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Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

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Page 1: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

CLEVELAND2016

marcus@5gyres.org

Page 2: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 3: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

The plastics industry has benefited from 50 years of growth with a year on year expansion of 8.7% from 1950 to 2012, with a global production of 288 million tons produced in 2012.

Page 4: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

“THROW AWAY LIVING” 2005

Page 5: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Page 6: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

South Pacific Gyre

South Atlantic Gyre

North Atlantic Gyre

North Pacific Gyre

Indian Ocean Gyre

Plastic Pollution Accumulation Zones (Lebreton et al., Mar. Pol. Bul., 2012)

Page 7: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

NORTH ATLANTIC GYRE

Page 8: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

NORTH PACIFIC GYRE

Page 9: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

INDIAN OCEAN GYRE

Page 10: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

SOUTH ATLANTIC GYRE

Page 11: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

SOUTH PACIFIC GYRE

Page 12: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

269,000 tons from

5.25 trillion particles

Page 13: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

PLASTIC SMOG

Page 14: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

SEA CHANGE 2015

Page 15: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 16: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 17: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 18: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 19: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 20: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 21: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

POOR PRODUCT DESIGN

Page 22: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

TIRE DUST

NURDLES

TURF FIBER

TOOLED SHAVINGS

UV SHREDDING

DRYER EXHAUST

CARPET WEAR

ROAD ABRASION OF TRASH

DESIGNEDWASTE

Page 23: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

WHAT IS THE ECOLOGICAL

IMPACT?

Page 24: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

DERELICT FISHING GEAR

Page 25: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

ENTANGLEMENT

Page 26: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

Photo: Chris Jordan

INGESTION

Page 27: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

MICROPLASTIC INGESTION(Goldstein et al., 2013) (Cole et al., 2013) (Thompson, 2004)

Page 28: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

TRANSLOCATION FROM STOMACH TO CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (Browne, 2008)

Page 29: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 30: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 31: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 32: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 33: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

WHERE IS IT ALL GOING?

Page 34: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

PHOTODEGRADATIONOXIDATIONMECHANICAL DEGRADATION

Page 35: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

BIODEGRADATION (Zettler et al., 2013)

Page 36: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

FRAGMENTATION BY GRAZING

Page 37: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

SHORELINE DEPOSITION

Page 38: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 39: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

DEEP SEA DEPOSITION (Cauwenberghe, 2013)

100um

100um

100um

Page 40: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

THREE CONCLUSIONS•  GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

•  TOXICITY

•  ECOSYSTEM-WIDE IMPACTS

PLASTIC

POLLUTION

CAUSES

“HARM”

Page 41: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

FOCUS ON PLASTIC BAGS

Page 42: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 43: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 44: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 45: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

Undeniable Trend in Bag Bans

Page 46: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

REUSABLE BAGS: FALLACY OF CLEANLINESS

ARGUMENT…like you wash your

socks.

Wash your bags…

Page 47: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

DOUBLE SPEAKRECYCLING OR LANDFILL?

Page 48: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

•  LCA 1 – plastic bag vs. paper bag•  LCA 2 – double bag vs. paper bag•  LCA 3 – plastic bag vs. recycled paper bag•  LCA 4 – compostable bag vs. plastic bag•  LCA 5 – recycled plastic bag vs. paper•  LCA 6 - no bag vs. any bag

LCA of Convenience

ALL LCA’s EXTERNALIZE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

Page 49: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

1000x reuse and going …

Page 50: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

WORD MANIPULATION &DOUBLE TAXATION

•  CITY TAX–  (cleanup of plastic bags = MWM taxes)

•  SALES TAX–  (Grocers increase the cost of goods in

order to absorb the cost of plastic bags. Customers pay sales tax on those increases.)

Page 51: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

“What is missed on the conveyor belt tumbles over a giant rotor with stubby teeth that separates cardboard from the rest of it. This is where plastic bags get stuck and clog the system. The damn things blow around. They’re usually full of other junk, like dog poop. They’re more trouble than they’re worth.”

Anonymous MRF owner

MRF MAYHEM

Page 52: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

TOO WASTEFUL TO VALUE

There's harsh economics behind bag recycling: It costs $4,000 to process and recycle 1 ton of plastic bags, which can then be sold on the commodities market for $32.

Jared Blumenfeld (Director of San Francisco's Department of the Environment)

It’s cheaper for me to send my plastic bags to China than spend $62/ton at the landfill.

Joe GarbarinoMarin County Recycling

Page 53: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

PROBLEM SUMMARY

•  Design facilitates loss to environment•  Plastic is dangerous in the environment •  Recovery rates continue to fail•  MRF mayhem•  Too taxing to the public•  Stifles innovation and US jobs

Page 54: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

SOLUTIONS

•  Embrace science•  Lead innovation•  Support true cost LCA’s •  Support EPR beyond recycling•  Reject the path of frivolous lawsuits

Page 55: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

URGE RETAILERS TO PROVIDE CUSTOMERS

CARBOARD BOXES

Page 56: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

TRANSFORM CULTURE

Heirloom Culture

Throw Away Living

Page 57: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

CLEVELAND2016

marcus@5gyres.org

Page 58: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 59: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 60: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 61: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 62: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 63: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 64: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein
Page 65: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

THE GREAT DIVIDE LINEAR vs CIRCULAR

ECONOMY ECONOMY

Page 66: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

SIN LIST: PRODUCT/PACKAGING/BRAND IMPACTS

Page 67: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

YOUTHDRIVING

SOLUTIONS

Page 68: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

YOUTH TAKING CHARGE – TRASH AUDIT

Page 69: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

YOUTH SPEAKING OUT

Page 70: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

YOUTH LEADERS

Page 71: Plastics Pollution Problem Presentation - Cleveland July 2016council.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_council/en-US/Misc... · MICROPLASTIC INGESTION (Thompson, 2004) (Cole et al., 2013) (Goldstein

Marcus EriksenThe 5 Gyres Institute