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A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus Chemistry – Standard Level
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Page 1: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry

to the

International Baccalaureate Syllabus Chemistry – Standard Level

Page 2: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

2 SE = Student Edition

Table of Contents Topic 1: Stoichiometric relationships ................................................................................................. 3 

Topic 2: Atomic structure .................................................................................................................... 6 

Topic 3: Periodicity ............................................................................................................................... 8 

Topic 4: Chemical bonding and structure ........................................................................................ 10 

Topic 5: Energetics/thermochemistry .............................................................................................. 13 

Topic 6: Chemical kinetics ................................................................................................................. 16 

Topic 7: Equilibrium ........................................................................................................................... 17 

Topic 8: Acids and bases .................................................................................................................... 18 

Topic 9: Redox processes ................................................................................................................... 21 

Topic 10: Organic chemistry .............................................................................................................. 23 

Topic 11: Measurement and data processing .................................................................................. 27 

Option A: Materials ............................................................................................................................ 30 

Option B: Biochemistry...................................................................................................................... 38 

Option C: Energy ................................................................................................................................. 44 

Option D: Medicinal chemistry ......................................................................................................... 49 

Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

Page 3: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

3 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

Topic 1: Stoichiometric relationships 1.1 Introduction to the particulate nature of matter and chemical change Essential idea: Physical and chemical properties depend on the ways in which different atoms combine. Understandings: U1 • Atoms of different elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds, which have different properties from their component elements.

SE: 5-6

U2 • Mixtures contain more than one element and/or compound that are not chemically bonded together and so retain their individual properties.

SE: 8-9

U3 • Mixtures are either homogeneous or heterogeneous.

SE: 9

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of chemical equations when reactants and products are specified.

SE: 6-8

A2 • Application of the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) in equations.

SE: 9-10, 52-53

A3 • Explanation of observable changes in physical properties and temperature during changes of state.

SE: 11-14

Guidance: G1 • Balancing of equations should include a variety of types of reactions.

SE: 6-7, 11, 52-53

G2 • Names of the changes of state—melting, freezing, vaporization (evaporation and boiling), condensation, sublimation and deposition—should be covered.

SE: 11-13

G3 • The term “latent heat” is not required. G4 • Names and symbols of elements are in the data booklet in section 5.

SE: 5

1.2 The mole concept Essential idea: The mole makes it possible to correlate the number of particles with the mass that can be measured. Understandings: U1 • The mole is a fixed number of particles and refers to the amount, n, of substance.

SE: 15-16

U2 • Masses of atoms are compared on a scale relative to 12C and are expressed as relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative formula/molecular mass (Mr).

SE: 17-18

Page 4: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

4 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

U3 • Molar mass (M) has the units g mol-1. SE: 19-20 U4 • The empirical formula and molecular formula of a compound give the simplest ratio and the actual number of atoms present in a molecule respectively.

SE: 21-23, 25

Applications and skills: A1 • Calculation of the molar masses of atoms, ions, molecules and formula units.

SE: 19-21, 52-53

A2 • Solution of problems involving the relationships between the number of particles, the amount of substance in moles and the mass in grams.

SE: 16-17, 20, 52-53

A3 • Interconversion of the percentage composition by mass and the empirical formula.

SE: 23-25, 54-55

A4 • Determination of the molecular formula of a compound from its empirical formula and molar mass.

SE: 25-26, 54-55

A5 • Obtaining and using experimental data for deriving empirical formulas from reactions involving mass changes.

SE: 21-22, 26, 54-55

Guidance: G1 • The value of the Avogadro’s constant (L or NA) is given in the data booklet in section 2 and will be given for paper 1 questions.

SE: 15-16

G2 • The generally used unit of molar mass (g mol-1) is a derived SI unit.

SE: 19

1.3 Reacting masses and volumes Essential idea: Mole ratios in chemical equations can be used to calculate reacting ratios by mass and gas volume. Understandings: U1 • Reactants can be either limiting or excess.

SE: 30

U2 • The experimental yield can be different from the theoretical yield.

SE: 30-32

U3 • Avogadro’s law enables the mole ratio of reacting gases to be determined from volumes of the gases.

SE: 33-34

U4 • The molar volume of an ideal gas is a constant at specified temperature and pressure.

SE: 34-36

U5 • The molar concentration of a solution is determined by the amount of solute and the volume of solution.

SE: 46

Page 5: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

5 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

U6 • A standard solution is one of known concentration.

