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    PHT GIO KHI LUNHT.Mt Th

    Nh Xut Bn Tn Gio - 2004

    Ngunhttp://thuvienhoasen.org

    Chuyn sang ebook 26-7-2009Ngi thc hin : Nam Thin [email protected] Audio Ti Website http://www.phatphaponline.org

    Mc LcLI TAVi nt vTHIN S THCH MT TH

    TNG THUYTI.- PHT GIOII.- C PHT THCH CA MU NIIII.- KIT TP KINH INIV.- BA TNG KINH INV.- 12 BVI.- I THA, TIU THA: NH TNGVII.- NH THA, TAM THA V NHT THAVIII.- CC B PHI V TIU THAIX. LI TRUYN B CA I THA

    Gio l i tha do c Thch Ca ni ra, v sau ln lc truyn b hnh thnh 2 nong :X.- PHT GIO TRUYN QUA TRUNG HOAXI. TNG KINHXII.- PHT GIO TRUYN SANG VIT NAMXIII.- 10 TN PHI TRUNG HOA

    CU X TNI. Duyn khi lp tnII.- Ng Khng, Php HuIII.- 75 PhpIV.- NM UN

    VI. - 18 GIIVII.- NGHIPVIII.- 10 NGHIP LNH V 10 NGHIP DIX.- NH NGHIP V BT NH NGHIPX.- TH GIIXI.- KIPXII.- TAM GIIXIII.- CU A

    http://phatphaponline.org/kinh/Audio/Buoc%20Dau%20Hoc%20Phat/So%20Do%20Hoc%20Phat/Phat%20Hoc%20Pho%20Thong%20-%20HT%20Thich%20Huyen%20Vi/http://phatphaponline.org/kinh/Audio/Buoc%20Dau%20Hoc%20Phat/So%20Do%20Hoc%20Phat/Phat%20Hoc%20Pho%20Thong%20-%20HT%20Thich%20Huyen%20Vi/
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    XIV.- NG TH V LC OXV.- BN HOC V TY HOCXVI.- T XVII.- 12 NHN DUYNXVIII.- NIT BN

    XIX.PHP HU LU V V LUXX.- NHN QU CA TAM THATHNH THT TN

    I.- DUYN KHI LP TNII.- KHNG QUN V V NG QUNIII.- TAM TM V DIT IV.- TH GII MN V NHT NGHA MNV.- HAI KHNG V HAI MN CHNGVI.- 84 PHPVII.- 27 V HIN THNH

    LUT TN

    I.- DUYN KHI LP TNII.- CH TR V TC TRIII.- C TC GIIIV.- BY CHNGV.- NM GII V TM GIIVI.- BN KHOAVII.- HA GIO V CH GIOVIII.- VIN DUNG TAM HCIX.- TAM T TNH GII

    PHP TNG TNI.- DUYN KHI LP TNII.- NHNG KINH IN Y C CA TN NYIII.- 100 PHPIV.- CHNG TV.- LI NNG NHAU SANH KHI CACHNG T V HIN HNHVI.- BN PHNVII.- BA LOI CNHVIII.- NG CHP V PHP CHPIX.- BA TNH V BA V TNHX.- BA LNGXI.- THIN, C, V K BA TNHXII.- NM TNG DUY THC QUNXIII.- NM CHNG TNHXIV.- QU V TU CHNG CA TAM THAXV.- BA THI GIO LXVI.- HAI TRXVII.- BN TRXVIII.- BA THN

    TAM LUN TN

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    I. DUYN KHI LP TNII.- PH T CHP BY CHNH LIII.- BN TNG LP CA HAI IV.- TRUNG O BT BTV.- HAI TNG V BA PHP LUN.

    VI. BA THI GIO LVII.- THNH PHTTHIN THAI TN

    I.- DUYN KHI LP TNII.- NM THI THUYT PHPIII.- TM GIOIV.- TNH THIN CV.- MT NIM VI BA NGNVI.- MT TM CNG BA PHP QUNVII.- BA VIN DUNGVIII.- BA HOC

    IX.- BA TR

    X.- BA CXI.- NGHA LC TC PHT

    MT TNI.- DUYN KHI LP TNII.- HIN GIO VO MT GIOIII.- BN PHP GIIIV.- BN MN DUYN KHIV.- SU TNG VIN DUNGVI.- MI HUYN MNVIII.- BA PHP QUN V PHP GII

    HOA NGHIM TNI.- DUYN KHI LP TNII.- NM THI GIO PHPIII.- KINH IN Y C CA TN NYIV.- GIO TNG V S TNGV.- SU IVI.- BN PHP MN TR LAVII.- TAM MTVIII.- HAI B MN TR LAIX.- MI TR TM

    THIN TNI.- DUYN KHI LP TNII. NAM N V BC TIMIII.- NM NH V HAI PHIIV.- TN LM TV.- TN QUI NGNGVI.- TN TO NG

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    VII.- TN VN MNVIII.- TN PHP NHNIX.- THINX.- GIO V THINXI.- THAM THIN

    TNH TNI.- DUYN KHI LP TNII.- BN CIIII.- HNH NGUYN CA C DI IV.- TN - HNH - NGUYNV.- BN PHP NIM PHT

    Li sau cng

    Li gii thiu

    Tam tng kinh in trong x ta ton l ch Hn, trong cc thi iHn hc thnh hnh xa, ai ai cng c th c nguyn vn, khng cn phi

    phin dch; nhng ngy nay Hn hc nh n, bn tai vng nghe nhngting T vit, th cn my ai c c Hn vn, nn s phin dch kinhin ra Quc vn thnh mt vn rt trng yu cho nn Pht gio tnglai x ta.

    Pht gio khi lun l mt tc phm rt c gi tr ca c s HunhS Phc bn Trung Quc, li l tuy vn tt, nhng bao hm tt c yungha ca cc Tn hin hnh Trung Quc.

    Cc Tn chnh l nhng con ng tu hnh sai khc, nhng nga n o qu Nit-bn ca ch Pht. Nhng con ng tu hnh y, ai l t Pht h li khng nn r bit; m mun r bit th s tham hc quynKhi lun ny l mt bc u rt cn thit, rt chc chn.

    Ging s Thch Mt Th, anh em ng s vi ti, sau khi du hc Trung Quc v, thy s li ch y, nn php tm dch quyn Khi lun y ra

    Quc vn, cng hin cho ton th Pht gio x ta. Li l d dng,ngha l phn minh, bt ch phin, thm ch lc, gii ngha kh khn, biu khim khuyt, tp thnh mt Php bu Quc vn rt hy hu.

    Cng c ca dch gi i vi s tham hc Pht php x ta rt lnlao, ti xin ht lng ty h, gii thiu cng cc nh hc Pht, v rt trngmong nhng dch phm nh quyn Khi lun ny, hng ngy tip tc ra i,

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    hu mong mt ngy kia gp thnh mt pho Tam tng bng Quc vn, chohc gi tng lai x ta tin b nghin cu Pht php.

    Nam-m Bn s Thch-ca Mu-ni Pht.

    Pht lch 2501TM MINH L NH THM

    LI TA

    Trc khi bt xung dch cun sch ny, ti n nh ba ngha :

    1.- Khng n theo li vn ca Trung Hoa, m ch thun theo php Quc vnta m dch.

    2.- B theo ci li dch ngha, dch m vn gi c nguyn cht, khngsai o l.

    3.- Chm chc nhng on vn m tc gi lc qua.

    V mun thc hnh ba ngha y, nn bn dch ny, em so vi nguyn vnch Hn th c i phn thay i.

    Nu c ngi hi ; Sao khng chu dch theo nguyn vn, m li c s canhci th.

    p li cu hi y, ti xin gii thiu nhng li ng Gunen m ti cnghe. ng Gunen ni; Cng dch cn thn ng ngha n chng no, thicng c th sai vi s tht chng ny v c lc v th m dch lm t tngi; v khng c s ng ngha hn hoi trong ch ca hai th ting khcnhau, nht l khi hai th ting khc nhau hn chng nhng ni khc nhau

    v ngn ng hc, m nht l ni v s khc nhau bi hai quan nim khcnhau, bi hai dn tc dng hai th ting , m ci iu sau ny th khngphi v hc rng m thu hiu c u.

    Nay bn dch ny, v ti mun cho ngi c d hiu, nn ty tin chmchc i cht, xin c gi lng xt cho.

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    Ti thit ngh; Pht gio truyn qua Vit Nam ta, c ci lch s gn haingn nm, m s phin dch kinh in, dng thnh mt nn Pht hc bngth ting bn quc tht cha c, iu tht ng than bun ! Cng v thm Pht gio nc ta thy c ng tr mi.

    Ti s d khng qung ti hn c mn, dch cun sch ny, l mun p lici lng mong cu ca cc ngi v o, ng bng bt v s nghin cuPht hc, hiu bit Pht php, m khng ti liu cung cp - xem vnTrung Hoa th kh.

    Li v cun sch ny, tht c nhiu phn li ch, m ti thy cha ai vit haydch n ni.

    Khi ti dch xong, c c s Tn Tht Tng pht B- tm xut bn, y cng

    v mc ch li ch chung. Vy ti rt mong cun sch ny n s lm ti liunh mn, gip chng ti trong vic hong dng Pht php, truyn b Phthc bng Quc vn.

    Ti cng rt mong cc nh thng hiu Pht gio ta, nn pht tm em kinhsch Pht m dch ra, hoc t mnh nghin cu ri trc thut ly, hu xyp cho tn Pht gio nc nh c c mt nn Pht hc bng Quc vnth qu ha lm.

    Ai l ngi c ch nguyn, nn cng nhau vn ng v tuyn truyn.

    Vit Trc Lm - HuPL. 2501, ngy 24 thng 12 An-nam

    DCH GI CN CH

    Vi nt vTHIN S THCH MT TH

    (1913-1961)

    Thin s tn tht l Nguyn Hu Th c ngi ni l Nguyn HuK, sanh nm 1912 lng Nguyt Biu, huyn Hng Thy, tnh ThaThin, thnh ph Hu.

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    Chnh qun huyn Tng Sn, Gia miu ngoi trang, tnh Thanh Ha,dng Thch L ca c Nguyn Hu B.

    Lc nh theo hc Nho gio v Quc ng chng trnh Php. Thins Primaire. Ngi thng minh, lanh li.

    Gia nh u qui hng theo Pht. C thn sinh v ngi anh rutcng u xut gia lm t chn Thin lm.

    Ln 12 tui, Thin s c thn sanh em v cha Diu H Hu chotu hc. Hng ngy cn mn hc tp. Bn cht thng minh nn ch mychc tip thu mg cch mau chng Kinh Lut cn bn ca Pht gio.

    Ln 16 tui Thin s nhp chng cha T Quang vi Ha thngGic Bn. Nhn thy Thin s l ngi xut sc, m ang, nn cho vo tuhc cha Trc Lm vi Ha thng Gic Tin. Khi vo y nh c gpnc, rng gp my, Thin s li c gy Thy gn bn, hc hi chuyncn nn tr hu mau chng pht trin.

    Nm ln 18 tui, Thin s c Ha thng Gic Tin th v choth Sa-di gii vi Php danh Tm Nht, Php t l Mt Th.

    Nm 1932, Ha thng Gic Tin thnh i lo Ha thng PhcHu cha Thp Thp tnh Bnh nh ra khai ging Pht hc ng cha

    Trc Lm v Ty Thin - Hu, Thin s c c cch cho theo hc lpny.

    Nm 1935, Ha thng Bn s vin tch. Nm 1937 Ha thngThp Thp v tui gi khng th ging dy tip nn tr v T nh ThpThp Bnh nh an ngh. Thin s xin vi S huynh sang Trung Qucnghin cu v Pht hc Vin Pht hc Tiu Sn.

    Cuc chin tranh Hoa-Nht bng n, nm 1938 Thin sau tr v VitNam ln Ging s cho Sn mn Pht hc v An Nam Pht hc Hi. Trong

    thi gian ny Thin s trc tc quyn Vit Nam Pht gio S lc. Ngoira cn dch tip quyn Pht gio Khi lun, Pht hc d gii v kinh i thav lng ngha.

    Nm 1941, Thin s nhn lm gio th cho trng Pht hc LngXuyn ti Tr Vinh.

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    n nm 1944, Thin s th C tc gii Gii n ti cha ThuynTn Hu do Ha thng Gic Nhin lm n u.

    Trong Gii n ny Thin s ng u cc gii t v c cngnhn l Th Sa-di.

    Nm 1945, Thin s c Sn mn c gi chc Tr tr cha PhQuang gn ch Bn Ng - Hu. Nhng vn nhn ngh s tn tui thi bygi nh c Trn Vn Gip, Phm Qunh, Khi Hng... u n n chaPh Quang m o vi Thin s.

    Cng vo nm 1945 ny, Thin s tham gia Phong tro Pht giocu quc. Qua nm 1946, Thin s ra Bc, tham gia hot ng chng thcdn Php H Ni. Thin s c bu lm Dn biu Quc hi kha I ny.

    Trong nhng nm s tn, Thin s v an ngh Ngh An v vin tch y.Thin s tr th 49 nm, th tch nm 1961 ti Ngh An. Nhng tc

    phm ca Thin s xut bn t nm 1941-1957 gm c :

    1.- Pht gio yu lc.2.- Pht gio khi lun.3.- Th gii quan Pht gio4.- Ci t Sn mn.5.- Xun o l.

    6.- i tha v lng ngha.7.- Vit Nam Pht gio s lc.

    Trong thi gian Ngh An, Thin s phin dch v trc tc Kinh LutLun rt nhiu, nhng hin nay tht lc v chin tranh.

    Thp ca Thin s hin c ci tng cha Trc Lm - Hu.

    TNG THUYTI.- PHT GIO

    Th no gi l Pht gio. L gio php do c Pht Thch Ca lp ra vy.

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    Ngi lp ra gio php, y l c Pht Thch Ca. Gio php ca Pht ni ragi l Php. Nhng v T-kheo theo gio php m tu hnh, m truyn b gil Tng. Pht, Php, Tng gi l Tam bo.

    Pht : Ni cho theo ting Phn l Pht- (Bouddha). Trung Hoa dch lGic gi, ngha l bc gic ng. Pht tri qua nhiu i nhiu kip tuhnh, t mnh gic ng hon ton, li em phng php gic ng y, dyngi tu hnh c gic ng nh mnh. Pht c v lng phc hu, vlng cng c, v lng gic hnh y . Pht khng nh ngi phm

    phu tm cn m mui, lun hi trong ci trn lao; cng khng nh bc Tiutha, ch c th gii thot cho mnh, ch khng th gii thot c tt cchng sinh ng chm m; li cng khc vi B-tt, v B-tt tuy vn tgic ng phn mnh, v cng gic ng cho ngi, nhng cha c vinmn. Ch c Pht l Bc t gic, gic tha, gic hnh, vin mn, nn gi l

    Pht.

    Php : Ting Phn gi l t-ma (Dharma), ngha l phng php. Pht nira v lng php mn, chng sinh noi theo m tu hnh, dit tr cc s mmui kh no, chng c ci thanh tnh yn vui, ngha l c gic ngthnh Pht. Nh ba tng; Kinh, Lut, Lun, u gi l php c.

    Tng : Ni cho theo ting Phn l Tng-gi (Shanga), ngha l mt onth - ch ring cc v T-kheo-thng cng nhau, ha hip cng nhau,cng nhau y theo gio php ca Pht dy m tu hnh, m truyn b nn gi

    l Tng.

