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PHIL 2 Philosophy: Ethics in Contemporary Society

Dec 30, 2015

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PHIL 2 Philosophy: Ethics in Contemporary Society. Week 1 Topic Outlines. Course Overview. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • PHIL 2Philosophy: Ethics in Contemporary SocietyWeek 1Topic Outlines

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course OverviewThis course examines the nature of philosophy and ethics relationship to it, including the issue of morality. Several ethical theories are applied to individual ethical problems and contemporary social issues, such as health care applications. Other moral issues, such as abortion, euthanasia, discrimination and animal rights, are addressed.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course ObjectivesAt the completion of this course, you will be able to:Explain the relationship between philosophy, ethics, and morality.Classify the characteristics, history, application, and importance of morality.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Objectives (continued)

    Describe several theories of morality and ethics (for example, ethical egoism, utilitarianism, divine command theory, Kants duty ethics, Rosss prima facie duties, and virtue ethics). Explain consequential theories of morality.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Objectives (continued)

    Differentiate between absolutism versus relativism, as well as freedom versus determinism.Explain reward and punishment in relationship to justice.Define (or outline) the system of humanitarian ethics.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Objectives (continued)

    Analyze case studies to determine moral or immoral implications of actions and behaviors. Synthesize the major ethical theories and the process by which they apply to current moral problems within our society.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Text

    Thiroux, Jacques P.Ethics Theory and Practice, 8th ed. Pearson-Prentice Hall, 2004.ISBN: 0-13-183002-3

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Topics by WeekWeek 1Course ExpectationsComponents and History of Morality Chap. 1Consequential Theories of Morality Chap. 2Theories of Morality and Virtue Ethics Chap. 3

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Topics by WeekWeek 2Absolutism versus Relativism Chap. 4 An Analysis of Freedom versus Determinism Chap. 5Reward and Punishment Chap. 6Act of Setting Up a Moral System Chap. 7

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Topics by WeekWeek 3Moral Implications of Taking Human Life Chap. 8Moral Implications of Allowing Someone to Die Chap. 9Moral Implications of Abortion Chap. 10Applying Humanitarian Ethics

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Topics by WeekWeek 4Moral Implications of Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing Chap. 11Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality Chap. 12

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Topics by WeekWeek 5Bioethics and the Ethical Issues in Medicine Chap. 13Business and Media Ethics Business and Media Ethics Chap. 14

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Course Topics by WeekWeek 6Environmental Ethics Chap. 15Key Concepts and Major Ethical Theories Appendixes

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Topic 1: Course Expectations

    Philosophy, ethics, and morality Relationships among philosophy, ethics, and morality

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Philosophy, Ethics, and Morality Philosophy is concerned with:Epistemology (study of knowledge)Metaphysics (study of nature of reality)Ethics (study of morality)Ethics: What is right or wrong in human behavior and conductMorality: Human conduct and values

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Relationships among Philosophy, Ethics, and MoralityEthics is a sub-area of philosophy.Ethical and moral are often used interchangeably.Ethics pertains to the individual character of a person.Morality deals with relationships among people.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Topic 2: Components and History of Morality

    Approaches to the study of moralityWhy human beings should be moralMorality and the law; morality and religion

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Approaches to the Studyof MoralityValues as totally objective from external sourceSupernatural theoryNatural law theoryWorld and objects in it have value without the presence of valuing humansValues as totally subjective from within human beings

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Approaches to the Studyof Morality (continued)Values as both subjective and objectiveIncludes three variables:Thing of value, or thing valuedConscious being who valuesContext or situation in which valuing takes place

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Why Human Beings Should Be Moral

    Religion or the supernaturalEnlightened self-interestTradition and lawCommon human needs

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Morality and the Law; Morality and Religion Law provides guides to human behavior and protection from harm.What is moral is not necessarily legal.What is legal is not necessarily moral.Law is the public codification of morality.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Morality and the Law; Morality and Religion (continued)Religion has served as a most powerful sanction for getting people to behave morally.Morality is not based solely on religion.Difficulty of proving supernatural existenceNonreligious people can be moralDifficulty of providing a rational foundationWhich religion?