SE: 47

Applications and skills: A1 • Solution of problems relating to reacting quantities, limiting and excess reactants, theoretical, experimental and percentage yields.

SE: 29-32, 54-55

A2 • Calculation of reacting volumes of gases using Avogadro’s law.

SE: 33-34, 54-55

A3 • Solution of problems and analysis of graphs involving the relationship between temperature, pressure and volume for a fixed mass of an ideal gas.

SE: 36-40, 54

A4 • Solution of problems relating to the ideal gas equation.

SE: 41-42, 54-55

A5 • Explanation of the deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour at low temperature and high pressure.

SE: 44-45

A6 • Obtaining and using experimental values to calculate the molar mass of a gas from the ideal gas equation.

SE: 43, 54-55

A7 • Solution of problems involving molar concentration, amount of solute and volume of solution.

SE: 47, 52-55

A8 • Use of the experimental method of titration to calculate the concentration of a solution by reference to a standard solution.

SE: 49-51, 53-55

Guidance: G1 • Values for the molar volume of an ideal gas are given in the data booklet in section 2.

SE: 35-36

G2 • The ideal gas equation, PV = nRT, and the value of the gas constant (R) are given in the data booklet in sections 1 and 2.

SE: 41

G3 • Units of concentration to include: g dm-3, mol dm-3 and parts per million (ppm).

SE: 46-48

G4 • The use of square brackets to denote molar concentration is required.

SE: 46

Page 6: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

6 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

Topic 2: Atomic structure 2.1 The nuclear atom Essential idea: The mass of an atom is concentrated in its minute, positively charged nucleus. Understandings: U1 • Atoms contain a positively charged dense nucleus composed of protons and neutrons (nucleons).

SE: 61

U2 • Negatively charged electrons occupy the space outside the nucleus.

SE: 60-61

U3 • The mass spectrometer is used to determine the relative atomic mass of an element from its isotopic composition.

SE: 66-67

Applications and skills: A1 • Use of the nuclear symbol notation AZX to deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions.

SE: 62-65

A2 • Calculations involving non-integer relative atomic masses and abundance of isotopes from given data, including mass spectra.

SE: 67-68, 85-86

Guidance: G1 • Relative masses and charges of the subatomic particles should be known, actual values are given in section 4 of the data booklet. The mass of the electron can be considered negligible.

SE: 61

G2 • Specific examples of isotopes need not be learned. G3 • The operation of the mass spectrometer is not required. 2.2 Electron configuration Essential idea: The electron configuration of an atom can be deduced from its atomic number. Understandings: U1 • Emission spectra are produced when photons are emitted from atoms as excited electrons return to a lower energy level.

SE: 71-72

U2 • The line emission spectrum of hydrogen provides evidence for the existence of electrons in discrete energy levels, which converge at higher energies.

SE: 73

U3 • The main energy level or shell is given an integer number, n, and can hold a maximum number of electrons, 2n2.

SE: 78-80

Page 7: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

7 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

U4 • A more detailed model of the atom describes the division of the main energy level into s, p, d and f sub-levels of successively higher energies.

SE: 76-79

U5 • Sub-levels contain a fixed number of orbitals, regions of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron.

SE: 76-78

U6 • Each orbital has a defined energy state for a given electronic configuration and chemical environment and can hold two electrons of opposite spin.

SE: 78-80

Applications and skills: A1 • Description of the relationship between colour, wavelength, frequency and energy across the electromagnetic spectrum.

SE: 69-71, 85-86

A2 • Distinction between a continuous spectrum and a line spectrum.

SE: 70-71

A3 • Description of the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom, including the relationships between the lines and energy transitions to the first, second and third energy levels.

SE: 73, 85-86

A4 • Recognition of the shape of an s atomic orbital and the px, py and pz atomic orbitals.

SE: 76-78

A5 • Application of the Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule and the Pauli exclusion principle to write electron configurations for atoms and ions up to Z = 36.

SE: 79-84, 85-87

Guidance: G1 • Details of the electromagnetic spectrum are given in the data booklet in section 3.

SE: 71

G2 • The names of the different series in the hydrogen line emission spectrum are not required.

Page 8: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

8 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

G3 • Full electron configurations (eg 1s22s22p63s23p4) and condensed electron configurations (eg [Ne] 3s23p4) should be covered. Orbital diagrams should be used to represent the character and relative energy of orbitals. Orbital diagrams refer to arrow-in-box diagrams, such as the one given below.

1s 2s 2p

SE: 78-82, 87

G4 • The electron configurations of Cr and Cu as exceptions should be covered.