    II.- C PHT THCH CA MU NI

    c Pht Thch-ca-Mu-ni, nguyn l v Thi t nc Ca-t-la(Kapilavastu), Trung n . Ph hong tn l Tnh Phn (Suddhodana),Mu hong tn l Ma-da (Maya). H Ngi l Kiu-p-ma (xa dch l Cm), tn l Tt-t-a (Siddhartha), Cn ch Thch-ca (Sakya) cng l citn ca mt chng tc, dch ngha l Nng-nhn ([1]) Mu-ni Muni l tingkhen ngi, dch ngha l Tch-mc ([2]). Ngi lc nh c tr hu sng sut,v cc ti nng phi thng. Ln ln Ngi nhn thy nhn sanh l thng kh,th cc l v thng, nn Ngi qu quyt xut gia tu o, tm ng giithot cho mnh v cho ngi, hu dn dt tt c chng sinh ln b gic ng.Sau khi kh hnh([3]) su nm trong non tuyt (Hy-m-lp-Hymalaya), Ngit bit nu ch bit tu kh hnh cng cha t c mc ch cu knh, nn

    Ngi i qua ni Kada, ngi dI gc B-, v th rng : Nu ngi tu

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    luyn y m khng thnh o, Ta th quyt khng bao gi chu ng dy.V ch kh hng v, cng quyt y nn Ngi tu cha bao lu chng rc chn tng ca v tr, thnh o B-. T , Ngi bt u ni php sanh, tri 45 nm ([4]) . Sau thnh Cu-thi-na, trong rng Ta-la songth, m nhp Nit-bn. Ngi th th c 80 nm.

    ([1]) Hay lm iu nhn t.([2]) Tnh a v s yn tnh.([3]) Tu hnh cc php rt kh nhc.(4) C thuyt ni 49 nm nay theo thuyt v Nam Phng Pht gio (lch

    s Pht gio c nhiu thuyt).

    III.- KIT TP KINH INSau khi Pht nhp Nit-bn, cc t nhm hp li bin tp nhng li Phtdy truyn b cho i. Chia ra bn thi k:

    Thi k th 1 : Chng t chng 500 ngi, nhm hp nc Ma-kit-thnh Vng-x, ni K-x-qut, do ngi Ca Dip ch tr. Ngi A-nan thutli kinh gio ca Pht dy t trc m ngi c sc nh, gi gn nhrnh khng sai mt my; cn Ngi u-ba-ly th thut li nhng gii lut caPht ch khi Pht cn i. Thi k ny gi l thi k kit tp th nht,

    cng gi l thi k ng bch La-hn kit tp, v thi k kit tp ny, c 500v t d u l nhng v tu hnh chng c qu A-la-hn.

    Thi k th 2 : Sau 100 nm, cc v T-kheo cng nhm nhau li c700 ngi ti thnh T-x-ly, kit tp li Pht dy. Thi k kit tp ny,ch chuyn gii quyt v nhng nghi n trong gii lut m thi.

    Thi k th 3 : Sau 100 nm na, khi vua A-dc tc v, triu tp c thy1000 v i c T-kheo ni thnh Hoa Th, t chc bin tp thnh gioin. K kit tp ny do ngi Mc-kin-lin lm Ch tch.

    Thi k th 4 : Tri qua ba thi k y, ngha l sau khi Pht nhp ditchng 500 nm, vua Ca-n-sc-ca cng triu tp 500 v B-tt, 500 v T-kheo cng 500 ngi ti gia c s, nhm nhau ni thnh Ca-thp-di-la, cngl kit tp li Pht dy; k ny ngi Hip Tn gi v ngi Th Hu lm Chtch.

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    K kit tp th 1 cha cn n s bin chp, ngha l ch nhm chng li, ric tng xt nh cu ko, li l, mch lc thi. Thi k th hai cngvy. n thi k th ba vi th t mi dng vn t bin chp thnh schv. Sau hai ln kit tp ny, kt qu kinh in ca Pht thnh 2 th vn l:vn Pali v vn Phn.

    Cc kinh in v vn Pali th truyn b qua Nam phng, ly o Tch Lan(Sri-Lanka) lm trung tm im. Cn li th ri rc qua cc nc Minin, Xim La (Thi Lan), Lo, Cao Mn (Campuchia), v.v... gi l Nam

    phng Pht gio.

    Cn kinh in v ch Phn th truyn b qua Bc phng, ly Trung n (hin nay l Npal), Ty Tng, v cc nc n cng Trung Quc lmtrung tm im, ri truyn ln n cc nc i Hn, Nht Bn, Vit Nam

    v.v... gi l Bc phng Pht gio.S d gi l Nam phng Pht gio, Bc phng Pht gio, l theo a l mni, ch ngha khng phi vch chia Nam phng l Tiu tha, Bc

    phng l i tha. Chng qua Pht gio Bc phng phn nhiu i vli tung honh, pht trin, m Nam phng th hnh nh theo li i nguynth ca Pht gio - tc l Pht gio lc ban u.

    Cng v trong cc thi k kit tp, dng li ni, cu vn khng ging nhau,v li truyn b ra cc ni khc nhau, nn i vi kinh in kip tp ca hai

    bn - tuy ch ngha l ct yu th vn nh nhau - thong hoc cng c chkhc nhau.

    IV.- BA TNG KINH IN

    Kinh in ca Pht gio chia ra lm ba loi, ngi ta thng gi l Tamtng: Kinh, Lut, Lun.

    Kinh l nhng php v gio, l, gi, hnh do Pht ni ra, hp vi chn l,

    hp vi cn c, dy cho cc t tu hnh, dt tr phin no. Lut lnhng gii lut ca Pht ch ra, cng cho cc t rn b cc iu d, tutp cc iu lnh, cn gi thn tm thanh tnh. Lun l bn lun, l nhngsch phn nhiu do cc t Pht lm ra, pht huy l ngha mu nhimtrong kinh lut, hoc quyt on tnh, tng([1]) ca cc php, phn binnhng l phi chng ca chnh o v t o, khin cho ngi hc o khinhn lm.

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    Kinh, Lut, Lun s s gi l Tam tng, v ch tng l trm cha, ngha lni trong ba tng kinh in, trm cha ton b gio l ca Pht gio vy.

    Trong ba tng, ch ring v gio php ca Pht thuyt ra, th gi l Kinh (chkinh theo ngha hp), cn bao nhiu th hoc gi l Lut hay Lun. Nhng

    ba tng u l kinh in ca Pht gio, u c quan h vi li ca Phtthuyt, nn cng thng gi l Tng kinh (ch kinh theo ngha rng), y th,nn li c nhng danh t thng thng gi l Nht th kinh hoc i tngkinh v.v...

    ([1]) Cc php c tnh tng khc nhau, tnh l th tnh tng l stng. V d: Tnh c ca nc l th tnh, sng mi l s tng.

    V.- 12 B

    Trong ba tng kinh in ca Pht, y theo th ti, c th chia ra lm 12 bloi, Trung Hoa thng gi l Thp nh b phn gio.

    1.- Tu--la Sutra : Trung Hoa dch l kinh, hoc kh kinh. Ch khngha l hip, l ni kinh in ca Pht dy, rt hip vi chn l v cn cca chng sinh. Li cng gi l trng hng tc ta thng gi l tn vn,vn xui, ngha l mt li vn ch ni ngay nhng ngh ca mnh, ty theongha l m c ra cu vn di hay ngn; nhng li vn y khng sa son

    lm nh nhng li vn t ph.

    2.- K d (Ceya), hoc gi l trng tng : li vn ny ch thut li nhng ngha ca vn trng hng ni trn. Li vn ny ly cng 8 ch lm mtcu, 4 cu lm mt bi gi la bi k. Li c khi dng 5 ch, 7 ch lmmt cu ty .

    3.- Th k, l nhng kinh Pht th k chng nhn cho cc v B-tt, cc bcThanh vn t, s c lm Pht sau ny.

    4.- D- (Dth), hoc gi l phng tng, hay l c kh, ngha l khngthut li nhng vn trng hng nh trn, m ch lm ngay tng bi k mthi. Li vn ny ly bn cu lm mt bi k.

    5.- u--na (Udna), Trung Hoa dch l V vn t thuyt, ngha l nhngkinh do Pht ly tr hu xem xt cn c chng sinh, ri Ngi t ni php ra,khng i phi c ngi tha thnh yu cu mi ni.

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    6.- Ni--na (Nidna), Trung Hoa dch l nhn duyn, l nhng kinh vnni v nhn duyn gp Pht nghe php, hoc ni nhng ch c nhn duynm Pht n ha , hn na l nhng kinh vn Pht dy v l cn bnduyn khi ca v tr.

    7.- A-ka--na (Avandna), ngha l v d. Php ca Pht ni ra rt munhim, ngi cn tr thp kh m thu ng, nn phi v d cho ngi dhiu, tc nh nhng li v d trong cc kinh in.

    8.- Y--mc-ba-d (stvtaka), Trung Hoa dch l bn s, l nhng kinh vnPht ni ch tu nhn ca cc v B-tt, t v nhng i qu kh vy.

    9.- X--d (Jataka), Trung Hoa dch l bn sanh, l nhng kinh vn Phtdy v nhn duyn th sanh t i qu kh ca Pht v cc B-tt t vy.

    10.- T-pht-lc (Vaipulia), Trung Hoa dch l Phng qung, ngha lnhng kinh in thuc v i tha phng ng, c ngha l rng ln caothng v thm thy.

    11.- A-t-t-ma (Abhidharma), Trung Hoa dch l V tng hu, l nhngkinh vn ni v thn lc ca Pht th hin nhng vic bt t ngh trongnhng khi ni php, l nhng cnh gii m tr ngi phm khng th hiuc.

    12.- u-ba--x (Upadsa), ngha l lun ngh, l li vn c tnh cch vnp v bin lun cho r cc l t chnh vy.

    Tuy chia lm 12 b nh trn, nhng ch c Tu-a-la, K-d v D-, 3 by l th ti chnh thc ca cc kinh gio, cn 9 b kia chng qua l theo cciu kin chp trong kinh m lp ra vy thi.

    Trong 12 phn gio ny, khng phi kinh no cng c, m c kinh ch c1, 2 phn, c kinh c n 5, 6 phn chng hn; y l ty theo thi tit cduyn m c sai khc vy.

    VI.- I THA, TIU THA: NH TNG

    Cn c ca chng sinh c cao thp khc nhau, nn php ca Pht cng tytheo m chia ra c i tha v Tiu tha.

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    Ch tha ngha l chuyn ch, ngha l ni: Gio l ca Pht dy cccng nng, phng php, dt ng ch li, v chuyn ch chng sinh t nici trn lao phin no, bc ti cnh gii thanh tnh yn vui, t trong binlun hi cho ti Nit-bn gii thot, nn gi l tha.

    Nhng kinh in v i tha, th gi l B-tt tng; nhng kinh in v Tiutha, th gi l Thanh vn tng; cho nn gi l nh tng.

    i tha v Tiu tha u c kinh, lut, lun. Kinh i tha nh HoaNghim, Php Hoa v.v... Lut i tha nh Phm Vng, i tha Gii kinhv.v... Lun i tha nh Khi tn lun, i tha A-t-t-ma Tp tp lun,i tr lun v.v... Cn nhng kinh v Tiu tha, nh kinh Trng A-hm, Tng Nht A-hm; v Lut nh T phn lut, Ng phn lut, v Thptng lut v.v... Lun nh Lun Cu-x, Lun Thnh tht v.v...

    i tha v Tiu tha s d vch chia lm hai, l v tm lngg ca Tiutha quan nim ch cu s gii thot ring v phn mnh m thi. Cn itha th tm tr rt rng ln, hy sinh mnh v s li ngi, hon ton y theoch ngha t bi bnh ng ca Pht m cu tt c chng sinh.

    Li na, ngi tu Tiu tha phn nhiu tm tr chn s kh no sanh t, cuvui o Nit-bn gii thot; cn i tha c tr tu r bit phin no sanht l nh huyn ha, nn khng b n rng buc hay b xoay chuyn trongvng sanh t nh chng sinh, khng an vui cnh Nit-bn nh Tiu tha,

    nn thng sanh m tm bao gi cng thanh tnh, hnh nguyn rng lnkhng bao gi ngh.

    V li, Tiu tha tu hnh, ch ph tr c ng chp - l ci chp c ta - chcha tr c cc php chp - ci chp s vt trong v tr l tht c - nnh i tha th khc hn: ph tr c ng chp v php chp trc nhn s svt vt trong v tr u do tm mnh bin hin. Nn cc qu ca Tiu thachng n A-la-hn l cng, m i tha th n qu Pht, vin mn cuknh.

    VII.- NH THA, TAM THA V NHT THA

    Trong Tiu tha li chia ra lm hai l: Thanh vn v Duyn gic. Nhngngi no trc tip hay gin tip nghe m thanh ca Pht hoc hc theo gio

    php ca Pht v T (Kh, Tp, Dit, o) m t hnh, m chng ng thgi l Thanh vn. Cn nhng ngi t mnh c tr tu, hoc nng ni

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    gio php, xt bit trong t thn tm mnh, ngoi n tt c s vt trong vtr, khng mt vt g khng c nhn duyn m sanh ra nn y theo php qunThp nh nhn duyn m tu hnh, m chng ng, thi gi l Duyn gic.

    Nay lc thut nhng ch ng, d ca Thanh vn, Duyn gic nh diny:

    1.- Nhng ch d - Cn c ca Thanh vn th m n, m Duyn gic thlnh li nn Thanh vn phi theo gio php ca Pht dy m chng ng, cnDuyn gic th phn nhiu t nng tr mnh m gic ng. Thanh vn tu

    php T , Duyn gic th tu php qun Thp nh nhn duyn([1]), Thanhvn chia ra 4 qu (Tu--hon, T--hm, A-na-hm, A-la-hn), m Duyngic ch c mt qu v thi, l Duyn gic, hay Tch chi Pht([2]).

    2.- Nhng ch ng - Thanh vn v Duyn gic ng dit tr phin nochng, ng ng l sanh Khng (tc l ph tr c ng chap), ngchng o qu Nit-bn.

    Trong kinh in ca Pht hay gi l nh tha, tc l ch cho hng Thanh vnv Duyn gic vy.

    Nh tha li c chia ra lm 2 loi : 1.- Nhng ngi trong i ny tu Tiutha, ch chuyn vui cnh gii Nit-bn ca mnh m khng pht tm tu hci tha, th gi l ngu php nh tha (cn php chp) hay n A-la-hn.

    2.- Cn nh ngi bit hi tm theo php i tha, pht nguyn ra lm vicli ch cho chng sinh, ly s vui kh ca chng sinh lm s vui kh camnh m t mnh khng b s vui kh rng buc, tc l tu hnh v B-tt, thgi l bt ngu php nh tha (khng cn php chap), hoc l hi tm A-la-hn.

    Thanh vn, Duyn gic v B-tt, gi chung l tam tha. S d c tam tha,chng qua l phng tin ca Pht. Ty theo tm tr chng sinh sng tikhc nhau m ni ra thi, k tht u qui v mt Pht tha c. Nn kinhPhp Hoa c cu : Trong mi phng cc ci Pht, ch c php nht tha

    m thi, khng 2 cng khng 3, tr ra khi Pht dng phng tin ni ra.

    Li c cu : Cc c Pht dng phng tin, trong mt Pht tha m phnbit ni ra c 3.

    Cho bit Pht ra i ni php, ci ch l ct dy cho chng sinh php nhttha m thi. Nhng v cn c khng ng nn mi phn chia nh vy.

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    ([1]) Thp nh nhn duyn sau phn Cu-x c gii.

    ([2]) Cc danh t ny sau phn Cu-x cng c gii.

    VIII.- CC B PHI V TIU THA

    Nguyn do Tiu tha chia thnh b phi, l v trong thi k kit tp th 2, vvn gii lut c ch khng ng , nn Tng chng mi chia ra lm 2

    phi: mt phi phn nhiu l cc bc Trng lo, gi l Thng ta b(Sthavira). Mt phi nhn s rt nhiu gi l i chng b (Mathsamghia).

