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Nov 08, 2014

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A Routing-Driven Public-Key Cryptosystem Based Key Management Scheme for A Sensor Network

INTRODUCTION1.1 Purpose of the project:This project proposes a novel routing-driven RSA algorithm based key management scheme for a sensor network. This establishes shared keys only for those neighboring sensors that communicate with each other rather establishing shared keys for all pairs of neighboring sensors .This project also proposed how user authentication and session key verification can be done in a single step process at the receiving end.

1.2 Motivation:As the wireless technologies has become the need of an hour, Securing sensor networks has received much attention in the last few years and as so many research works are going on in order to achieve stronger security and to reduce overhead to the maximum possible extent on wireless networks created a strong interest in me to do some work concerning security issues on wireless sensor networks.

1.3 Existing Techniques: Previous research on sensor network security mainly considers homogeneous sensor networks [1],[2]and [4], where all sensor nodes have the same capabilities. An Existing key management schemes require a large storage space for key predistribution [4] and are not suitable for small sensor nodes. Most existing key management schemes try to establish shared keys for all pairs of neighbor sensors, no matter whether these nodes communicate with each other or not, and this causes large overhead.

Dept. of P.G Studies,VTU Belgaum

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A Routing-Driven Public-Key Cryptosystem Based Key Management Scheme for A Sensor Network Sensor key management schemes are designed to set up shared keys for all pairs of neighbor sensors, without considering the actual communication pattern.

1.3.1 Disadvantage of an existing system: Homogeneous ad hoc networks have poor performance and scalability. It needs a large storage space [4].

1.4 Related Work:Many key management schemes have been investigated in literatures. Random key predistribution scheme [1] was first proposed by Eschenauer and Gligor. The basic idea of their scheme was randomly selecting a subset of communication keys from a very large size key pool, and storing into each sensors memory before deployment. Chan et al presented q-composite scheme[21] which required two neighbor nodes share at least q (q>1) common keys to establish a secure link. Du et al. and Liu et al extended the basic random key pre-distribution scheme to pair wise key pre-distribution scheme. In their scheme[21], the resilience against node capture was significantly improved. Liu et al. presented pair-wise key establishment scheme using pre-deployment knowledge and Rabins scheme to achieve high degree of connectivity and strong resilience against nodes capture [22]. In this, an effective pair-wise key establishment scheme was implemented based on Rabins scheme without the knowledge of predeployment. He proposed a framework for key management schemes in distributed wireless sensor networks with heterogeneous sensor nodes.

Dept. of P.G Studies,VTU Belgaum

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A Routing-Driven Public-Key Cryptosystem Based Key Management Scheme for A Sensor Network

1.5 Proposed Work: The proposed key management scheme is implemented in a sensor network (SN) model for better performance and security. A public key algorithmRSA is used to further improve the key management scheme.

This project proposed a routing-driven key management scheme, which establishes shared keys only for those neighboring sensors that communicate with each other by using RSA public-key algorithm along with Quantum Key Distribution Protocols (QKDPs).

Dept. of P.G Studies,VTU Belgaum

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A Routing-Driven Public-Key Cryptosystem Based Key Management Scheme for A Sensor Network

LITERATURE SURVEYThe following works were carried out by specific persons in the area of wireless sensor networks: L. Eschenauer and V.D.Gligor, A key management scheme for distributed sensor networks-(2002) In this paper, a Dynamic Combinatorial Key management scheme(DCK) was implemented to provide efficient, scalable, and survivable dynamic keying in a clustered sensor network with a large number of sensor nodes[1]. DCK employs the ExclusionBasis Systems (EBS) as the underlying framework for key management at both the cluster and the sensor node levels. DCK enhances network security by localizing cluster key management functions, thus limiting the impact of sensor node capture to the attacked cluster.DCK is efficient in terms of energy consumption and storage. Also, it significantly outperforms other dynamic keying schemes, in particular with regards to energy consumed in key refreshment and re-keying after node capture. Drawbacks: This model includes regarding clustered (homogeneous) networks only. And also using of DCK limits the impact of sensor nodes to the attacked cluster but not completely eliminated. H. Chan, A. Perrig, and D. Song , Random key pre-distribution schemes for sensor networks-(2003) They presented three new mechanisms for key establishment using the framework of predistributing a random set of keys to each node because asymmetric key cryptosystems are unsuitable for use in resource constrained sensor nodes and the nodes could be physically compromised by an adversary [2]. First, in the q-composite keys scheme, they trade off the unlikeliest of a large-scale network attack in order to significantly strengthen random key pre-distribution's strength against smaller-scale attacks. Second, in the multipathreinforcement scheme, they showed how to strengthen the security between any two nodes by leveraging the security of other links. Finally, the random-pair wise keysDept. of P.G Studies,VTU Belgaum Page 4