SE: 82

Topic 3: Periodicity 3.1 Periodic table Essential idea: The arrangement of elements in the periodic table helps to predict their electron configuration. Understandings: U1 • The periodic table is arranged into four blocks associated with the four sublevels— s, p, d, and f.

SE: 90-91

U2 • The periodic table consists of groups (vertical columns) and periods (horizontal rows).

SE: 90

U3 • The period number (n) is the outer energy level that is occupied by electrons.

SE: 90-91

U4 • The number of the principal energy level and the number of the valence electrons in an atom can be deduced from its position on the periodic table.

SE: 90-91

U5 • The periodic table shows the positions of metals, non-metals and metalloids.

SE: 92

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the electron configuration of an atom from the element’s position on the periodic table, and vice versa.

SE: 91, 111

Guidance: G1 • The terms alkali metals, halogens, noble gases, transition metals, lanthanoids and actinoids should be known.

SE: 92

G2 • The group numbering scheme from group 1 to group 18, as recommended by IUPAC, should be used.

SE: 90-91

Page 9: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

9 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

3.2 Periodic trends Essential idea: Elements show trends in their physical and chemical properties across periods and down groups. Understandings: U1 • Vertical and horizontal trends in the periodic table exist for atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegativity.

SE: 95-99

U2 • Trends in metallic and non-metallic behaviour are due to the trends above.

SE: 99

U3 • Oxides change from basic through amphoteric to acidic across a period.

SE: 109

Applications and skills: A1 • Prediction and explanation of the metallic and non-metallic behaviour of an element based on its position in the periodic table.

SE: 99, 103-105, 111

A2 • Discussion of the similarities and differences in the properties of elements in the same group, with reference to alkali metals (group 1) and halogens (group 17).

SE: 103-107, 111

A3 • Construction of equations to explain the pH changes for reactions of Na2O, MgO, P4O10, and the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur with water.

SE: 109, 111

Guidance: G1 • Only examples of general trends across periods and down groups are required. For ionization energy the discontinuities in the increase across a period should be covered.

SE: 95-99, 111

G2 • Group trends should include the treatment of the reactions of alkali metals with water, alkali metals with halogens and halogens with halide ions.

SE: 103-107

Page 10: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

10 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

Topic 4: Chemical bonding and structure 4.1 Ionic bonding and structure Essential idea: Ionic compounds consist of ions held together in lattice structures by ionic bonds. Understandings: U1 • Positive ions (cations) form by metals losing valence electrons.

SE: 115

U2 • Negative ions (anions) form by non-metals gaining electrons.

SE: 115

U3 • The number of electrons lost or gained is determined by the electron configuration of the atom.

SE: 115

U4 • The ionic bond is due to electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

SE: 117-118

U5 • Under normal conditions, ionic compounds are usually solids with lattice structures.

SE: 118-119

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the formula and name of an ionic compound from its component ions, including polyatomic ions.

SE: 117-118, 160

A2 • Explanation of the physical properties of ionic compounds (volatility, electrical conductivity and solubility) in terms of their structure.

SE: 119-120, 161-162

Guidance: G1 • Students should be familiar with the names of these polyatomic ions: NH4

+, OH-, NO3-, HCO3

-, CO32-, SO4

2- and PO43-.

SE: 116

4.2 Covalent bonding Essential idea: Covalent compounds form by the sharing of electrons. Understandings: U1 • A covalent bond is formed by the electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the positively charged nuclei.

SE: 123-124

U2 • Single, double and triple covalent bonds involve one, two and three shared pairs of electrons respectively.

SE: 124

U3 • Bond length decreases and bond strength increases as the number of shared electrons increases.

SE: 125

U4 • Bond polarity results from the difference in electronegativities of the bonded atoms.

SE: 126-128

Page 11: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

11 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the polar nature of a covalent bond from electronegativity values.

SE: 127, 160-161

Guidance: G1 • Bond polarity can be shown either with partial charges, dipoles or vectors.

SE: 126-128

G2 • Electronegativity values are given in the data booklet in section 8.

SE: 127

4.3 Covalent structures Essential idea: Lewis (electron dot) structures show the electron domains in the valence shell and are used to predict molecular shape. Understandings: U1 • Lewis (electron dot) structures show all the valence electrons in a covalently bonded species.

SE: 129-131

U2 • The “octet rule” refers to the tendency of atoms to gain a valence shell with a total of 8 electrons.