    Theo li truyn b ca Bc phng Pht gio, v thi k kit tp th nht c tn Thng ta v i chng ri, nhng cha sanh ra tranh chp thi.

    C nh ngi Huyn Trang php s i ng, dch b D b tn lun lun,th sau khi Pht Nit-bn chng 100 nm n 200 nm, trong khong thigian y, i chng b ln lt chia ra cc b phi; Ln th nht chia ra Nhtthuyt b, Thuyt xut th b, K dn b. Ln th 2 chia ra a vn b. Lnth 3 chia ra Thuyt gi b. Ln th 4 chia lm Ch a sn b, Ty sn tr

    b, Bc sn tr b; tc l mt b phi cn bn, chia lm 8 b phi chi nhnh.Trong khong thi gian y, th Thng ta b lui n trong ni Ca-thp-di-la,hai bn vn dung ha nhau khng tranh chp g; sau v nh hng phn phica i chng b m Thng ta b phi rung ng Nhn th, Thng ta

    b ln th 1 chia ra: Thuyt Nht th hu b (tc l Tt-b-la b). Ln thhai t Hu b chia ra c t b. Ln th 3 c t b chia ra lm 4 b; lPhp thng. Hin tr, Chnh lng, Mt lm. Ln th t li t ni Hu bchia ra Ha a b. Ln th 5 t Ha a b chia ra Php tng b. Ln th 6li t Hu b chia ra m quang b. Ln th 7 li cng t Hu b chia ra

    Kinh lng b, y l mt b, y l mt b phi cn bn, chia thnh mi bphi chi nhnh.

    Sau khi Thng ta b chia ra Thuyt Nht th b, th th lc c hi yu,phi di qua Tuyt sn, nn cng gi l Tuyt sn b.

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    Tng cng c cn bn v chi mc ca i chng v Thng ta thnh ra 20b phi. Nay mun tin cho c gi, xin lm bn di ny cho d nh.

    IX. LI TRUYN B CA I THA

    Gio l i tha do c Thch Ca ni ra, v sau ln lctruyn b hnh thnh 2 no ng :

    1.- Trc tip truyn b : l cc v i B-tt trc tip hc gio l itha, nh ngi M Minh, ngi Long Th, ngi V Trc, ngi Th Thnv.v... i vi chng sinh cc ngi em gio php i tha m trc tiphong dng gio ha.

    2.- Gin tip truyn b : l trong b phi ca Tiu tha, cng c ngi tn

    ngng v gio l i tha, nh ngi Chn Tam Tng ni: Tn cai chng b ni Vng-x thnh cng truyn b nhng kinh in itha nh kinh Hoa Nghim, Nit-bn, Thng man, Duy ma, Kim quangminh, Bt-nh v.v...

    Trong b phi ny c ngi tin k khng, bn chia lm hai; v phi tin lichia ra lm 3 b : 1.- Nht th b, 2.- Thuyt nht th b, 3.- K dn b.

    Tuy rng nhiu ngi, nhiu b phi nh vy, nhng gio l i tha s dhy cn truyn b, nh hng i tha gio cn n ngy nay l nh c ngi

    M Minh, ngi Long Th, ngi Th Thn, ngi V Trc bn ngi y lng c pht khi mnh hn ht.

    Ngi M Minh sanh vo th k th 1, u tu theo ngoi o, ngi c ti binbc, sau lun l b thua ngi Hip tn gi, nn mi qui y v Pht php, t ngi ht sc truyn b chnh php ca Pht, lm ra nhng b i tha Khitn lun, i tha Trang nghim kinh lun v.v... Pht gio Nam n nh m ln ln thnh vng.

    Ngi Long Th B-tt sanh vo th k th 2, nc T-t-la Nam n ,

    ngi c thin t rt tt, lc cn nh thng hiu nhng kinh gio ca B-la-mn v Ph-. Li cn bit n thin vn, a l, y hc, s hc l khcna, sau tr tn ngng v Pht gio, tu hc theo Tiu tha. K , nginghin cu qua gio l i tha v nguyn vng ca ngi n y mi ctha mn. V sau ngi du lch cc nc v hng phc cc ngoi o. Nhnngi ngh; Gio l mu nhim ca Pht trong cc kinh in cha pht minhht c, ngi mi lm b i bt t ngh lun gii kinh Hoa Nghim,

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    hin nay ng lu truyn; b Thp tr B Sa lun, tc l mt b phn tronglun y vy. Ngi li lm b i tr lun 100 quyn gii kinh i

    phm Bt-nh; lm Trung lun, Thp nh mn lun, ph tr t chp, chr chnh l, nu by th tnh Bt-nh chn khng. Ngi thc l mt v khait v Tnh tn n . Li nhn ngi trc kia c truyn kinh i nhtvi ngi Kim Cang Tt a ni Thit Thp v x Nam Thin Trc, nncng gi ngi l bc khai t v Mt tn.

    Ngi V Trc B-tt v ngi Th Thn l 2 anh em, sanh vo th k th 4.Hai ngi nguyn l ngi tu theo gio B-la-mn, sau quy y theo Pht. NgiTh Thn bt u hc Tiu tha, k n nghin cu gio l i tha lm cc

    b lun nh l; Hin dng thnh gio lun, Nhip i tha lun v.v... chai ngi u ch trng v Duy thc, bit b ci l tam gii duy tm, vn

    php duy thc nn hc thuyt ca ngi gi l Php tng Duy thc hc,

    ngi l mt v khai t v Php tng Duy thc hc vy.

    X.- PHT GIO TRUYN QUA TRUNG HOA

    i nh Hn vua Minh nin hiu Vnh Bnh nm th 10, ngi Ca DipMa ng v ngi Trc Php Lan, t n qua Trung Hoa, ni cha BchM thuc v t Lc Dng, dch kinh T thp Nh chng, v kinh ThpTr on Kit, y l ln u tin dch kinh in ch Phn ra ch Hn. Vcui i nh Hn c ngi Chi Lu Ca Sm v ngi An Th Cao ; thi TamQuc c ngi Khng Tng Hi; i Ty Tn c ngi Trc Php H, u

    nhit lit v vic dch kinh truyn b gio l; qua i Ph Tn c ngi Tng-gi Bc Trng, Tng-gi -b dch cc kinh lun v Tiu tha; Triu BcLng c ngi m V Sm dch kinh i Bt-nh; i Diu Tn c ngiCu-ma-la-thp dch cc kinh v b Bt-nh v kinh Php Hoa, i tr lun v.v... i ng Tn c ngi Pht- Bt--la dch kinh Hoa Nghim;t cc kinh in v Pht gio i tha mi ln lt truyn b. Truy lith nhng kinh in ca ngi La Thp dch, vn ngha c thng sut vlu lot hn, nn s lu thng rt rng. n thi Lc Triu i Tng cngi Cu-na Bc--la; i Lng c ngi B--lu-chi; i Tn c ngi

    Chn , s phin dch kinh in v nhng thi k y cng rt thnh hnh.n i ng nin hiu Trinh Qun nm th nht, ngi Huyn Trang TamTng du hc n , tri qua trn 100 nc - cc nc nh n . Sau vdch ra kinh lun trn 1500 quyn. Cn t i ng vua Huyn Tn ninhiu Khai Nguyn v sau, nh Ngi Thin V y, ngi Kim Cang Tr, ngiBt Thng ln lt qua Trung Hoa truyn dch cc kinh in v Mt tn.

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    T i Tng th Tng chng n Ty vc v Trung Quc thngthng qua li vi nhau mt cch mt thit, nn s phin dch kinh gio,truyn b Pht gio chng c ph cp.

    XI. TNG KINH

    Tng kinh cng c ch gi l Nht th kinh, ngha l tng qut c ton bgio in ca Pht gio vy.

    Tng kinh, th c tng kinh v vn Pali vn Phn, nay y chng qua ch niv bn vn Trung Hoa.

    Trong b Qung Hong minh tp chp; i Ngy c thu ba b Nht thkinh nguyn vn ca nc Bc t; bi thi Lc Triu cc cha ln btu an tr tng kinh, nhng cn ng t. i Ty vua Vn nin hiuKhai Hong nm th 1, cc cha ni t kinh s v cc thnh p ln, cngu c nhng kinh do cc quan li vit ra. Li c mt ci nh gi l BiCc an tr nhng kinh bng ch vit y.

    Qua i ng vua Huyn Tn nin hiu Khai Nguyn nm th 18, ng TrThng lm cun sch l Khai Nguyn Thch gio lc, chp nh s mcca cc kinh. C thy c 5048 quyn, ton b ng li l 480 pho. Hnkinh ca t Thc i Bc Tng cng theo bn ny.

    i Tng vua Thi T nin hiu Khai Bo nm th 4, vua sc lnh ngTrng Tng Thin qua ch Chu khc i tng kinh, n triu vua ThiBnh, nin hiu Hng Quc nm th 8, bn kinh ni thnh, gi l Thc bn;y l u tin khc li i tng kinh.

    n triu vua Thn Tn nin hiu Nguyn Phong nm th ba, cha ngThuyn tnh Phc Chn; v triu vua Huy Tn nin hiu Chnh Ha nmth 2, cha Khai Nguyn tnh Phc Chu cng ln lt khc tng kinh, u

    phi tri qua mt thi k 20 nm mi thnh. Bn kinh ny truyn qua NhtBn, n nay vn cn hip chung vi Thc Bn lm thnh mt tng.

    i Nam Tng, vua Cao Tn nin hiu Thiu Hng nm th 2, c mt hVng Vnh Tng t H Chu, pht nguyn khc tng kinh cha VinGic t T kh, nhn gi l T Kh bn. Tng ny sau cng truyn qua

    Nht Bn. Ton tng so vi Thc Bn tc l bn m triu Khai Nguyn chp dch nhiu hn 840 quyn ; Tng Tng, v sc son tng kinh NhtBn tc l tng ny.

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    Triu vua L Tn nin hiu Thin nh, vin Nhin Thnh t Tch Sacng khc Tng kinh n cui i Nguyn mi xong gi l Tch Sa bn, vuaTh Tn i Nguyn nin hiu Ch Nguyn nm th 14, cng khc Tngkinh ti cha i Ph Minh thuc v huyn D hng, n nm th 27 mithnh, c thy l 6017 cun, gi l Nguyn tng.

    Qua i Minh vua Thi T nin hiu Hng V nm th 5, ngi triu tp ccv Cao Tng t Tng Sn kim duyt Tng kinh, v sau mi khcthnh Nam tng bn. Vua Thnh T nin hiu Vnh Lc nm th 18, likhc Bc tng bn ti Bc nh. n triu vua Anh Tn nin hiu ChnhThng nm th 5 mi thnh, c thy 6361 cun.

    V triu Thn Tn nin hiu Vn Lch nm th 14 i nh Minh, c ngiMt Tng v ngi o Khai n hnh Tng kinh ti ni Ng i, ton tng l

    6361 cun, thi y ngi ta gi l Vn Lch bn, cng gi l Knh Sn bn(nhn c mt thi k phi di qua ni Knh Sn). Hin nay thng thngngi ta gi l Minh tng, phn nhiu l ch cho Tng kinh ny.

    Nht Bn, ngi Thit Nhn, o Quang cng khc li Tng kinh ny ticha Vn Phc ni Hong Nghit, nhn gi l Hong Nghit bn, cng gil Thit Nhn bn. i Thanh triu vua Th Tn nin hiu ng Chnh nmth 13, cng khc Long tng, n triu vua Cao Tn nin hiu Cn Longnm th 3 mi thnh, c thy l 7.838 cun. V sau, t triu vua Hin Tncho n vua Vn Tn Cao Ly, y c vo Thc bn khc Tng kinh c thy

    l 5.924 cun, ngoi Tng bn ra li cn gia nhp cc th mi khc, richng may b nn binh la chy c, n i vua Cao Tn nm th 23 mikhc li, c thy ch c 6.557 cun. Ln khc Tng kinh ny hiu i rtk cng, nn ngi ta thng gi l Ly tng.

    Triu vua Minh Tr nc Nht Bn Hong gio th vin n hnh Tnhkinh, y c vo Ly tng v ly cc bn v i Tng, Nguyn, Minh, xt nhk lng v ch r nhng ch d ng, v em nhng Kinh, Lut, Lun, Sthch t i Tng sp xung, cng cc sch ca ngi Nht son thutu thu vo c, cng l 8.562 cun.

    Cui i nh Thanh, Tng-gi tinh x Thng Hi, n hnh Tng kinh,theo Hong gio bn, chng qua c thm bt trong i ch, c thy l 8416cun. Tng kinh do th vin Nht Bn n hnh, Chnh Tc tng kinh lydu hiu bng ch (vn), Chnh tng do mt nh s Nht Bn tn l NhnTrung sp t, sa i bn kinh Hong Nghit lm gc; cn nh Tc tng c

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    thy by ngn mt trm hn bn mi cun, trong y c nhng sch ca ccngi Trung Hoa lm m cha em vo Tng, nht nht u em vo ht.Gn y li c i Chnh tn tu i tng kinh (cng gi l i chnh Nhtthit kinh), Chnh bin l 55 pho, hn 9.000 cun, Tc bin c bao nhiuna cha r s. Tng ny v s hiu i bin chp c nhiu ci c im gip cho ngi hc tham kho.

    V Tng kinh do Tng-gi tinh x Thng Hi xut bn, hi Lng XuynPht hc v hi T Bi m Nam k nc ta u c thnh. Cn v Tngkinh Tch Sa bn, hi An-nam Pht hc Trung k c thnh mt b.

    XII.- PHT GIO TRUYN SANG VIT NAM

    Vit Nam ta khi cn l nc Giao Ch, th Pht gio truyn qua ri, v

    thi y do cc ngi i bun t n , Trung Hoa truyn vo, vi li mtphn do cc v Tng s Trung Hoa i qua Thnh a (ch Pht Thch Ca),ngang qua ng Bc K, h lu tr mt thi gian gio ha.

    Xem trong cc sch m ngi An-nam ta theo o Pht vit hi th k XIII -XIV c chp rng; v i nh Hn (th k II - III) c cc v tu s ngoiquc n Bc K, nh ng Majjvaka, Kang-Song-Houei, Ralya-ruoi,Meou-Po.

    Li theo nhng tch trong cuc i ng Ty Vc cu php Cao Tng

    truyn chp; c 12 v tu s c phn quan h n Pht gio Bc K, lnhng v; Minh Vin, Hu Minh, V Hnh, m Nhun, Tri Hong, TngGi Bc Ma v su v tu s An-nam l Vn K, Mc Xa B, Khuy Sung,Hu Din (u ngi Giao Chu), Tr Hnh, i Thng ng (ngiThanh Ha).

    Trong cun i Nam Thin uyn truyn ng ng lc c chp rng; Nm1096 trong ba yn tic i cc v Cao Tng, b Hong Thi Hu nh L chi : Pht gio truyn qua An-nam lc no ? C ngi Thng Bin Thins tr li rng: Sau i nh Hn (th k I) ngi Ma ng v Trc Php Lan

    em Pht gio qua Trung Hoa, c Ngi B- t Ma i truyn b khc ccnc Lng, Ngy ... cho n khi phi Thin Thai thnh hnh, c lp trngdy v gio l; ri sau xa na c phi To Kh cng lp trng dy. Sau haitrng y u c ngi i qua truyn b An-nam, nh ngi T-ni-a-lu-chi (Vinitaruei) lp trng dy gio l u tin An-nam, n ngi V

    Ngn Thng lp trng th hai([1]).

