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Tracy C. Leskey Research Entomologist USDA-ARS Appalachian Fruit Research Station Kearneysville, WV 25430 USA Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Specialty Crops
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Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Apr 02, 2018

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Page 1: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Tracy C. LeskeyResearch EntomologistUSDA-ARSAppalachian Fruit Research StationKearneysville, WV 25430 USA

Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Specialty Crops

Page 2: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

AdultMale

AdultFemale

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Life History• Deposit eggs on undersides of leaves. Five

nymphal stages. One to two generations per year in areas where it is established.

• Over 100 host plants including tree fruit, small fruit, grapes, vegetables, legumes, and ornamentals.

• Limited biological control from native natural enemies.

2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th

Egg Mass 1st

Page 3: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Current Distribution of BMSB in North America

Page 4: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

$37 Million In Losses to Mid-Atlantic Apple Growers

Page 5: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Landscape-Level Threat To Crops and IPM Programs

Corn

Invasive Tree-of-Heaven Native Woody Hosts

Apple

Photo Courtesy of Chris Bergh

Biology, Ecology, and Management of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Orchard Crops, Small Fruit, Grapes, Vegetables, and Ornamentals USDA-NIFA SCRI Coordinated Agricultural Project

Page 6: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

What Have We Learned So Far?

Page 7: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Post-2010 Progress• There is a huge range of insecticide effects within chemical classes. No

chemical class uniformly outperformed all others, but representatives of each major class demonstrated potential value for field use.

• Even at highest doses of the most effective insecticides, BMSB are very hard to kill via contact with a dry residue.

• Potential for recovery from “moribund” state was demonstrated for some pyrethroids and neonicotinoids.

• Residual activity in the field is very short.

• Mitigated immediate threat but with significant consequences. Increased inputs (as much as 4-fold greater) and labor. Increased costs and frequent secondary pest outbreaks. IPM programs devastated.

Page 8: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Insecticide Lethality Residual Activity (3d) Beneficials

Methomyl(Lannate)

HIGH LOW - MODERATE

Endosulfan(Thionex)

HIGH LOW

Bifenthrin(Brigade)

HIGH LOW

Fenpropathrin(Danitol)

HIGH LOW

Lambda-Cyhalothrin(Warrior)

MODERATE LOW

Clothianidin(Belay)

MODERATE MODERATE

Dinotefuran(Scorpion, Venom)

HIGH LOW

Thiamethoxam(Actara)

MODERATE LOW - MODERATE

Insecticides Used Against BMSB in Tree Fruit

Page 9: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive
Page 10: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Development of Effective Detection and Monitoring Tools

• Tools that provide accurate measurements of presence, abundance, and seasonal activity of BMSB.

• Growers can make informed management decisions.

Page 11: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

• Visual Stimulus– Large black pyramid (trunk-

mimicking stimulus)

• Olfactory Stimulus– ?

• Capture Mechanism– Tapered pyramid attached to

inverted funnel jar with DDVP strip

• Deployment Strategy– Traps placed in peripheral row of

orchard

Key Components of Trap-Based Monitoring

Page 12: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Prior to 2012, One Attractant Available

• Methyl (2E, 4E, 6Z)-decatrieonate is an attractant produced by the Asian stink bug, Plautia stali.

• Cross attractive to BMSB and other pentatomids.

Page 13: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

0123456789

10

Mean

No.

Per

Trap

Sample Date

In 2011, We Confirmed Limitations of MDT

Serious Early-Season Adult Invasion Period

Attractive to BMSB adults in the Late-Season Only

Page 14: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Two-Component BMSB Aggregation Pheromone and Synergist

Main component of BMSB aggregation pheromone (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol

Minor component of BMSB aggregation pheromone (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol

Methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate (MDT) acts as a synergist for BMSB pheromone

+

= Synergism

Page 15: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Season-Long Attraction To Baited TrapsMe

an nu

mber

of B

MSB

/ trap

/ wee

kEarly Season

Mid-April to Mid-June

Mid SeasonMid-June to Mid-August

Late SeasonMid-August to Mid-October

Page 16: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Development of a Trap-Based Treatment Threshold for BMSB in Apple

• Visual Stimulus– Black pyramid trap

• Olfactory Stimulus– BMSB Pheromone + MDT

• Capture Mechanism– Tapered pyramid to inverted

funnel jar with DDVP toxicant strip

• Deployment Strategy– Traps placed in perimeter row of

orchard

Page 17: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

• 15 apple blocks and five treatments.

• Each block was monitored with baited traps; one deployed at the border and one at the center. Traps checked weekly.

• When captures of adults in either trap reached a treatment threshold, the block was treated with BMSB material (ARM).

• Block treated again 7-d later. Threshold was then reset.

• Twice-monthly fruit samples

Can we use trap captures to guide management decisions?

