion and cultural symbolsCommon use of non-rational appealsClearly a successful strategySpots contain an enormous amount of emotional content more emotional proof than logical or ethical proofAccording to Hart one must never underestimate the importance of that which advertising most reliably deliverspolitical emotion

  • Emotional appealsWinners use more words indicating activity and optimism than losers. Losers, alternately, demonstrated less certainty but higher realism in their spots.Ballotti & Kaid, 2000

  • http://pcl.stanford.edu/campaigns/2008/http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/

  • Incumbent strategies

    BushKerryUse of symbolic trappings15%0%Presidency stands for legitimacy12%0%Competency and the office25%5%Charisma and the office5%0%Emphasizing accomplishments25%12%Above-the-trenches posture7%0%Depending on surrogates to speak5%8%

  • Challenger strategies

    BushKerryCalling for changes3%59%Speaking to traditional values31%13%Taking the offensive position19%16%Emphasizing optimism31%28%Attacking the record of the opponent61%54%

  • Types of adsDiamond and Bates:ID spotsArgument spotsCandidate causes, ideas, concernsAttack spotsVisionary spots

  • Types of commercialsDevlinTalking headsNegative spotsCinema veriteDocumentary spotsMan-in-the street spotsTestimonialsIndependent spotsJoslyn: Benevolent leader spots

  • Nonverbal content

    Chart1

    0.120.110.37

    0.270.350.28

    Candidate is speaker

    Almost always makes eye contact

    Smiling facial expression

    Sheet1

    Candidate is speakerAlmost always makes eye contactSmiling facial expression

    Bush12%11%37%

    Kerry27%35%28%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Production techniques

    BushKerryComputer graphics92%80%Slow motion24%41%Fast motion15%1%Freeze frames14%14%Split screens17%26%Superimpositions20%13%Use of stills7%30%Black and white changes26%16%

  • Female candidatesFemale candidates tend to focus more on issues than men do, and to emphasize domestic issuesMay be more due to greater number of Democrats who are women than to gender

  • http://www.rbistrategies.com/content/37/rbi-strategies-and-research-winspollierdquo-awardshttp://pcl.stanford.edu/campaigns/2008/http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/

  • http://www.pbs.org/newshour/vote2008/reportersblog/campaign_ads/

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