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    Khi n i L, i Trn th c cc ng vua hoc thm tn Pht, hoc xutgia tu o, nn Pht gio rt l thnh hnh.

    Bc qua i Hu L triu vua Chnh Ha, ngi Nguyn Thiu ngi tnhTriu Chu qua ph Qui Ninh (Quy Nhn, Bnh nh ngy nay) khai sncha Thp Thp, sau ra Thun Ha lp cha H Trung v ln Hu lp chaQuc n; y l Pht gio chch thc truyn vo Trung k. Ngi c ba v t thng tc : 1.- Ngi Minh Php Bu, 2.- Ngi Minh Hong T Dung,3.- Ngi Minh Vt Nht Tr.

    Ngi Minh Hi sau tnh Qung Nam khai sn cha Chc Thnh. NgiMinh Hong Hu khai sn cha T m. Ngi Minh vt Nhn thp snBc k.

    K c ngi Liu Qun, t c php vi ngi Minh Hong, khai sn chaThuyn Tn, c vua phong l Chnh gic Vin ng Thin s.

    Nh chuyn va k trn, bit Pht gio truyn qua An-nam ta rt sm, vcng c nhiu thi k rt thnh; nhng c mt iu l vn ha nc ta lctrc a phn nh hng Trung Hoa, Hn hc thnh mt nn Quc hc, nnPht gio tuy truyn qua m s phin dch kinh in thnh mt vn cnyu, s d t thy c ngi no em kinh sch m dch thnh ting Quc vn tan. n by gi th Hn hc suy i, Tam tng kinh in hy cn in nguy, chng hay cc nh chn hng Pht gio ngy nay c thy ch khuyt

    im y khng.

    ([1]) Nhng on trn lc trch bo Vin m s 6.

    XIII.- 10 TN PHI TRUNG HOA

    Pht gio Trung Hoa do li phin dch kinh in m truyn b, ty theocn c m lp ra cc phng php v th nn mi dng thnh cc tn phi;trong mi tn u c c im ring nhng khng bao gi vt ra ngoigio php ca Pht c.

    Nhng tn rt hin trc v cn nh hng n by gi, c thy c 10 tnphi, l; Cu-x tn, Thnh Tht tn, Lut tn, Php Tng tn, Tam Luntn, Thin Thai tn, Hoa Nghim tn, Mt tn, Thin tn v Tnh tn.

    Trong 10 tn ny, Cu-x tn v Thnh Tht tn ch trng v Tiu tha,Lut tn th thng c i tha v Tiu tha, cn 7 tn kia thin v i tha.

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    Ngha l ca cc tn rt l mu nhim, kinh in cng nhiu, ngi muncho thu o cn phi chuyn mn nghin cu tu hc mi c. Cc tnchp sau ny, chng qua l nu danh tng, v gii s qua ngha l, chongi s hc c ch nhp mn vy thi.

    CU X TN

    I. Duyn khi lp tn

    Ngi Th Thn B-tt lm lun Cu-x; ngi Trn Chn dch thnh vnTrung Hoa v ch gii thm, sau u tht truyn. n i ng ngiHuyn Trang php s mi dch li, hc tr l ngi Ph Quang lm b Cau-x tht k, ngi Php Bo lm Cu-x lun s, thnh hnh trong i mithnh lp mt tn. n cui i Ng i, tn ny li suy ln.

    Cu-x l t gi vn tt ca my ch A-t-t-ma Cu-x lun. A-t TrungHoa dch l i, t ma dch l php, Cu-x dch l tng; v vy, nn c chgi lun Cu-x l lun i php tng. i c hai ngha : 1.- ihng[1] qu Nit-bn ; 2.- i qun[2] php T . Php cng c haingha: 1. L php, tc l Nit-bn. 2. Php tng, tc l T . i phpngha l dng tm linh sng sut, tr hu v lu[3], i qun php T , mxu hng v Nit-bn - chng qu Nit-bn.

    II.- Ng Khng, Php HuTn ny ch trng thuyt Ng khng php hu, tc l nhn thn nykhng thc c, m cc nguyn liu nh ng un, t i lm ra n u l thitc - chng sinh nhn nm un (sc, th, tng, hnh, thc) ha hip li mthnh, trong nm un y tht khng c ci g ng gi l ng (c lp, duynht), ch c nm un ha hip ti ri mn tn gi l ng (ta) thi, ngitu hnh qun st nh vy, th khng cn tham m ci thn gi di, cnh vtv thng ny na, nhn th tm c thanh tnh, tr tu sng sut v chngc l ng khng chn nh.

    Nhng nm un, tuy khng ng th (khng c bn th tht ti), m php th(bn th tht ti ca cc php, tc l nguyn liu sanh ra cc s tng trongv tr) l thng c, d qu kh, hin ti hay v lai, php th khi no cngtht c c. y tc c ch gi l thuyt ba i tht c, php th hng c,m cng l ch lp gio ca tn ny vy.

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    III.- 75 Php

    Tn ny chia vn hu trong v tr ra 75 php gii thch, nh bn chiara di ny.

    Sc php : ngha ch sc php ni y, phm vi rt rng. Phm ci g cth h nt v c tnh cch chng ngi u thuc v sc php.

    1.- Th no gi l cn ? V nhn, nh, t, thit, thn (mt, tai, mi, li,thn) lm ch cn c cho nm thc trong khi i cnh, ngha l cc thc nhc nng vo nm cn y ri mi c tc dng phn bit, nhn thc cc cnhvt ngoi.

    2.- Cn sc, thanh, hng, v, xc nm cnh ngoi, l i tng ca nmcn vy. Li cn c v biu sc l ci sc php khng biu hin ra ngoi,tc l sc chng ngi ca s tng nh cc nghip lnh d lm, i vicc vic d lnh sp lm, nh v thin th n c ci cng nng ngn tr cc

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    iu c, nh v c th n li c ci cng nng ngn tr cc iu thin, cicng nng y tuy khng c biu hin ra ngoi, nhng vn c chng ngi,nn gi l v biu sc.

    Tm php : Th no gi l tm php. L nim tng tng phn bit caht thy chng sinh; cng gi l tm vng. Tm vng c ba tn l; tm,, thc. Cu-x lun ni : Nhm gp cc tp qun m khi ra gi l tm,ngh ngi gi l , phn bit gi l thc. Trong tht thp ng (75) php cli gii rng : Ting Phn l Citta (Trung Hoa dch m l cht-a), y nil tm, tm c ngha l tp khi, ngha l n c ci cng nng thu gp ccduyn, v dn khi cc tm s ty ch hun tp v ty trng hp. TingPhn gi mt-na (manas), y ni l , l ngha t l, tc l tm ngh lng.Ting Phn l Parijnana, Trung Hoa dch m T-nh-nam, y ni l thc lngha r bit hay t r phn bit nhng s vt, tc l tm i vi cnh hay

    phn bit nhn thc vy. Thc nng theo 6 cn (mt, ti, mi, li, thn,) cng chia lm 6 thc, hip li gi l tm vng, trong 74 php cng k lmt php thi.

    Tm s php: L ci php s hu ph thuc ca tm vng, gi vn tt ltm s. Tm s chia ra lm 6 loi.

    Mt l i a php, php ny c 10 : 1.- Xc, l s cm xc cn i vicnh ; 2.- Th, l lnh th nhng cnh vui, cnh kh v cnh trung bnhkhng vui khng kh ; 3.- Tng, l t tng pht khi cc tng trong khi

    i vI cnh ; 4.- T, l s suy ngh pht ng trong tm nim ; 5.- Dc, llng ng mun trng cu ; 6.- Hu, l tr hu la chn lnh d ; 7.- Nim,l tnh ghi nh nhng cnh mnh nghe, thy ; 8.- Tc , l ci sc phtkhi ca tm nim, nu tm mnh cha mng ln th n pht ng mngln, cn tm mnh mng ln ri, th n li hay dn dt mnh n ni honcnh ; 9.- Thng gii; l nhn nhng iu mnh suy ngh l phi, lng ; 10.- Tam-ma-a, Trung Hoa dch l ng tr. ng ngha l tm

    phng lng nh tnh, khng ri lon, khng m ti, khng trm tr; Tr,ngha l tm y tip tc, chuyn ch vo mt tnh mt cnh, khng h xao

    lng. Mi php y thng c lnh d, dng v vic d th 10 tm y l d,khp c cc tm nim u c, cho nn gi l i a. i ngha l trm khprng ln; a, l tc ni tm vng lm ch y c, ngha l khi no tmvng khi ln th 10 tm s y u theo m khi ra mt ln; li v cc tms n nng ni tm vng m pht khi, nhn mi c ci tm l a php.

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    Hai l i thin a php, php ny cng c 10 : 1.- Tn, l tm tn ngngchc chn khng nghi ng, hay khin tm c thanh tnh ; 2.- Bt phngdt, l tm khng bung lung ; 3.- Khinh an, l tm c nh nhng khoankhoi ; 4.- X, l tm b nhng s c th lm cho lng ri lon m khinc bnh tnh lun ; 5.- Tm, l tm t h vi mnh, v mnh lm ra tili ; 6.- Qu, l tm then tha vi ngi khc v mnh lm iu by ;7.- V tham, l tm mnh i vi s vt, u khng chp trc, tham m ;8.- V sn, l tm mnh gp hon cnh g d l tri ngc vn gi c tmim tnh, khng gin ght ; 9.- Bt hai, l tm mnh khng ngh, lmnhng iu li ngi hi vt ; 10.- Cn, l tm i vi nhng vic hay cch, thng hng hi lm, khng nht nht ng long. Mi tm s y, tonl tm s lnh c, cho nn thng cng vi ht thy thin tm m mng ramt ln, nn gi l i thin a php.

    Ba l i phin no a php, php ny c 6 : 1.- Si, l ngy di, tm khngsng sut, i vi s l trong v tr thy u ti tm m mt ; 2.- Phngdt, l tm khng mun lm iu lnh, bung lung t c ; 3.- Gii i, ltnh bing nhc ; 4.- Bt tn, l bn tm ri lon, hay nghi ng khng chnh ; 5.- Hn trm, l tnh ti tm trm tr ; 6.- iu c (hay tro c), ltnh hay xao ng, lm cho bn tm khng c thanh tnh. Su iu nyhay lm cho tm ngi lng xng khng t ch; n thng cng vi cctm nhim m mng ln, nn gi l i phin no a php.

    Bn l i bt thin a php, php ny c 2 : 1.- V tm, l mnh lm

    nhng iu ti li m khng bit t then ; 2.- V qu, l mnh lm nhngiu by m i vi ngi bit xu h. Hai php ny thng cng vi cctm d mng ra mt ln, cho nn gi l i bt thin a php.

    Nm l tiu phin no a php. Php ny c 10 : 1.- Phn, l tnh hay gind, gp hon cnh hi tri l ni ln ngay ; 2.- Ph, l tnh hay che lpnhng iu li ca mnh ; 3.- Xan, l tnh bn xn cht hp, t ca ci chon li ni u bo bo khng h gip ch cho ngi ; 4.- Tt, l tnh hayghen ght ; 5.- No, l tnh hay cht trc, t cho mnh l phi, khng chu

    nghe li can gin, khin phi no lon t tm ; 6.- Hi, l lng c c,thng kim chuyn hi ngi ; 7.- Hn, l thng em lng gin hnngi, cu hn khng chu h x ; 8.- Sim, l tnh hay nnh, xu ph theongi, cng l tnh dm xim ; 9.- Cung, l tnh hay gi di la gt ngi; 10.- Kiu, l ci tnh hay khoe mnh khinh ngi. Mi iu ny u ltnh xu, thng khi ra mt mnh m khng theo vi cc nhim tm khc,cho nn gi l tiu phin no a php.

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    Su l bt nh a php. Php ny c 8 : 1.- Tm, l ci tm tm kim, sovi ngha ch t c phn th thin hn ; 2.- T, l ci tnh chm coi klng, trong khi tm xt g, vic g, c phn vi t nh nhim hn ; 3.-Thy min, l tnh a ng li b, khng k n th gi khin cho tm tr titm m mt ; 4.- Tc, l tnh hay n nn i vi cc vic lnh d mnh lm hay cha lm ; 5.- Tham, l tnh chp trc tham m s vt trong vtr ; 6.- Sn, l tnh hay gin d ; 7.- Mn, l tnh hay kiu mn, t ph;8.- Nghi, l tnh hay nghi ng khng quyt nh. Tm php ny thng c

    ba tnh lnh, d v v k khng lnh khng d khng nhp vo nm aphp k trn, cho nn gi l bt nh a php.

    Hnh php bt tng ng : Php ny cng c th gi vn tt l php bttng ng, tc l cc php sanh dit khng thuc v sc m cng khng phithuc v tm; khng phi sc v n khng phi l tnh chng ngi khng

    phi tm v n khng c tnh lo ngh phn bit, nhng cc php y tuykhng tng ng vi tm, m trong nm un nhip thuc v hnh un, chonn cng gi l tm bt tng ng hnh. Bt tng ng hnh c 14 php :1.- t, ngha l ng hay l thnh tu ; 2.- Phi c, ngha l khng nghay khng thnh tu ; 3.- ng phn, cng gi l chng ng phn. ngngha l ging nhau, phn tc l phn t dng; ngha l, do nghip nhnging nhau nn cc loi lnh th nghip qu v n thn v khi gii nhnhau ; 4.- V tng qu, ngha l chng c qu bo v tng ci trisc gii t thin ; 5.- V tng nh, la ngi tu ngoi o chng cthin nh, x ly cc tng nim, nh cy a ; 6.- Dit tn nh hay l ditth tng nh, cng vi nh v tng ni trn u thuc v nh v tm;tm vng vng lng; thc khng hin hnh; li ph tr ci nhim ,chp ng, chp cng tng nn thin nh ny l thin nh ca cc bc hinthnh tu chng o tch tnh Nit-bn, nh l bc Thanh vn, Duyn gic ;7.- Mng cn, tc l ci duy tr s sng trong mt i ; 8.- Sanh ; 9.-Tr ; 10.- D ; 11.- Dit ; Bn php Sanh, tr, d, dit ny l bn tngca cc php hu vi. Cc php vo thi k sanh thnh gi l sanh tng ;cc php vo thi k tn ti gi l tr tng ; cc php vo thi k thayi bin khc gi l d tng; cc php n thi k tiu dit gi l dit tng

    ; 12.- Danh thn ; 13.- C thn ; 14.- Vn thn ; Danh l mt ting n,c l tng cu, vn l tng ch ci, thn l ngha nhm hp. Mt ting ngi l danh, hai ting gi l danh thn, ba ting tr ln gi l a danh thn;c thn l vn thn, ngha cng nh vy, chiu theo y th bit.

    V vi php. Php v vi tc l php khng sanh dit. Php v vi c ba : 1.-Trch dit v vi ; 2.- Phi trch div v vi ; 3.- H khng v vi. Trch dit

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    v vi, ngha l nh sc lc chn m dt c c phin no, chng tnh tchdit. Trch ngha l la chn, l ch v tc dng sai bit ca tr hu m ni,v tr hu hay mi mi la chn nguyn nhn ca s sanh t, ca php huvi m dit tr; Dit, ngha l tch dit, l ch ci l tch dit ca cc tng mni. Trch dit v vi ly s xa la rng buc lm th tnh, tc l khi xa lacc phin no rng buc, m chng o gii thot. Phi trch dit v vi, ltnh tch dit khng cn phi nh sc la chn m thnh, nn gi l phi.Phm cc php hu vi sanh dit, u phi c nhn duyn mi sanh, trili, cc php s sanh sau ny nu nhn duyn sanh khi ca n, thng bci khc lm chng ngi th quyt khng bao gi m n sanh ra c na.