SE: 130

U3 • Some atoms, like Be and B, might form stable compounds with incomplete octets of electrons.

SE: 132

U4 • Resonance structures occur when there is more than one possible position for a double bond in a molecule.

SE: 139-141

U5 • Shapes of species are determined by the repulsion of electron pairs according to VSEPR theory.

SE: 134-137

U6 • Carbon and silicon form giant covalent/network covalent structures.

SE: 143-148

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of Lewis (electron dot) structure of molecules and ions showing all valence electrons for up to four electron pairs on each atom.

SE: 130-132, 161-162

A2 • The use of VSEPR theory to predict the electron domain geometry and the molecular geometry for species with two, three and four electron domains.

SE: 133-136, 161-163

A3 • Prediction of bond angles from molecular geometry and presence of nonbonding pairs of electrons.

SE: 134-136, 161-164

A4 • Prediction of molecular polarity from bond polarity and molecular geometry.

SE: 137-138, 160

Page 12: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

12 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

A5 • Deduction of resonance structures, examples include but are not limited to C6H6, CO3 2- and O3.

SE: 139-142, 163

A6 • Explanation of the properties of giant covalent compounds in terms of their structures.

SE: 143-148, 161

Guidance: G1 • The term “electron domain” should be used in place of “negative charge centre”.

SE: 133

G2 • Electron pairs in a Lewis (electron dot) structure can be shown as dots, crosses, a dash or any combination.

SE: 130

G3 • Allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, graphene, C60 buckminsterfullerene) and SiO2 should be covered.

SE: 143-148

G4 • Coordinate covalent bonds should be covered.

SE: 131-132

4.4 Intermolecular forces Essential idea: The physical properties of molecular substances result from different types of forces between their molecules. Understandings: U1 • Intermolecular forces include London (dispersion) forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding.

SE: 148-153

U2 • The relative strengths of these interactions are London (dispersion) forces < dipole-dipole forces < hydrogen bonds.

SE: 153

Applications and skills A1 • Deduction of the types of intermolecular force present in substances, based on their structure and chemical formula.

SE: 153-155, 160-162

A2 • Explanation of the physical properties of covalent compounds (volatility, electrical conductivity and solubility) in terms of their structure and intermolecular forces.

SE: 153-155, 160-162

Guidance: G1 • The term “London (dispersion) forces” refers to instantaneous induced dipole induced dipole forces that exist between any atoms or groups of atoms and should be used for non-polar entities. The term “van der Waals” is an inclusive term, which includes dipole–dipole, dipole-induced dipole and London (dispersion) forces.

SE: 149-151

Page 13: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

13 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

4.5 Metallic bonding Essential idea: Metallic bonds involve a lattice of cations with delocalized electrons. Understandings: U1 • A metallic bond is the electrostatic attraction between a lattice of positive ions and delocalized electrons.

SE: 156-157

U2 • The strength of a metallic bond depends on the charge of the ions and the radius of the metal ion.

SE: 157

U3 • Alloys usually contain more than one metal and have enhanced properties.

SE: 158-159

Applications and skills: A1 • Explanation of electrical conductivity and malleability in metals.

SE: 158, 162

A2 • Explanation of trends in melting points of metals.

SE: 157-158

A3 • Explanation of the properties of alloys in terms of non-directional bonding.

SE: 158

Guidance: G1 • Trends should be limited to s- and p-block elements.

SE: 157

G2 • Examples of various alloys should be covered.

SE: 159

Topic 5: Energetics/thermochemistry 5.1 Measuring energy changes Essential idea: The enthalpy changes from chemical reactions can be calculated from their effect on the temperature of their surroundings. Understandings: U1 • Heat is a form of energy. SE: 166 U2 • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles.

SE: 169

U3 • Total energy is conserved in chemical reactions.

SE: 166

U4 • Chemical reactions that involve transfer of heat between the system and the surroundings are described as endothermic or exothermic.

SE: 166-167

U5 • The enthalpy change (ΔH) for chemical reactions is indicated in kJ mol-1.

SE: 168

U6 • ΔH values are usually expressed under standard conditions, given by ΔH°, including standard states.

SE: 168

Page 14: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

14 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

Applications and skills: A1 • Calculation of the heat change when the temperature of a pure substance is changed using q = mcΔT.

SE: 169-171, 191-192

A2 • A calorimetry experiment for an enthalpy of reaction should be covered and the results evaluated.

SE: 172-174, 192-193

Guidance: G1 • Enthalpy changes of combustion (ΔHc °) and formation (ΔHf °) should be covered.