Sprays Triggered at:1) 1 Adult / Trap2) 10 Adults / Trap3) 20 Adults / Trap

4) Treated Every 7 d

5) No Spray (Control)

Page 18: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Injury at Harvest Using Trap-Based Treatment Thresholds for Managing BMSB

Treatment Threshold

Mean No. ARM Sprays Per Block

% Injury (Whole Plot

Sample)

Severity (Mean # Injury Sites Per Fruit)

Weekly ARM 21.0 ± 0.0 12.9 ± 4.4 a 2.3 ± 0.9 a1 Adult/Trap 19.0 ± 1.0 (10%) 9.0 ± 2.6 a 2.3 ± 0.1 a

10 Adults/Trap 12.7 ± 0.7 (40%) 7.9 ± 2.6 a 2.5 ± 0.9 a20 Adults/Trap 10.3 ± 0.3 (50%) 38.8 ± 8.1 b 3.4 ± 0.6 a

Control 0.0 ± 0.0 (100%) 47.8 ± 5.4 b 5.1 ± 2.1 a

Page 19: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Tentative Conclusions• Baited traps can be used to make management decisions for BMSB.

• A threshold of 10 adults/trap reduced insecticide applications by 40% with no significant difference in injury at harvest compared with Weekly ARM.

• Repeating experiment in 2014. Working with growers using a provisional threshold.

• Increased injury in nearest neighbor trees to baited trap, as this is an aggregation pheromone.

Page 20: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Aggregation Vs. Sex Pheromone

Point Source 

Attractive to Males OnlyArea  Response 

Attractive To Males, Females and Nymphs 

Page 21: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Development of Attract-and-Kill Strategies for BMSB in Apple Orchards

Page 22: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Behavioral Basis for Attract and Kill• Attraction To A

Spatially Precise Location

• Long Retention Time

• Effective Killing Mechanism

Area of Activity Extends <2.5 m

From Source

Time Spent on Baited Apple Trees

>20h while Unbaited trees ~3h

Date of Application BMSB Trade Name A.I. Recommended Rate/A Gal/A Restrictions Season Max Max applications Min spray interval PHI15‐May Lannate SP methomyl 1 lb 50 gal/A 5 lb/A 5 7 d 14 d22‐May Mustang Maxx zeta‐cypermethrin 4 oz 20 gal/A 24 oz/A none 7 d 14 d29‐May Lannate SP methomyl 1 lb 50 gal/A 5 lb/A 5 7 d 14 d5‐Jun Mustang Maxx zeta‐cypermethrin 4 oz 20 gal/A 24 oz/A none 7 d 14 d12‐Jun Lannate SP methomyl 1 lb 50 gal/A 5 lb/A 5 7 d 14 d19‐Jun Bifenture EC bifenthrin 6.4 oz 50 gal/A 32 oz/A none 30 d 14 d26‐Jun Lannate SP methomyl 1 lb 50 gal/A 5 lb/A 5 7 d 14 d3‐Jul Endigo ZCX thiamethoxam + lam6 oz 20 gal/A 28 oz/A none 10 d 35 d10‐Jul Danitol fenpropathrin 21 oz none 42.666 oz/A none 10 d 14 d17‐Jul Endigo ZCX thiamethoxam + lam6 oz 20 gal/A 28 oz/A none 10 d 35 d24‐Jul Bifenture EC bifenthrin 6.4 oz 50 gal/A 32 oz/A none 30 d 14 d31‐Jul Endigo ZCX thiamethoxam + lam6 oz 20 gal/A 28 oz/A none 10 d 35 d7‐Aug Danitol fenpropathrin 21 oz none 42.666 oz/A none 10 d 14 d14‐Aug Belay clothianidin 6 oz 100? 12 oz/A none 10 d 7 d21‐Aug Endigo ZCX thiamethoxam + lam6 oz 20 gal/A 28 oz/A none 10 d 35 d28‐Aug Belay clothianidin 6 oz 100? 12 oz/A none 10 d 7 d4‐Sep Bifenture EC bifenthrin 6.4 oz 50 gal/A 32 oz/A none 30 d 14 d11‐Sep Venom dinotefuran 6.75 oz 50 gal/A 13.5 oz/A 2 7 d 3 d18‐Sep Leverage 2.7 imidacloprid + cyflu 5.1 oz 100 gal/A 5.1 oz none 14 d 7 d25‐Sep Venom dinotefuran 6.75 oz 50 gal/A 13.5 oz/A 2 7 d 3 d

Season-Long Program For Attract

and Kill Sites

Page 23: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Can we create spatially-precise attract-and-kill sites?

• Baited apples trees with 10, 100 or 1000 mg pheromone + synergist along with unbaited control.

• Treated trees with bifenthrin 48h later.

• Counted number of bugs 6h and 6d after treatment.

Page 24: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Recovering and Counting BMSBs

Page 25: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Control 10mg 100mg 1000mg0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000 Control 10mg 100mg 1000mg0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

Mean

No.

Adult

s

b

ab

ab

a

a

aa

a

Mean

No.

Nymp

hs

Tentative Conclusions• BMSB do show a strong dose-

dependent response to the pheromone + synergist.

• Continuous killing over the course of a week.

• Attract-and-kill hold promise based on preliminary results in 2013.

• 2014 in progress.

Page 26: Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive Brown ...ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/workshoppresentations/Leskey IR4... · Pheromone-Based Tools for Management of the Invasive

Acknowledgements

• BMSB SCRI CAP Team and Leskey Lab• USDA NIFA Specialty Crops Research Initiative Award # 2011-51181-30937• USDA-ARS • USDA-APHIS