    Ngi tu hnh sau khi on tr phin no chng, c tnh tch dit ri, thkhng nhn duyn sanh ra cc php hu vi phin no; khi y th tnh tchdit hin tin, khng cn phi dng sc la chn m ng, nn gi l phitrch dit v vi. H khng v vi, l ch ngay ci tnh tch dit m ni; tnh

    tch dit v nh h khng, thng vng lng khng ngn ngi; khngngn ngi ci khc, thi cng khng b ci khc lm ngn ngi, cho nn gil h khng v vi. H khng ni y, i vi h khng m ngi phm tcthng thy, c phn khng ging nhau ; H khng m ngi thng thy,trong Cu-x lun gi l khng gii, n chng qua l ci sc i vi nhn cn thi. Trong Lun i-t-b-sa ni : H khng, khng phi l sc,khng gii th mi gi l sc, h khng, khng thy c, khng gii cthy c, h khng khng phi l vt i, khng gii thuc v i tng,h khng l v lu, khng gii l hu lu, h khng l v vi, khng gii lhu vi.

    IV.- NM UN

    Nm un l sc, th, tng, hnh, thc. Sc tc l t i cng l cc muxanh, vng, , trng v.v...; Th l s lnh th hon cnh ; Tng l ttng hoc tng tng; Hnh l hnh nghip tc l cc tm nim sanh dit; Thc l nhn thc, tc l tnh phn bit nhn thc cc hon cnh.

    Ting Phn gi l Skandha Tc-kin-, Trung Hoa dch l un. Ch unngha l cha nhm, l ni chng sinh nhn c nm un cha nhm li mthnh ra thn th, li nhn c thn th mi nhm cc php hu vi phin nov.v... nn gi l un.

    Sc tc l sc php trong 75 php, th v tng cng l hai tm s trong 75php, m nay c bit chia lm hai phn, l v chng sinh hay chp trc

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    tham mun, ly s lnh th hon cnh lm ch; hay chp trc v cc lkin, vy t tng lm ch - bi chng sinh chp trc v s bun vuisng kh, nn hay mng ra nhng iu t tng in o khng chnhng, v vy, m phi xoay vn trong vng sng cht mi. Hnh ngha lthay i hay l to tc hnh ng. Tr sc php, tm vng v th, tnghai tm s, cn bao nhiu php hu vi u nhip vo hnh un c. Cn thctc l tm vng.

    Nm un cng gi l nm m, ch m ngha l che lp, l ni chng sinhthng b nm m hay l nm un che lp chn tnh sng sut vy.

    12.- span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> XX

    Ch x cng c th gi l nhp, ngha l chung hp hay sanh khi. LunCu-x gii l ch sanh trng ra tm php tm vng v tm s php, chonn gi l x.

    X c 12, l lc cn - nhn, nh, t, thit, thn ; v lc cnh - sc, thanh,hng, v, xc, php; 10 x trong y tr v php, tc l ng cn v ngcnh v sc php. X tc l tm vng; cn php x thi nhip ht thy cc

    php khc, v khng lun l php hu vi hay v vi, u l cnh s duyn ca thc vy.

    VI. - 18 GII

    Ch gii c ngha l chng ti hay chng loi; v trong 18 gii, mi mi uc chng loi, t tnh sai khc, cho nn gi l gii. Gii c 18 php; 6 cn,6 cnh v 6 thc.

    Trong 18 gii y, nhn, nh, t, thit, thn, sc, thanh, hng, v, xc, gi l10 php v sc gii, tc l ng cn v ng cnh trong sc php; gii cnv lc thc gii, hip li gi l 7 php v tm gii, phn thuc v tm

    vng, n tng ng vi x trong 12 x ni trn. Cu-x gi rng tmvng, c chia ra qu kh v hin ti khc nhau; Tm vng v qu kh lmcn cho ; tc dng ca lc thc tm vng v qu kh vn khng sai khcnhau, nn u thng nhip vo cn gii, cn cc tm vng v hin tiduyn vo cnh lc trn mi mi u c cng nng tc dng sai khc, v sy vo su cn, cng khng phi mt, cho nn chia mt tm vng ra lm lcthc gii. Php tng ton gi rng : cn gii l nhip c thc th by v

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    thc th tm, lc thc gii nhip c su thc trc. Php gii cng viphp x trong 12 x vn ng, nhip ht thy cc php trong v tr.

    VII.- NGHIP

    Nghip; Ting Phn gi l Karma Yt-ma, Trung Hoa dch l nghip, ngha l to tc hnh ng, trong lun Cu x gi nghip l t v s tcca t. T tc l nghip s suy ngh hnh ng v nim, s tc l chcho thn nghip s lm long v thn xc, v ng nghip ni nng hip li gil thn, ng, , ba nghip.

    Trong thn nghip v ng nghip li c hai ging : 1.- Biu nghip ; 2.-V biu nghip. Hai nghip ny cng vi ba nghip thn, ng, , hip thnh

    nm nghip. Biu nghip l n c biu hin ra ni thn, ng, hai nghipkhin ngi trng thy u nhn bit; v biu nghip l do sc mnh cathn, ng, hai biu nghip m dn y ra, tuy rng n khng biu hin chongi thy, nhng n c ci nng lc hay ngn nga iu lnh hoc iu dvy. Nghip c ba tnh, l; lnh, d v v k Trung bnh, khng lnh,khng d; lnh v d l hai nghip c cm qu bo v sau; cn nghip v kl khng c cm qu bo.

    VIII.- 10 NGHIP LNH V 10 NGHIP D

    Lnh v d hai nghip, ni v ch th thin cho d hiu, th u c 10 mn,thng thng gi l thp nghip o ; tc l 10 c nghip v 10 thin nghipvy. Ni v 10 nghip c, th trong thn nghip c ba; git hi, trm cp, tdm; ng nghip c bn; ni li ni di gt, li thu dt, li chia r hai li,li mng chi c c; nghip cng c ba; tham lam, gin d, si m. Miiu y l thuc v 10 nghip d. Tri li, khng git hi, khng trm cp,khng l dm, khng ni la di, khng li thu dt, dua nnh, khng ni lichia r, khng ni li c tn, khng tham lam, khng gin d, khng si m,tc l 10 nghip lnh.

    IX.- NH NGHIP V BT NH NGHIP

    S qu bo ca lnh v d c mau chm, hoc ngay trong i ny, hocqua i sau chng hn nh i ny to nghip, hin trong i ny cm quchu bo, gi l thun hin php th; i ny to nghip m i k i ny

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    mi chu qu bo, gi l thun th sanh th; cn i ny to nghip m ni th ba th t v sau mi chu qu bo, gi l thun hu th th. Ba l yl ni v ci thi k cm qu chu bo xc nh nn gi l nh nghip.Cn nh i ny th nghip m thi k chu qu bo cha nh, th gi l

    bt nh nghip. Bt nh nghip c hai th; mt l bo nh m thi kchu qu bo cha nh; hai l c qu bo v thi k chu qu bo, ucha nh. V nhng o l y, nn s qu bo ca ngi, khng th lytrong mt i ny m xt on c.

    X.- TH GII

    Th gii cng gi l th gian; chia lm hai loi, l hu tnh th gian v khth gian. Hu tnh th gian, l ch v thn th ca cc loi chng sinh m

    ni; chng sinh v nghip nhn m cm chu qu bo chnh thc v thn thy; nn gi l chnh bo. Cn kh th gian l ch v ni, sng, nh ca, omc, cm n m ni; v nhng vt y l qu bo s y ca cc loi hu tnhchng sinh nng vo m sng, cho nn gi l y bo.

    Trong v tr khng bit bao nhiu l th gii, hip mt ngn th gii thnhra mt tiu thin th gii; hip mt ngn tiu thin th gii, gi l mt trungthin th gii; hip mt ngn trung thin th gii, gi l mt i thin thgii. Mt i thin th gii, thng thng gi l tam thin i thin th gii,ni rng tam thin, l ch con s do tiu thin, trung thin v i thin, l ch

    con s do tiu thin, trung thin v i thin m cu thnh, ch khng phini b ngn ci i thin th gii vy. Mi mt i thin th gii, k cmi vn vn th gii; y l mt cnh s ha ca mt c Pht. Trong vtr c v lng v s i thin th gii, gi l thp phng vi trn th giimi phng th gii nhiu nh vi trn, hay l thp phng th gii nhiunh vi trn, hay l thp phng hng sa th gii th gii rt nhiu nh s ctsong Hng. Th gii m chng ta hin y, thuc v th gii Ta-b; Ta-bngha l kham nhn, l ni chng sinh ci ny hay nhn chu nhng iuthng kh vy.

    XI.- KIP

    S thnh hoi cath gii xoay vn khng ngt; mi mt th gii u cthnh, tr, hoi, khng, bn thi k; tc l thi k sanh thnh, thi k tnti, thi k ph hoi v thi k tiu dit. Mi thi u c 20 trung kip, mi

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    trung kip chng 14.000.000 nm. Ch kip, ting Phn gi l Calpakip-ba, dch ngha l thi phn, c i thi, trng thi v.v... C thuytni; Mi mt i kip chia lm thnh, tr, hoi, khng, bn trung kip; mimt trung kip chia lm 20 tiu kip thi gian tiu kip ni y cng vithi gian trung kip trn nh nhau. Thnh kip l thi k th gii thnhlp; tr kip l thi k sau khi th gii thnh lp, cc loi hu tnh n ; hoikip l thi k ph hoi; khng kip l thi k khi th gii tiu dit khngcng g na. Cc bc v B-tt tu hnh phi tri qua ba A-tng-k kip mithnh Pht. A-tng-k ngha l v s kip vy.

    i kip : 4 thi k tc l 4 trung kip; thi k; 20 tiu kip; Tiu kip :16.000.000 nm. i kip : 20 x 4, = 80 x 16.000.000 = 1.280.000.000 nm1 ngn 2 trm 80 triu nm.

    XII.- TAM GII

    Tam gii l ba ci, l ci dc gii, sc gii v v sc gii. Dc gii l cica loi hu tnh m cha xa la s dm dc v thc dc. Y theo bn thgii an lp ca nh Pht, th trn t ci tri lc dc, chng gia thi bnchu thuc v ci ngi di n ci a ngc v gin, u thuc v dcgii. Sc gii l ci loi hu tnh m ri b c s dm dc v thcdc, hnh sc tt p ci ny do thin nh cao thp m chia ra bn bc, gil t thin s thin, nh thin, tam thin, t thin, cng gi l t tnh l,

    ngha l ni ngi sanh ln ci y, tm c yn tnh, khng cn tn lonnh chng sinh ci ny na. V sc gii, l ci khng c hnh sc nh ciny, cc loi hu tnh sanh vo ch c tm thc m thi. Ci ny chia ralm bn ci, thng thng gi l t khng thin ci Khng v bin x, ciThc v bin x, ci V s hu x, ci Phi tng Phi phi tng x.

    Tam gii cng gi l tam hu, ngha l ni chng sinh trong ba ci gynhn g th chu qu ny, nhn qu khng mt, sanh t ni lun vy.

    XIII.- CU A

    Ba ci li chia ra lm cu a, cng gi l cu hu : 1.- Dc gii ng tha, cng gi l ng th tp c a, tc l ton b ca ci dc gii t thin,nhn, cho n sc sanh, ng qu, a ngc, nm loi ln ln chung u cdm dc, nn hip lm mt ci gi l dc gii ; 2.- Ly sanh h lc a, tcl bc s thin ni ci sc gii, ci ny tng ng vi tm, t hai tm s,

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    dt c s kh no dc gii m sanh ra vui mng, nn gi l ly sanh hlc ; 3.- nh sanh h lc a, tc l bc nh thin ni ci sc gii, ci nykhng cn phi tm, t, ch ty theo sc nh m sanh ra vui mng, nn gil nh sanh h lc ; 4.- Ly h diu lc a, tc l tam thin ni ci trisc gii, bc ny xa la s vui mng hai ci kia, m t c cnh vui munhim hn, nn gi l ly h diu lc ; 5.- X nim thanh tnh a, cng l

    bc t thin ni ci sc gii, bc ny li dt b cc tm nim, ch mt ttnh thanh tnh bnh ng, an tr vo chnh nim x th, nn gi l x nimthanh tnh ; 6.- Khng v bin x, tc l ci tri th nht v v sc gii,chng sinh ci ny chn nn v tiu dit hnh sc, an tr ni cnh nh gil khng v bin ; 7.- Thc v bin x, tc l ci tri th hai v v sc gii,chng sinh ci ny thng thng an tr vo cnh nh thc v bin ; 8.-V s hu x, tc l ci tri th ba v v sc gii, chng sinh ci ny, antr ni cnh nh v s hu x ; 9.- Phi tng Phi phi tng x, tc l ci

    tri th t v v sc gii, chng sinh ci ny, tm an tr vi cnh nhphi tng phi tng.

    Dc gii gi l tang a, ngha l ni chng sinh ci y, d lm vic lnh,chng qua l em tm tn lon m lm thi, khng nh chng sinh haici trn - Sc gii - c tu tp thin nh m gi l nh a - do thin nh mcm c qu bo tt vy.

    XIV.- NG TH V LC O

    Ng th cng gi l ng o, l : tri, ngi, sc sanh, ng qu, a ngc ;thm loi A-tu-la vo th gi l lc th, hay l lc o. A-tu-la ging ngim ti tr nh ci tri, nhng khng c c hnh ci tri; c thin tu la, qutu la, v sc tu la khc nhau, c th nhip vo trong cc loi kia, nn cckinh lun Tin tha, phn nhiu ch ni ng th m thi.

    Ch th ngha l ni chng sinh trong ba ci, gy nhn chu qu, u thaivo cc loi vy; cn nh gi rng o, ngha l ni chng sinh ln laxoay vn theo con ng sanh t lun hi vy.

    XV.- BN HOC V TY HOC

    Nghip l cc nhn thn sanh ra cc qu bo sanh t, cn ci gip cho cnghip m cm chu qu bo, gi l hoc m lm. Chng sinh nhn hoc -m lm - m gy ra nghip, v nghip m chu bo. Cc hoc c ci cng

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    dng khin thn tm cc loi hu tnh phin no ri lon, cho nn hoc cnggi l phin no; n li hay eo ui loi hu tnh, khin s ti tm ngu ntip tc tng trng, nn cng gi l ty min. Cng dng ca n c mnhc yu khc nhau, nn chia ra cn bn v chi mt hai loi;

    Bn hoc l s m lm ci gc, nn cng gi l cn bn phin no, ngha lni do phin no y m sanh ra cc phin no khc.

    C su cn bn phin no l; tham, sn, si, mn, nghi, c kin. c kin lichia ra lm thn kin, bin kin, t kin, kin th v gii cm th, cng nmhoc trc, hip li gi l mi hoc, cng gi l mi ty min.

    Thn kin cng ku l hu thn kin, l i vi ci thn th do nm un hahip li m thnh, ci thn y khng c ch t, m chng sinh nhn lm l

    tht c ng, nhn mi sanh ra tnh chp ng; cho thn ny l ta, s vt lca ta v.v... Nhn c chp ng, mi sanh ra li chp; thn ny cht ri thtiu dit, hn khng cn g c on kit thn ny cht ri linh hn vn cnmi mi thng kin; nhng s chy y, lm mt hn l trung o, nn gil bin kin, tc l thin chp; t kin ngha l chp nhng o l m h, v

    bi bc nhng l nhn qu chn chnh; kin th l chp cht ly kin giisai lm cht hp ca mn, ri cho l chn chnh v hn ht, m khng chutheo i cc bc hin thnh; gii cm th l s gi gii sai lm, khng phichn chnh m chp l chn chnh, khng phi o m chp l o, nh ligii cm kh hnh ca cc ngoi o, cho s tu nh vy l ci nhn tt v

    ci tri, y l khng phi nhn m chp l nhn; nh dng s gi theo ccgii th gian m cho l mt o l tu hnh ra khi phin no, chng cgii thot, y l khng phi o m chp l o.