SE: 172-175, 182-183

G2 • Consider reactions in aqueous solution and combustion reactions.

SE: 172-174

G3 • Standard state refers to the normal, most pure stable state of a substance measured at 100 kPa. Temperature is not a part of the definition of standard state, but 298 K is commonly given as the temperature of interest.

SE: 168

G4 • The specific heat capacity of water is provided in the data booklet in section 2.

SE: 169

G5 • Students can assume the density and specific heat capacities of aqueous solutions are equal to those of water, but should be aware of this limitation.

SE: 169-170

G6 • Heat losses to the environment and the heat capacity of the calorimeter in experiments should be considered, but the use of a bomb calorimeter is not required.

SE: 176

5.2 Hess's Law Essential idea: In chemical transformations energy can neither be created nor destroyed (the first law of thermodynamics). Understandings: U1 • The enthalpy change for a reaction that is carried out in a series of steps is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps.

SE: 180-181

Applications and skills: A1 • Application of Hess’s Law to calculate enthalpy changes.

SE: 180-181, 192-195

A2 • Calculation of ΔH reactions using ΔHf°

data. SE: 182, 192-195

A3 • Determination of the enthalpy change of a reaction that is the sum of multiple reactions with known enthalpy changes.

SE: 179-180, 192-195

Page 15: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

15 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

Guidance: G1 • Enthalpy of formation data can be found in the data booklet in section 12.

SE: 182-184

G2 • An application of Hess's Law is ΔH reaction = Σ(ΔHf °products) – Σ(ΔHf

°reactants). SE: 183-184

5.3 Bond enthalpies Essential idea: Energy is absorbed when bonds are broken and is released when bonds are formed. Understandings: U1 • Bond-forming releases energy and bond-breaking requires energy.

SE: 185-186

U2 • Average bond enthalpy is the energy needed to break one mol of a bond in a gaseous molecule averaged over similar compounds.

SE: 185

Applications and skills: A1 • Calculation of the enthalpy changes from known bond enthalpy values and comparison of these to experimentally measured values.

SE: 186-188, 192-195

A2 • Sketching and evaluation of potential energy profiles in determining whether reactants or products are more stable and if the reaction is exothermic or endothermic.

SE: 186-187

A3 • Discussion of the bond strength in ozone relative to oxygen in its importance to the atmosphere.

SE: 189, 195

Guidance: G1 • Bond enthalpy values are given in the data booklet in section 11.

SE: 186

G2 • Average bond enthalpies are only valid for gases and calculations involving bond enthalpies may be inaccurate because they do not take into account intermolecular forces.

SE: 186, 188

Page 16: Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry · PDF fileA Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e ©2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry

16 SE = Student Edition

International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus

Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e

Topic 6: Chemical kinetics 6.1 Collision theory and rates of reaction Essential idea: The greater the probability that molecules will collide with sufficient energy and proper orientation, the higher the rate of reaction. Understandings: U1 • Species react as a result of collisions of sufficient energy and proper orientation.

SE: 205-207

U2 • The rate of reaction is expressed as the change in concentration of a particular reactant/product per unit time.

SE: 198-200

U3 • Concentration changes in a reaction can be followed indirectly by monitoring changes in mass, volume and colour.

SE: 200-203

U4 • Activation energy (Ea) is the minimum energy that colliding molecules need in order to have successful collisions leading to a reaction.

SE: 206-207

U5 • By decreasing Ea, a catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without itself being permanently chemically changed.

SE: 210-211

Applications and skills: A1 • Description of the kinetic theory in terms of the movement of particles whose average kinetic energy is proportional to temperature in Kelvin.

SE: 204-205

A2 • Analysis of graphical and numerical data from rate experiments.

SE: 199-200, 204, 212-215

A3 • Explanation of the effects of temperature, pressure/concentration and particle size on rate of reaction.

SE: 208-209, 212-215

A4 • Construction of Maxwell–Boltzmann energy distribution curves to account for the probability of successful collisions and factors affecting these, including the effect of a catalyst.

SE: 205, 215

A5 • Investigation of rates of reaction experimentally and evaluation of the results.

SE: 199-200, 214-215

A6 • Sketching and explanation of energy profiles with and without catalysts.

SE: 210

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Guidance: G1 • Calculation of reaction rates from tangents of graphs of concentration, volume or mass vs time should be covered.

SE: 199-200

G2 • Students should be familiar with the interpretation of graphs of changes in concentration, volume or mass against time.