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Topic 3: Consequential Theories of Morality

    Consequentialist and nonconsequentialist views of moralityThree types of ethical egoismTwo types of utilitarianism

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Consequentialist and Nonconsequentialist Views of MoralityConsequentialist ethical theories based on or concerned with consequences; also called teleological theoriesNonconsequentialist ethical theories not based on or concerned with consequences; also called deontological theories

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Three Types of Ethical EgoismEthical egoism people should act in their own self-interestThree types:Individual everyone should act in my self-interestPersonal I ought to act in my self interestUniversal everyone should act in his or her self-interest

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Two Types of Utilitarianism Utilitarianism people should act in the best interest of all concernedTwo types:Act one should perform that act that brings about the greatest good for everyone affectedRule one should follow the rule that will bring about the greatest number of good consequences for all involved

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Topic 4: Theories of Morality and Virtue Ethics Nonconsequentialist and Virtue Ethics theories of morality and consequentialist theoriesNonconsequentialism and the divine command theory, Kants duty ethics, Rosss prima facie duties, and virtue ethicsAristotles Nichomachean Ethics and John Rawls theory of justice

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Nonconsequentialist & Virtue Ethics theories of morality vs. Consequentialist theoriesNonconsequentialist theories consequences do not and should not enter into judgment of moralityTwo types:Act there are no rulesRule following the rules is what is moral

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Nonconsequentialist & Virtue Ethics theories of morality vs. Consequentialist theoriesVirtue Ethics development of a moral or virtuous character by doing what a good person would doVirtue Ethics are not concerned with consequences or rules.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Divine Command theory, Kants Duty Ethics, Rosss Prima Facie duties, Virtue EthicsDivine Command theory morality is based on commands and prohibitions communicated by a supernatural being or beings.To be moral, humans must follow these commands without concern for consequences, self-interest, or anything else.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Divine Command theory, Kants Duty Ethics, Rosss Prima Facie duties, Virtue Ethics (continued)Kants Duty EthicsGood will human ability to act in accordance with rules, laws, or principles regardless of interests or consequencesEstablishing morality by reasoning alone absolute moral truths exist that are consistent and universalCategorical Imperative a rule is immoral if it cannot apply to all humans

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Divine Command theory, Kants Duty Ethics, Rosss Prima Facie duties, Virtue Ethics (continued)Kants Duty Ethics (continued)Practical Imperative no human being should be used merely as a means to someones endDuty rather than inclination people must act out of a sense of duty

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Divine Command theory, Kants Duty Ethics, Rosss Prima Facie duties, Virtue Ethics (continued)Rosss Prima Facie duties: all humans must obey in a general way before any other considerationsFidelity telling the truth, keeping promisesReparation making amendsGratitude recognizing what others have done for us

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Divine Command theory, Kants Duty Ethics, Rosss Prima Facie duties, Virtue Ethics (continued)Rosss Prima Facie duties (continued)Justice seeing that people get what they deserveBeneficence helping to improve the condition of othersSelf-improvement improving our own virtue, intelligence and happinessNonmaleficence not injuring others, preventing injury to others

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Divine Command theory, Kants Duty Ethics, Rosss Prima Facie duties, Virtue Ethics (continued)Virtue Ethics: based on Aristotles Nichomachean EthicsGoal is the development of a good or virtuous human being; an action is not right or good in itself.

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Aristotles Nichomachean Ethics and John Rawls Theory of Justice Aristotles Nichomachean Ethics: human beings have natural ethical tendencies in human beings; to follow them with a general attitude of consistent harmony and proportion constitutes an ethical life.Virtue is the mean between two extremes (vices).

    Week 1, PHIL2

  • Aristotles Nichomachean Ethics and John Rawls Theory of JusticeJohn Rawls Theory of Justice: rights are given to humans by a just society in which no one has an unfair advantage over others.Principles that shape society are agreed upon without regar

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