    Ng n s v ng li s : Ci gc ca s phin no c nm : tham, sn, si,mn, nghi; tnh cht ca nm iu ny rt l chm lt, kh m dt tr, chonn gi l ng n s. Thn kin, bin kin, t kin, kin th, gii cm th,nm iu ny tnh cht lanh li d tr b, nn gi l ng li s. S ngha lni n hay sai khin loi hu tnh c ln qun trong ch m lm vy.

    Kin hoc v t hoc : Ng n s v ng li s c chia ra m s v m lkhc nhau; ci m lm v l, l v t mnh khng r chnh l hoc do t st gio cng s suy ngh t vy ca mnh m sanh ra, cho nn gi l s mlm v phn bit; v li khi tu hnh kin o, on tr c m lm y,cho nn gi l kin hoc. Ci m lm v s, l v m mui ni s vt msanh ra, nh chng ta i vi s n, mc, sanh rt ham trc, my iu y

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    cng vi thn ny ng sanh mt ln cho nn gi l s m lm v cu sanh;s m lm y rt kh dit tr; mun dit tr th phi gng sc tu tr, trongkhi tu o ln ln dt b, nn gi t hoc. Trong mi iu m lm y, thng li s v nghi, bi v m l nn thuc v kin hoc; tham, sn, si, mn,gm c m l v m s, nn thng c kin hoc v t hoc.

    S mc ca kin hoc v t hoc : Nhng hoc m l v m s, phi hipvi ba ci, thi thnh ra 88 mn kin hoc cng 81 phm t hoc 88 mn2in hoc, l 10 hoc v kh ci dc gii, 7 hoc v tp v 7 hoc vdit hai ci ny u tr thn kin, bin kin, gii cm, 8 hoc v o tr thn kin v bin kin, c bn , hip li thnh 32 hoc. Bn citri sc gii v v sc gii u tr sn hoc, hip li thnh 26 hoc; hai cisc, v sc cng thnh 56 hoc, thm 32 hoc v dc gii, th thnh ra 88s. Tham, sn, si, mn v t hoc, tnh cht n n, kh m phn bit,

    nhn tc dng ca n c mnh yu chia lm thng, trung, h, ba phm;trong b phm y, li u chia lm thng, trung, h m thnh ra 9 phm,phi hp vi tam gii cu a, thi thnh ra 81 phm. Nhng ci tri scgii v v sc gii tuyt khng c sn vy. Nay mun cho d nh xin lm

    bn nh di ny (xem trang k).

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    Ty hoc; Ngha l nhng phin no ty theo cc phin no ci gc m sanhra, nn gi l ty hoc, cng gi l ty phin no. C thy c 19; Phngdt, gii i, bt tn, hn trm, iu c, v tm, v qu, phn, ph, xan, tt,no, hi, hn, sim, cung, kiu, thy min v c tc. So snh v tam giithi tnh di gt v dm sim cung v sim ch thuc v dc gii v bc sthin ci sc gii; phng dt, gii i, bt tn, hn trm, iu c, kiu, suiu y thng c ba ci; cn bao nhiu u l tnh khng lnh, nhng tnhy ch ci dc gii c m thi, cho nn ci dc gii c thy c 19 ty phinno, ci sc gii c 8, ci v sc gii ch c 6. Li so vi kin hoc v thoc; phng dt, gii i, bt tn, hn tm, in c, v tm, v qu, thymin, tm iu y ty tng ng vi bn hoc, thng c kin hoc v thoc.

    Cn nh phn, ph v.v... 11 iu th gi l t ti khi ch tng ng vi v

    minh, nn gi l t hoc.

    XVI.- T

    Tn ny ch trng ngi ta v nghip lnh nghip d lm nhn,phin no lm duyn, m pht khi c nm un ha hip, nhn th mi cthn tm v th gii, chu cc kh no, sng cht lun hi; nh tu theogii, nh, hu, thi dt c cc nghip chng v cc s m lm mchng qu Nit-bn gii thot. Nm un nhm hp li gi l Tp ; qu

    bo kh no v tm, thn, th gii l Kh ; tu tr theo chnh o l o; chng c qu Nit-bn l Dit-; y l kh kh qu th gian, tpnhn kh th gian, dit qu vui Nit-bn, o nhn vui xut th, bn .Ch ngha l chc tht, tc l chn l vy.

    XVII.- 12 NHN DUYN

    Cc s m lm v cc nghip chng gy ra s sng cht, nu nicho r th c 12 nhn duyn, cng gi l 12 chi, tc l; v minh, hnh, thc,danh sc, lc nhp, xc, th, i, th, i, th, hu, sanh, lo t. 12 nhnduyn nng theo th lp m sanh ra. 1.- V minh duyn hnh, v minh lni nhng iu m lm i trc ca ngi, duyn l ni s m lm y nlm nhn duyn m sanh khi ra; hnh l ni cc hnh nghip lu chuyntrong t tm mnh bi s m lm m gy ra cc nghip, cho nn gi l vminh duyn hnh. 2.- Hnh duyn thc, tc l ci thc do cc nghip lc

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    n dn dt i u thai vo cc loi. 3.- Thc duyn danh sc, danh l chcho bn un ; th, tng, hnh, thc; sc tc l sc un; danh sc tc l nici thi k phi thai ng t chc ca thn tm trc khi cha cu cnvy. 4.- Danh sc duyn lc nhp, ngha l ni ci thi k sau khi do danhsc t chc gn hon b, tc l khi say cn y . 5.- Lc nhp duynxc, ngha l ni khi sanh ra, su cn i vi su trn, sanh ra s cm xctrong khi i cnh. 6.- Xc duyn th, ngha l ni do khi cm xc i cnhm sanh ra s lnh th cc cnh vui hay kh. 7.- Th duyn i, l ni binhng s vui m sanh ra lng a mun say m. 8.- i duyn th, l ni

    bi c a mun m sanh ra lng chp trc, tham cu. 9.- Th duyn hu,l ni v lng chp trc tham cu m gy ra nhn qu i sau. 10.- Huduyn sanh, l ni gy ra ci nhn i sau thi phi chu ci qu chuynsanh. 11.- Sanh duyn lo t, l ni c sanh ra th c gi cht. V minhv hnh nghip, hai iu y, l nhn thuc v i qu kh, trong T th

    thuc v Tp ; t thc cho n th, nm iu y l ci qu ng chu iby gi, thuc v Kh ; i, th, hu, ba iu y l ci nhn ng gy ratrong i ny, cng thuc v Tp ; sanh v lo t, hai iu y l ci qui sau phi chu, thuc v Kh . Nu phi hip vi nghip, hoc, kh,thi v minh l hoc, thnh l nghip, t thc cho n th l kh. i, th lhoc ; hu l nghip, sanh v lo t, l kh.

    XVIII.-NIT BN

    Nit-bn, ting Phn gi l Nirvana, Trung Hoa c khi dch l N-hon. N ngha l dt, cng dch c nhiu ngha khc, nh l; dit , tchdit, gii thot, v vi v.v... ngha l dt ht iu phin no, ra khi vngsng cht, la b s rng buc m ng cnh vng lng, gi l Nit-bn chai; Mt l hu d y Nit-bn, l ni ngi tu hnh, cc phin no tuy on tr ht snh, nhng th mng hy cn sng i, nn gi l hu d y;hai l v d y Nit-bn, l ni ngI tu hnh phin no dt sch, thmng cng khng sng cn i, thn tm u vng lng, cho nn gi l vd y.

    XIX.PHP HU LU V V LU

    Lu l ci tn ting ca s phin no. Lu c ba ngha; an tr, luchuyn, tit lu. V phin no hay khin chng sinh mi trong ba ci, luchuyn trong vng cht sng lun hi, nh ci nh b dt, git ri nhng s

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    d bn, nn gI l lu. Trong lun Cu-x ni rng; tr o , cn bao nhiuphp hu vi u l hu lu. o v ba php v vi l php v lu.

    XX.- NHN QU CA TAM THA

    Tam tha l; Thanh vn, Duyn Gic v B-tt. Ch tu hnh vchng qu ca ba bc y khng ging nhau. Tn ngy ni bc Thanh vn tuv php qun t , mau thi ba i, m chm thi phi tri qua 60 kip,mi chng c qu A-la-hn; nhng tng bc v ch tu chng th c by

    phng tin v cc bc trong t qu.

    By phng tin l; Tam hin v t thin cn, y l v th khi tunhn trn con ng tu hnh ca bc Thanh vn.

    Tam Hin : 1.- Bc tu v php qun ng nh tm, nh tu phpqun tng khin tm mnh d an tnh :

    a.- Qun ci thn ny l nh bn, i lng tham mun ;b.- Qun ci lng t bi tr tnh gin d ;c.- Qun nhn duyn - 12 nhn duyn - tr tnh ngu si ;

    d.- Qun gii phn bit, php qun ny cng gi l gii phng tin qun,tch gii qun v v ng qun, tc l qun a, thy, ha, phong, khng,

    thc, su gii y u nhn duyn ha hip m thnh ra thn, khng c gng gi l ta c, php qun ny mc ch tr ci lng ng chp ;

    e.- Qun s tc, cng ku l nim s tc, ngha l qun hi th v th ra dt s ri lon trong tm tr.

    2.- Bc tu v php Bit tng nim x, l php qun v t nim x :a.- Qun ci thn ny y, nhng s nh bn ; b.- Qun s lnh th ton lkh ; c.- Qun tm ngi khng thng ; d.- Qun cc php khng t ch(khng c bn ng chn tht). Qun nh vy, tr b ci lng chp

    thng (vng tm ca chng sinh khng thng m chp l thng), lc(cuc i l kh m chng sinh chp v vui), ng (thn ny v cc phpkhng c t ch m chng sinh chp l c t ch), tnh (thn ny l nh

    bn m chng sinh cho l sch s), l bn ci chp in o ca chng sinhvy. Nim l ci tm s thng cng vi tr hu qun tng m khi ra ; xl ci cnh ca s qun tng tc l thn, th, tm, php, bn ci y, lmcnh cho tm nim ngi tu hnh an tr, cho nn gi l t nim x.

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    3.- Bc tu v php tng tng nim x, tc l php qun tng tu vt nim x, ng thi qun thn ny l khng thng, l nh bn, l khno, l khng c ng, cho n th, tm, php, u tu tp mt cch nh vy.

    T thin cn (bn cn lnh) l : non php, nh php, nhn php vth nht php :

    a.- Non php, l theo li v d v t ra, nh mnh ca cy ly la, la tuycha ra, nhng trc khi la ra c hi nng; nay ngi tu hnh mundng la tr hu t cc phin no, tuy rng cha c tr hu sng sut vlu, nhng trc khi la tr sanh ra, thi c tng la pht hin, nn gil non php.

    b.- nh php, s d gi l nh php, l i vi cc cn lnh ng cn xao

    ng, php ny l mu nhim hn c, nh ci nh ca ngi; v bc nycn trong thi k tn, thi, nh ci nh ni, nn gi l nh. Cn lnhxao ng ; tc l ni non php v nh php, hai bc y cn c tn c thi,tn thi khi ra cn lnh bt ng v nhn php v th nhp php; nhthi thi sanh phin no to c nghip m a vo c th.

    c.- Nhn php c hai ngha: n kh v quyt nh, ngha l bc ny nhn thtl t ng rt rt hn c, quyt khng bao gi sa a.

    d.- Th nht php, th l th gian, bc ny cn l hu lu nn gi l th

    nht; ngi tu hnh n bc ny tuy cha chng c Thnh o, nhng trong hu lu th gian d c phn tn trng th nht. Bc t thin cnny, tu php qun t , thng gia cng dng hnh, gip thm nh hu,nn cng gi l t gia hnh.

    T qu l: D lu qu, Nht lai qu, Bt hm qu v A-la-hn qu.Ting Phn gi la Srota apanna (Tu--hon). Trung Hoa dch l Nhp luhay D lu, tc l qu u tin v ch tu chng. Qu D lu l sau khi n

    bc Th nhp php dit b phin no, tr hu sanh ra, tr hn kin hoctrong ba ci, d vo ging php Thnh o, cho nn gi l D lu. Ting

    Phn gi l Skrdagami (T--hm), Trung Hoa dch l Nht lai, tc l quth hai. Bc ny i vi chin phm t hoc trong dc gii dt b csu phm trc, ba phm sau hy cn, nn cn phi u thai ni ci dc giimt ln, ng m tu hnh thm ti, nn gi l Nht lai. Ting Phn gi l A-na-hm (angmi), Trung Hoa dch l Bt lai, tc l qu th ba. Bc ny dt

    b c ba phm t hoc sau ci dc gii, khng phi u thai vo ci yna, cho nn gi l Bt lai. Ting Phn gi l A-la-hn (arhat), Trung Hoa

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    dch l ng cng hay V sanh, y l qu th t. Bc ny dt b c cciu m lm trong ci sc gii v v sc gii, khng sanh ra phin no,khng cn sanh t lun hi, vt ra khi ba ci, hng s cng dng cathin, nhn. Tu hnh n qu ny l qu cc im v Tiu tha, khng cn

    phi hc php g na, nn cng gi l v hc.

    Bc Duyn gic qun ly 12 nhn duyn, mau thi phi bn i, mchm thi phi tri qua 100 kip ri mi chng c qu Bch Chi Pht.Bc ny cha nhm cc cng c tu hnh, thng ln qu v hc khng phin

    phi tri qua nhiu tng bc, nn theo li tu Duyn gic khng phi lp ranhiu qu v, chng qua khi ng tu hnh th gi l hng, ngha l i ti,l do s tu hnh m i ti ch chng qu, trong khong thi gian y, tt phitri qua bn i hay 100 kip m chng bc Duyn gic ; khi y l ch tuhnh c y , dt mi m lm, chng c chn l, thng hng

    php lc trong cnh Nit-bn.

    Bc B-tt tu v php Lc (b th, tr gii, nhn nhc, tinh tn,thin nh, tr hu), phi tri qua ba A-tng-k kip, sau ht li phi 100 kiptu cc nhn v 32 tng tt v 80 v p ca Pht, n thn kip sau cng,hon ton dt b cc kin, cc hoc, thnh tu qu Pht, chng o i B-.

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    THNH THT TN

    I.- DUYN KHI LP TN

    L ngha tn ny hon ton y c vo b Thnh th lun, nn gi l

    Thnh tht tn.

    Sauk hi Pht Nit-bn chng 900 nm, ngi Cu-ma-la-(Kumralabdha) v phi Tt-b-a Tiu tha, c ngi hc tr rt gii tn lHa-la-bt-ma (Harivarman - Trung Hoa dch l S t kh), ngi ny dngngha l tinh ty trong cc b v phi Tiu tha, lm ra b Thnh tht lun,ch yu l gii r l nhn khng v php khng. S d gi l Thnh thtlun, t l gii thnh l ngha chn tht trong ba tng kinh in ca Pht.i Dao Tn ngi Cu-ma-la-thp Php s dch ra vn Trung Hoa, tt c 16cun, chia lm 202 phm; v thi Nam Bc triu c ngi chuyn hong vlun ny mi thnh mt tn.

    II.- KHNG QUN V V NG QUN

    Tn ny lp ra hai php qun gii r hai l khng: 1. Khng qun,nh qun trong ci bnh khng c nc, th gi l khng; trong thn ng unny l do nm un ha hip ch l mt php, s h gi khng c ci g nggi l ta chn tht; y l php qun v chn khng. 2. V ng qun, nh

    qun ci bnh khng c th cht chn tht th gi l khng; cc php trongnm un u l gi danh, khng c th cht chn tht, chng thy c thtphp; y l qun ny l on tr ci lng chp trc v cc phin no, cuc thn tm thanh tnh chng qu Nit-bn.