A Routing-Driven Public-Key Cryptosystem Based Key Management Scheme for A Sensor Networkscheme, which perfectly preserves the secrecy of the rest of the network when any node is captured, and also enables node-to-node authentication. Drawbacks: This model only suits well for homogeneous sensor networks and unsuitable for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks where the sensors will have different capabilities.

David J. Malan, Toward PKI for Sensor Networks-(2004) He made implementations on the evaluation of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) with 163-bit keys, which ultimately reduce space for distribution of keys[3]. Drawbacks: Here, as this method depends on curves, the computation of product modulo is very difficult. Arjan Durresi, Vijay Bulusu, Vamsi Paruchuri, Mimoza Durresi, Raj Jain, Key Distribution in Mobile Heterogeneous Sensor Networks-(2006) In this paper, two schemes were proposed namely; key pre-distribution using separate key pool and key pre-distribution using segmented key pool. They allow the mobile nodes to interact with the stationary nodes of different networks [4]. In key predistribution with separate key pool, a separate key pool was used to connect the mobile nodes to the stationary nodes. In key pre-distribution with segmented key pools, a large key pool was divided into disjoint segments and each of these segments was assigned to a different sensor network. Drawbacks: As this method requires generation of more keys for the purpose of predistribution, there is wastage of more space and energy for pre-distribution of key polls among different networks. Jeremy Brown, Xiaojiang Du, Kendall Nygard, An Efficient Public-Key-Based Heterogeneous Sensor Network Key Distribution Scheme-(2007)

Dept. of P.G Studies,VTU Belgaum

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A Routing-Driven Public-Key Cryptosystem Based Key Management Scheme for A Sensor NetworkAn idea of key-distribution scheme for a heterogeneous sensor network was described in this paper. The scheme can guarantee that arbitrary nodes will be able to connect with each other, and all messages are cryptographically secure. This scheme provides facilities for in-network processing, which will help in optimizing usage of sensor resources [5]. Compromised nodes do not affect other parts of the sensor network. All of the damage is localized to the nodes immediate neighbors, and provided that the compromise is detected, the security breach was fairly stopped. Drawbacks: Public-key-Based key management scheme doesnt guarantees the detection of presence of any third party (eavesdroppers).

Yong Ma, Siddharth Dala1, Majd Alwan, James Aylor, ROP: A Resource Oriented Protocol for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks-(2007) They described a network model that was adaptively formed according to the resources of its members. A protocol named Resource Oriented Protocol (ROP) was developed to create the network model [6]. This protocol entails two phases: topology formation and topology update. In the first topology formation phase, sensors report their characteristics of available resources, and then local cluster heads aggregate these reports and send to sensors with largest resource capacity (LRC). After this step, based on the reports, LRCs decide the topology and appoint cluster heads from top to bottom levels. In the topology update phase, sensors maintain their route cache reactively. They also pointed ROP that energy efficiency cannot always result in longer system lifetime especially in heterogeneous networks. Instead, balancing resources among sensors and saving energy for those more resource-constrained sensors are greatly helpful in lengthening the overall system lifetime architecture. The targeted areas of applications include tele-health applications, health care facilities and other care settings, in addition to more secure automation applications.

Dept. of P.G Studies,VTU Belgaum

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A Routing-Driven Public-Key Cryptosystem Based Key Management Scheme for A Sensor NetworkDrawbacks: Here, the simulation, emulation and deployment process of the p