    III.- TAM TM V DIT

    Tam tm : Mt l gi danh tm, tc l ci tm chp nhng gi danh,nh l ngi, ta, m cho l tht c; nay dng tr hu m qun st bit n u

    l nhn duyn ha hp m sanh, tc chng c l nhn khng. Hai lphp tm, l ci tm chp php th nm un tht c; nay dng tr chn khngm tr b ci lng chp y i, th thay c l php khng. Ba l khngtm, ngha l bit c nhn ng, php ng u khng m li em lngchp ci khng l thit; by gi dt b ci lng chp khng y i, th ng,

    php u khng, m ci khng y cng khng - khng tng nm c - tc

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    gi l dit .

    IV.- TH GII MN V NHT NGHA MN

    Tn ny li lp ra hai mn, l: Th gii mn (Tc ) v nhtngha mn (chn ). ng v th gii mn m ni, th c ngi c ta nhthng, nh trong kinh ni: Ta thng t ngn nga v gn gi ly ta, lmlnh t mnh c iu lnh v.v... y l ch mn danh t m ni thi,khi nm un ha hip li gi l ta, ch khng phi l tht c ta. V li nmun y, ng v th tc m ni th l c, ch cng khng tht c, v Phtdy: Cc hnh php u l nh huyn nh ha vy. Cn nh trong kinh ni nht ngha khng, l i l chn tht nht ngha m khng, ch khnghi nh ci khng th tc. nht ngha, tc nh c ch ni rng: Sc vn

    v khng, cho n thc cng l khng; v vy nn qun sc, th, tng,hnh, thc nm un u khng, thi chng c ci l nht ngha khng. v th gii mn, v thun theo th tc, nn ni c ng c php; nm unha hip tm gi l ngi, nhn duyn sanh thnh mi c cc php, y ch lgi tm nh tung c, ch khng tht c, v khi nhn duyn tan r, th thyu tiu dit; n nh nht ngha , th tc ni cc php, cu knh lchn khng.

    V.- HAI KHNG V HAI MN CHNG

    Mun chng qu Pht, th phi on tr hai moon chng :

    1.- Phin no chng, tc l cc nghip chng v kin hoc v t hoc;chng ny v chp ci ta l thit c lm gc, mi sanh cc phin no, riloan thn tm, chng ngi o Nit-bn tch tnh, tc nh trong Cu-x lungi l tnh nhim v tri.

    2- S tri chng, cng gi l tr chng: cn bn chng ny l v chp ccphp l tht c, khin ni che lp ci tnh v in o i vi cc cnh mnh

    hay bit, lm chng ngi o B-, tc nh trong Cu-x lun gi l btnhim v tri vy.

    Phin no chng v chp c ta m sanh ra, nay dng qun nhnkhng m dt tr; cn s tri chng l v chp cc php thit c m sanh ra,nay dng qun khng ng tr dit.

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    Ch chng qu tt bc bn Tiu tha l ch dt c phin nochng m thi, trong Bt tn cng yu ni rng: Thnh tht tn tuy cni n nhn khng v php khng, nhng trn con ng tu chng chon c kin hoc t hoc (phin no chng) m khng on c s trichng, nhng v phn tr gii cng cao xa mu nhim lm.

    VI.- 84 PHP

    Trong kinh Duy-ma-ct s ym-la k (trc gi mt nh s NhtBn tn l (Ngng Nhin) gi rng : Tn Thnh tht lp ra 84 php thuyt minh nhng hin tng ca nhn sanh v v tr, tc l sc php c14, tm php c 50, phi sc phi tm php c 17, v vi php c 3.

    14 loi trong sc php l: Ng cn, ng trn v t i; 50 loi v tmphp l: Tm vng c 1, tm s c 49, tc l bn Cu-x 46 tm s, tnny thm vo 2 l hn (tnh hn h) v ym (tnh nhm chn) ; cn thymin tn ny li chia ra lm hai : thy v min hai tm s, cng li l 49 ;17 loi v phi sc phi tm php, tc l 14 bt tng ng hnh bn Cu-x,chng qua tn ny hip mng cn v ng phn li lm mt, m thm lo, t,

    phm phu, v tc vo, cng li l 17 php, 3 php v v vi cng vi Cu-xvn ng.

    VII.- 27 V HIN THNH

    Tn ny n vi ch tu nhn chng qu, lp ra 37 tng bc, phnnhiu l ng vi tn Cu-x.

    27 v hin thnh :

    1.- Ty tn hnh, bc ny bc vn, t (cng vi bc tam hin trong7 phng tin, tn Cu-x ging nhau). Ty tn l nghe li dy bo ca cc

    bc chng qu, ri tn v tu tp theo. Trong Thnh tht lun ni r vn,

    t, tu, ba hu: vn hu, ngha l nh s nghe ngi ging o l m mnhc sanh ra tr hu; t hu ngha l sau khi nghe, nh s suy ngh ca mnhm sanh tr hu; tu hu, ngha l nh cng tu tp thin nh m sanh ra tr tu- Tu hu thng tng ng vi vn hu, t hu.

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    2.- Ty php hnh, bc ny ngang vi bc t thin cn trong Cu-xtn. Khi tu hnh n bc ny thi khng cn i c nhng li dy bo cacc bc hin thnh - ngha l ch thun theo chnh php m tu hnh thi.

    3.- V tng hnh, tc l bc kin o, do hai bc trn m tu ti.Kin ngha l sau khi n bc Th nht php, tr v lu pht sanh, thyc chn l ca T , nn gi l kin o. Ba bc k trn gm li u gil D lu hng : hng ngha l ti, D lu hng l i ti qu D lu.

    4.- D lu qu, tc l qu Tu--hon, bc ny dt ht nhngkin hoc trong ba ci, d vo ging php Thnh o vy.

    5.- Nht lai hng, ngha l bc ny dt c nm phm t hoctrc ci dc gii.

    6.- Nht lai qu, bc ny dt c hai phm t hoc th su cidc gii.

    7.- Bt hon hng, bc ny dt c hai phn t hoc th byth tm ci dc gii. Cn t bc th 8 cho n bc th 18 k sau cng lil 11 bc, gi l Bt-hon qu; bc ny hon ton dt c 9 phm thoc ni ci dc gii. Qu Bt hon ny, s d chia ra lm 11 bc, l v cnc ca ngi c nhanh c chm, ch tu hnh c sing c tr, chng qu A-la-hn vo Nit-bn c k trc ngi sau khng gin nhau vy. 11 bc:

    mt l Trung ban, trung tc l trung m, cng gi l trung hu, tc ch choci thn vo khong sau khi cht cha i u thai vo ci no, cn ch bantc l vo Nit-bn; ngha l ni bc ny trong khi ci dc gii va cht,sp sanh ln ci sc gii ci thn trung m vo khong trung gian dttr cc m lm phin no ci trn sc gii m vo Nit-bn. Hai l Sanh

    ban, ngha l sai khi sanh ln ci sc gii, chng bao lu thi vo Nit-bn;y l nh s sing nng v ng tu o m mau ti vy. Ba l Hu hnh

    ban, ngha l sau khi sanh v ci sc gii, on khn ln, tu hnh ti mikhng ngh, nh c cng phu, nn mi vo c Nit-bn. Bc ny ch csing nng tu tp m ch tn o khng c mau chng. Bn l V hnh

    ban, ngha l sau khi sanh v ci sc gii, tr ni ng tu hnh, ch dngcng khng nhiu lm, m vo Nit-bn. Nm l Lc hu, l ni sau khisanh v ci sc gii li ln lt sanh ln ci sc cu knh l ci cao nht ci sc gii, mi vo Nit-bn. Ci tri sc gii c nh c hu, bc nydng hu lm vui, cho nn gi l lc hu. Say l Lc nh, l ni bc nykhng chu vo Nit-bn ni ci sc gii, cn mun chuyn sanh ln ci hu

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    nh l ci rt cao ci V sc gii, khi y mi vo Nit-bn, ci v scgii ch c nh m khng dng hu, cho nn gi l Lc nh. By laChuyn th, l ni sau khi ci dc gii chng c qu D lu v Nhtlai, khng sanh v ci sc gii hay v sc gii, c chuyn sanh li ci dcgii m tu chng c qu Bt-hon, ri vo Nit-bn. Tm l Hin ban, lni bc ny khng cn chuyn sanh, ch tu tp trong mt thi k m chngc ba qu, hin thn ci dc gii m vo Nit-bn. Chn l Tn gii, lni bc Bt hon qu m ngi cn c c hi chm lt, ch tin theo li dy

    bo ca k khc m tu hnh. Mi l Kin c, l ni khi chng c quBt-hon, nh c cn c lanh li, nng theo sc tr hu ca mnh m chngc. Mi mt l Thn chng, l ni bc Bt-hon qu tu chng c Dittn nh; y l bc li cn th nht. T bc ny Ty tn hnh n y cngl 18 bc u gi l bc hu hc; trong cc bc ny t qu Bt hon on

    phm t hoc th nht ni ci s thin thuc v sc gii, cho n khi on

    c phm t hoc th tm ni ci hu nh thuc v v sc gii, cng cthy l 71 phm t hoc, u gi l A-la-hn hng; chin bc sau y tc A-la-hn qu, cng gi l bc v hc.

    9.- Bc :

    Mt l Thi php tng. Thi ngha l thi lui, thi php c hai thuyt: BnCu-x tn ni: trong khi chng s qu (D lu) thi khng thi, sau khichng c qu th ba (Bt-hon) mi c thi (ch thi y khng phi lthi lui v sanh t, m ch thi lui v s tu tp cc qu y m thi) ; bn

    Thnh tht tn ni c bn qu u khng thi lui, c thi chng, ch thi luicnh thin nh m thi, tc l ni bc n cn La Hn ch thi lui cnhthin nh ng, ch khng phi ni thi lui lm chng sinh vy.

    Hai l Th h tng, l ni bc La Hn hay gi gn c cnh thin nhkhng mt; tri li, nu hkng gi gn th cng thi lui.

    Ba l T tng, l ni bc La Hn rt nhm chn th gian, li s thi mtch chng ng ca mnh, nn mun vo lin ci Nit-bn.

    Bn l Tr tng, l ni bc La-hn cn c khng th tu ti m cng khngn ni thi lui, ch gi v bc trung m thi.

    Nm l Kh tn tng, l ni bc La-hn chng c bc thin nh mcn tu ti mi.

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    Su l Bt hoi tng, l ni bc La-hn m cn c chm chap, tuy gp phinhn duyn tr ngi, nhng vn gi c khng thi lui.

    By l Hu gii thot, l ni bc La-hn chng c Dit tn nh; bc ny c chn tr v lu, gii thot cc phin no, m cha ly c schng ngi v cnh thin nh, cho nn ch gi l hu gii thot.

    Tm l Cu gii thot, l ni bc La-hn gii thot c c hu chngv nh chng, ngha l khng cn b tr hu hay thin nh lm chngngi na.

    Chn l Bt thi tng, l ni bc La-hn c cn c lanh li, bao nhiu cngc tr hu tu tp u khng thi lui hay l tiu mt.

    LUT TN

    I.- DUYN KHI LP TN

    Tn ny dng lut lm ch cn c, cho nn gi l Lut tn. Khi Phtcn i, nhn gp cc vic m ch ra cc gii lut, ty thi c m thuytphp khng nht nh. Sau khi Pht Nit-bn, ngi u-ba-ly kit tp, lnphp ta c tng n 80 ln, nn gi l Bt thp tng lut ; y l knguyn u tin v Lut tng. Sau hn 100 nm, nhn s chia r v cc

    b phi ca Tiu tha, nn lut cng ln lt chia ra lm hai b phi, cho

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    n hai mi b phi. Hai b phi l: B Thng ta v b i chng.Nm b phi l :

    1.- B Tt-b-a, tc l b lut Thp tng ;2.- B m-v-c, tc l b lut T phn ;3.- B i chng tc la b lut Tng k ;4.- B Di-sa-tc, tc l b lut Ng phn;5.- B Ca-dip-di, tc l b lut Gii thot.

    Trong 5 b y, Trung Hoa ch phin dch v truyn b bn b trc mthi; n nh b Ca-dip-di thi ch truyn nhng iu cn bn v gii, chcha truyn nhng l ngha rng ca Pht. i ng ngi Tri Th lut sch gii nm b lut, hc tr ca ngi l ngi o Tuyn lut s Chung

    Nam Sn, cho b Lut t phn l thch hip vi cn c ngi Trung Hoa,

    nn chuyn mn y theo b lut y m thuyt minh gii th v lp hnhtng; ngoi ra, li c ngi Php L v Hu tng b, ngi Hoi T ngPhp, i tr vi ngi Chung Nam Sn, gi l ba tn phi v T phn lut;nhng ch lut tn ca ngi Chung Nam Sn l thnh hnh hn ht, vtruyn b cn n by gi, v n dung ha c i tha v Tiu tha, giihnh cn nhau vy.

    II.- CH TR V TC TR

    Tn ny gii r gii c hai loi l: ch tr v tc tr. Ch tr l v

    phng din ngn b iu d. Tc tr l v phng din lm cc iu lnh;ch tr v tc tr l thu nhip ht thy gii php. Trong Lut t phn, hai bgii bn trc l ch tr, cn mt phn sau l thuyt minh 20 kin thucv tc tr. Hai b gii bn tc l Tng b v Ni b. Tng b tc l nhnggii lut ca thy T-kheo; Ni b tc l nhng gii lut ca cc T-kheo-ni.

    Nhng gii lut ca hai bc y, cng gi l C-tc gii. Gii lut ca ccbc T-kheo c 250 gii, T-kheo-ni c 341 gii, thm by iu dit trnhna thi thnh ra 348 gii. Kin dch ngha l b phn hay l phm(phm loi), hoc l t, c thy c 20 : 1.- Th gii kin ; 2.- Thuyt giikin ... cho n kin th 20 l Tp kin . Tp ngha l ni chung cc

    php trong s gi gii lut vy. Nhng trong tc c ch, trong ch ctc, thng tng thng vi nhau, h tr ln nhau, khng th thin b bnno; li ch tr v tc tr c tng, bit khc nhau, tng thi cc iu lnh uthuc v hai mn tr : ch tr v tc tr; m bit thi ch ni ring v gii lutgii by tng iu sai khc.

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    III.- C TC GII

    Gii cm ca Tng Ni u c ba tng lp: gii cm v bn Tng nuni rng ra th v lng, nh ly v bc trung th c 3.000 oai nghi, 60.000t hnh; cn nh ni s lc thi c 250 gii. Gii cm bn Ni cng vy,nu ni rng ra th cng v lng, nh ly v bc trung m ni thi 80.000oai nghi, 120.000 t hnh, cn ni s lc thi 348 gii. Ngi o Tuynlut s ni rng : c cnh m gii by gii tng, thi l v lng, naych dng 250 gii lm ci ging mi cho s tr, phm thi. Gii cm cacc Ni c cng vy. Cho nn Tng, Ni hai bn sau khi th gii C-tc, uc khng lng khng ngn Gii hnh, lng snh nh h khng, cnhkhp php gii, thy u y cho nn gi l C-tc gii; n nh 5 gii,8 gii, 10 gii v 6 php v.v... u l trong gii C-tc m la ra nhngiu thit yu ty theo cn c v hon cnh ca mi ngi, khin cho h

    nng theo m ln n C-tc gii vy.

    IV.- BY CHNG

    Nm gii l gii ca nhng ngi tu ti gia - u-b-tc (thin nam),u-b-di (tn n), hai chng Tm gii (tc l bt trai gii, cng gi l btquan trai), l hai chng ti gia th gii xut gia trong mt ngy mt m gieo ci ging chnh nhn v xut th. Mi gii l gii lut ca cc bcSa-di. Su php l php lut ca cc tr thiu nam thiu n nhp o hc

    php, thng thng gi l Tht-xoa-ma-na. Ni tm li th ngi tr gii,

    i khi chia lm bn bc: Nm gii, tm gii, mi gii, v C-tc gii,thm su php vo thi thnh ra nm bc, cng gi la nm loi; by chngtrong Pht gio l y theo m kin lp. By chng l : T-kheo, T-kheo-ni, Tht-xoa-ma-na, Sa-di va Sa-di-ni, l nm chng xut gia ; u-b-tc,u-b-di hai chng ti gia, hip li gi l by chng trong Pht php.

    V.- NM GII V TM GII

    Gii cm v Lut tng rt nhiu, nay ch thut nm gii v tm giiv hai chng ti gia hu cho ngi thy qua mt cht. Nm gii : 1.- Khngst sanh, 2.- Khng trm cp, 3.- Khng t dm, 4.- Khng ni di, 5.-Khng ung ru. Bn iu trc l t tnh ti, gi l tnh gii, ngha lkhng lun ngi ti gia hay xut gia, h phm cc iu y, quyt phi savo ng ti c ; cn mt gii sau l thuc v iu ngn nga, cho nngi l gi ti. Tm gii : Nm gii u cng vi nm gii ni trn kia gingnhau, chng qua i t dm l bt dm, 6.- Khng c p du thm hay

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    l son phn, 7.- Khng i coi ht nghe ca, 8.- Khng ng ngi gingcao tt p, 9.- Khng c n phi thi. Tm gii trc chnh l gii lut,cn iu th chin khng c n phi thi (qu ng khng dng ba), chngqua l iu rn ph thuc, khng phi thi gi l trai, cho nn gi l bt traigii, li gi l bt quan trai, ngha l tr cm c tm tI lI, khng bhy phm, cng hay ng cht ca ti c vy.

    VI.- BN KHOA

    Gii cm chia ra lm bn khoa : 1.- Gii php, tc l gii lut caPht ch ra, nh khng git hi, khng trm cp v.v...; 2.- Gii th, ngha lkhi ngi th gii, trong tm gi c ci th tnh cng nng ngn iuquay b iu d ; 3.- Gii hnh, ngha l ht thy hnh vi u thun theo cicng nng gi gii trong tm nim mnh m hin ra ni thn, khu, ba

    nghip, mi mi u khng tri php ; 4.- Gii tng, ngha l ni ngi trgii thng biu l ra ni s tng, c khun php, oai nghi, khin ngitrng thy u bit l ngi tr gii vy.

    VII.- HA GIO V CH GIO

    Tn ny gi rng Pht c ha gio v ch gio: Ha gio ngha ldng gio l m ha chng sinh, tc l nhng php mn v nh, hu,nh trong cc kinh lun ni. Cn ch gio ngha l Pht dng li rn cm, ngn nga nhng iu quay ca cc t, tc l php mn gii hc nh

    trong lut tng ni - Php Tam v lu hc (gii, nh, hu) cng dnggii cm lm u, v rng gii hnh trong sch, thi nh v hu mi thnhlp, dt tr phin no, chng o i B-.

    VIII.- VIN DUNG TAM HC

    i tha v Tiu tha u c gii, nh, hu, thng thng gi lphp tam hc. Tn ny gi l i tha vin dung tam hc: v gii php tcl tam t tnh gii: gii th thi dng tng thc chng t lm th: cn giihnh tc l hnh mu nhim v nh hu: gii tng tc l vn dng c ch

    v qun. Ch l lm ci th tng ch tm thin nh, qun l lm ci cngdnh cho tr hu, nn gii tc l nh hu, khng mt php no l khng

    phi nh hu. nh, hu tc l gii, khng mt php no l khng phi giicm; cho nn gi l vin dung c php tam hc vy.

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    IX.- TAM T TNH GII

    Tam t tnh gii :

    1.- Nhip lut nghi gii : ngha l cc iu d thy u dt b.

    2.- Nhip thin php gii : ngha l cc iu lnh thy u vui theo m lm.

    3.- Nhip chng sinh gii : ngha l i vi ht thy chng sinh u lngt bi t , lm s b th li ch. Ni rng tam t cng nh ni tam loi (baloi), ba loi ny thng dng cng nhau nh gii cm khng c git hi l c ba loi, v khng git loi sanh mng, tc l nhip lut nghi gii, nhn m lng lnh ngy cng thm ln, y l nhip thin php gii; em lngt bi khng git hi, li ch cho chng sinh, tc l nhip chng sinh gii.Cc gii cm khc cng vy, ty khi gi mt gii m ba gii u , tuy lmmt vic m rng khp mun vic, vin dung khng cn ch chng ngi.

    Nhip lut nghi gii li chia ra lm ba loi l bit gii thot gii, nhcng gii v o cng gii.

    1.- Bit gii thot gii, nh l nm gii, tm gii, mi gii v ctc gii v.v... Nhn khi tc php (khi i trc Pht, trc cc v Hathng m th gii) m gi ng gii, mi mi u c ci cng nng ngn

    nga iu quy ni thn, khu, m mi mi u c gii thot, nn gi lbit gii thot gii.

    2.- nh cng gii, l trong khi tu tp thin nh, t ng v tc giith khng tm tr gii m vn khng phm gii cng vi nh tng ng,cho nn gi l nh cng gii.

    3.- o cng gii, l khi chng c o v lu thi c xa lanhng iu ti c ni thn, khu, m c gii th v tc ; gii th y cngvi o ng sanh, cho nn gi l o cng gii.

    Trong bit gii thot gii thi c cc gii cm gi v thn, khu,; hai gii cm v thn, khu, c cng v bt cng khc nhau; cn gii cmv nghip thi thuc v bt cng. Cng l ni cc gii cm y thng c

    bc Thanh vn v B-tt u phi gi. Bt cng l ni gi cm v nghipch bc B-tt gi m thi; cho nn gii cm ca bc Thanh vn l ch cmt phn chung thuc v thn, khu. Trong T phn lut ni: Gii tng

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    cng thuc v ngha cng; duy c ngi o Tuyn lut s ch trng tphn lut cng c mt phn thng v gii cm ca nghip, nn tn nydng ngha gii cm chung c Tiu tha v i tha m nhp vo trongTam t tnh gii, em v i tha; y l dng chung gii hnh ca Tiu thaem lm tam t vin n i tha, ch khng phi ngoi Tiu tha m chnh tng khc, trn mt php vin n, y l yu ch ca Nam sn Luttn.

    PHP TNG TN

    I.- DUYN KHI LP TN

    Tn ny phn bit tnh, tng cc php trong v tr, nn gi l Phptng tn, gi vn tt l Tng tn; v tn ny ch trng mun php u dothc bin, nn cng gi l Duy thc tn. c Di Lc B-tt ng theo lithnh cu ca ngi V Trc, ni lun Du--s-a, ngi V Trc lilm ra lun : Hin dng Thnh gio v lun Nhip i tha. Duythc Tam thp tng, Duy thc Nh thp tng v.v... y l ngun gc phtkhi ra tn ny. Tn ny n gi l Du-gi tn; I ng ngi HuynTrang du hc nc n , hc lun Du-gi vi ngi Gii Hin lun s, khiv t Trng An, truyn li cho t l ngi Quy C; ngi Quy C lm BThnh duy thc lun thut k v my b trng yu khc, gii r lngha v Tng tn, v thnh hnh truyn b.

    II.- NHNG KINH IN Y C CA TN NY

    Nhng kinh in ca Php tng tn nng theo m thnh lp c 6kinh v 11 lun. 6 kinh l: Kinh Hoa Nghim, kinh Gii thm mt, kinh

    Nh Lai xut hin cng c trang nghim, kinh A-t-t-ma, kinh Lng-giv kinh Hu Nghim (tc l kinh Mt Nghim). 11 lun l: lun Du-gi sa, lun Hin dng thnh gio, lun i tha, lun Trang nghim, lunTp lng, lun Nhip i tha, lun Thp a kinh, lun Phn bit Du-gi,lun Qun s duyn duyn, lun Duy thc Nh thp tng, lun Bin trung

    bin v Tp lun. Trong 6 kinh thi kinh Nh Lai xut hin v kinh A-t-

    t-ma cha truyn dch ra vn Trung Hoa, kinh Hu Nghim tc l ngmt bn vi kinh Mt Nghim. Trong 11 lun th b Phn bit Du-gi cngcha dch.

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    III.- 100 PHP

    Tn ny i vi vn v tr v hin tng tm l ca nhn sanhcng cc loi hu tnh, lp ra nm loi cng thnh 100 php thuytminh ; nay lm bn k nh di y : (S trang 104, ca sch)

    Tm php : Tn ny gi rng ngoi tm ra khng mt php g thnhlp c, sc php chng qua l ci gi php trong tm hin ra thi, chonn tm php lm u, khng ng vi tn Cu-x ni rng ngoi tm ratht c sc php, tm v tm s nng theo sc php m pht khi ra. Trongtm php tm vng, ngoi su thc nh Cu-x tn, tn ny lp thm Mt-na l thc th by v A-li-da l thc th tm, lm thnh tm thc. TingPhn gi l Mt-na (Manas), Trung Hoa dch l , ngha l suy ngh hayso lng. Mt-na lm ci gc cho thc th 6 ( thc), trong thng duyn

    A-li-da thc m chp ng, chp php, ci tnh chp ng chp php y l cicn bn lm cho ht thy chng sinh phi b lun hi sanh t. Ting Phngi l A-li-da (alaya), Trung Hoa dch l Tng thc. Ch tng l cha hay trm cha, ngha l ni thc y trm cha nhng chng t (cng nnghay l ht ging) cc php trong v tr, cho nn gi l tng thc. Ni r thich tng c ba ngha: Nng tng, s tng v chp tng: 1. Nng tng: nghal hay trm cha chng t ca cc php, tc chng t l s tng, m thcth l nng tng. 2. S tng, ngha l thc th tm do by thc trc, thngthng hun tp chng t ca cc php, v n b hun tp cho nn gi n ls tng. 3. Chp tng, ngha l ni thc th tm b thc th by chp lm

    thit ng v thit php, ly ngha b chp tr (gi gn), cho nn gi thc thtm l chp tng.

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    Tm s php : Tm s php chia ra 6 loi :

    1.- Bin hnh tm s, ngha l trong cc tm vng, tm s ny thy utng ng c c, cho nn gi bin hnh.

    2.- Bit cnh tm s, ngha l cc tm s ny u duyn mi mi cnh khcnhau, nh dc tm s l duyn ci cnh m khi mnh a mun, hu tm s lduyn ci cnh m khi mnh quan st, ch khng phi nh bin hnh h mt

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    khi mng ln th nhiu tm s trong bin hnh ng thi sanh khi, ngduyn mt cnh. Hai loi k trn cng l 10 loi tm s, tc l Thp di i

    php bn Cu-x tn.

    3.- Thin tm s, ngha l ni tm s ny ch c tng ng vi tm lnh, vch pht sanh trong khi lm lnh m thi, tc l i thin a php bn Cu-x tn, chng qua Cu-x tn em v si m nhip vo hu tm s, cho nn chc 10 php, tn ny thm v si vo thnh ra 11 php. Trong ny c 1 tm sgi l hnh x, l ni s x ca hnh un trong 5 un, ch khng ni v sx ca th un; v x c 2 loi : s x v th un, l ch trong khi tm mnhlnh np nhng cnh trung bnh khng tri khng thun, xa la s vui kh,gi l x th, cng gi l bt kh bt lc th ; nay y l ch ci tnh xa lati tm lay ng ca cc tm nim thuc v hnh un, cho nn gi l hnhx.

    4.- Phin no tm s, ngha l hay khin chng sinh phin no ri lon. Sutm s ny lm ci ci gc cho cc phin no khc, hay sanh ra cc iu mlm cho nn gi l ty min. Trong ny v c kin li chia ra lm nm : a.-Tt-ca-da kin (Thn kin), b.- Bin chp kin, c.- T kin, d.- Kin th, e.-Gii cm th. Nm iu ny cng vi nm iu trc, gi l thp hoc (10iu m lm), tc l 10 iu ty min bn Cu-x tn. 75 php bn Cu-xdng c kin cho l c tc dng ca hu tm s, cho nn khng cn phi lpring nh tn ny.

    5.- Ty phin no tm s, cng gi l ty hoc, ngha l ty cn bn phinno m khi ra, 20 tm s ny chia ra lm ba loi: t phn hn cho n tt, ch pht khi ca 10 iu y mi mi ring nhau, nn cng gi l tiuty phin no, tc l tiu phin no a php bn Cu-x; v tm, v qu haitm s y, l khp c cc tm nim khng lnh, gi l trung phin no, tc li phin no a php bn Cu-x; bt tn, gii i... tm iu y khp c ccnhim tm, gi l i ty phin no, cng vi i ty phin no bn Cu-xging nhau, chng qua tn y tr iu c, tht nim, tn lon, bt chnh trira, m thm v minh vo (v minh tc l si) gi l su phin no ln. Trong

    y ni rng tht nim, ngha l i cnh m khng c tnh ghi nh, hay trngi n chnh nim, lm cho tm tn lon nhn m mng ln. Tn lonngha l hay khin tm mnh bung lung, hay tr ngi ch chnh nh v lmch y c cho c hu. Bt chnh tri ngha l s hiu bit sai lm i vi cnhmnh nghe thy, n hay tr ngi s hay bit chn chnh.

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    6.- Bt nh tm s ngha l n khng nht nh thin hay c, nh cc loitrn, nn gi l bt nh.

    Sp php : Sc php c 11, cng vi Cu-x ging nhau, chng qua li ci danh t v biu sc gi l php x s nhip sc y thi. Php x lmt b phn trong thp nh x, l ch v ci cnh i tng ca cn mni, v sc y - v biu sc - vn thuc php x, cho nn gi l php th snhip sc. Sc php ny li chia ra lm nm loi : cc lc, cc honh, ths dn, nh s sanh, v bin k s khi.

    1.- Cc lc sc, ngha l phn tch ci thit sc ca nm cn v kh gii (svt) cho n khi khng th phn tch c na, khi y trong tr qun tngca mnh hin ra nhng tng cc vi phn t ry nh, cho nn gi l cclc sc. Cu-x tn gi cc vi y l thit sc, tn ny ch cho l gi sc.

    2.- Cc honh sc, ngha l ni khi phn tch cc nh sng m nhn r tngcng nng hot ng ca cc in lc.

    3.- Th s dn sc, ngha l ni nhn khi mnh th gii m sanh khi ra cccng nng b d lm lnh, tc bn Cu-x gi l v biu sc, tn ny gi ls tc dng ring ca t tm s, mi gi l sc...

    4.- nh s sanh sc, l ni sc tng do sc thin nh m bin hin ra cangi tu hnh khi thc th su tng ng vi cnh thin nh.

    5.- Bin k s khi sc, l ni ci sc gi di do s phn bit sai lm cathc th su m hin ra nh long ra v hoa m v.v...

    Bt tng ng hnh php : Loi ny c 24 php : 14 php trccng vi Cu-x ging nhau, ch i ci danh t phi sc lm d sanh tnh thi; d sanh ngha l ni k phm phu khng chng c thnh o, l vchng t phin no khin phi xoay vn trong lc o, u thai vo cc loi,u y vo ci cng nng chng t y, nn gi l d sanh tnh; li bn Cu-xv s