SE: 198, 201

Topic 7: Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium Essential idea: Many reactions are reversible. These reactions will reach a state of equilibrium when the rates of the forward and reverse reaction are equal. The position of equilibrium can be controlled by changing the conditions. Understandings: U1 • A state of equilibrium is reached in a closed system when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.

SE: 218

U2 • The equilibrium law describes how the equilibrium constant (Kc) can be determined for a particular chemical reaction.

SE: 221-222

U3 • The magnitude of the equilibrium constant indicates the extent of a reaction at equilibrium and is temperature dependent.

SE: 223

U4 • The reaction quotient (Q) measures the relative amount of products and reactants present during a reaction at a particular point in time. Q is the equilibrium expression with non-equilibrium concentrations. The position of the equilibrium changes with changes in concentration, pressure, and temperature.

SE: 224-225

U5 • A catalyst has no effect on the position of equilibrium or the equilibrium constant.

SE: 231

Applications and skills: A1 • The characteristics of chemical and physical systems in a state of equilibrium.

SE: 218-219, 236

A2 • Deduction of the equilibrium constant expression (Kc) from an equation for a homogeneous reaction.

SE: 221-222, 236-237

A3 • Determination of the relationship between different equilibrium constants (Kc) for the same reaction at the same temperature.

SE: 223, 236-237

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A4 • Application of Le Châtelier’s principle to predict the qualitative effects of changes of temperature, pressure and concentration on the position of equilibrium and on the value of the equilibrium constant.

SE: 228-230, 236-237

Guidance: G1 • Physical and chemical systems should be covered.

SE: 218-219

G2 • Relationship between Kc values for reactions that are multiples or inverses of one another should be covered.

SE: 226-227

G3 • Specific details of any industrial process are not required. Topic 8: Acids and bases 8.1 Theories of acids and bases Essential idea: Many reactions involve the transfer of a proton from an acid to a base. Understandings: U1 • A Brønsted–Lowry acid is a proton/H+ donor and a Brønsted–Lowry base is a proton/H+ acceptor.

SE: 241

U2 • Amphiprotic species can act as both Brønsted–Lowry acids and bases.

SE: 243

U3 • A pair of species differing by a single proton is called a conjugate acid-base pair.

SE: 242

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the Brønsted–Lowry acid and base in a chemical reaction.

SE: 242-243, 264-265

A2 • Deduction of the conjugate acid or conjugate base in a chemical reaction.

SE: 242-243, 264-265

Guidance: G1 • Lewis theory is not required here. G2 • The location of the proton transferred should be clearly indicated. For example, CH3COOH/CH3COO– rather than C2H4O2/C2H3O2

–.

SE: 242

G3 • Students should know the representation of a proton in aqueous solution as both H+ (aq) and H3O+ (aq).

SE: 242

G4 • The difference between the terms amphoteric and amphiprotic should be covered.

SE: 243

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8.2 Properties of acids and bases Essential idea: The characterization of an acid depends on empirical evidence such as the production of gases in reactions with metals, the colour changes of indicators or the release of heat in reactions with metal oxides and hydroxides. Understandings: U1 • Most acids have observable characteristic chemical reactions with reactive metals, metal oxides, metal hydroxides, hydrogen carbonates and carbonates.

SE: 244-246

U2 • Salt and water are produced in exothermic neutralization reactions.

SE: 245

Applications and skills: A1 • Balancing chemical equations for the reaction of acids.

SE: 245-246, 264-265

A2 • Identification of the acid and base needed to make different salts.

SE: 245-246, 264-265

A3 • Candidates should have experience of acid-base titrations with different indicators.

SE: 247, 264-265

Guidance: G1 • Bases which are not hydroxides, such as ammonia, soluble carbonates and hydrogen carbonates should be covered.

SE: 244

G2 • The colour changes of different indicators are given in the data booklet in section 22.

SE: 247

8.3 The pH scale Essential idea: The pH scale is an artificial scale used to distinguish between acid, neutral and basic/alkaline solutions. Understandings: U1 • pH = − log[H+(aq)] and [H+] = 10−pH. SE: 249 U2 • A change of one pH unit represents a 10-fold change in the hydrogen ion concentration [ +].

SE: 249

U3 • pH values distinguish between acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions.

SE: 250

U4 • The ionic product constant, = [H+][OH−] = 10−14 at 298 K.

SE: 252

Applications and skills: A1 • Solving problems involving pH, [H+] and [OH−].

SE: 250-251, 253-254, 264-265

A2 • Students should be familiar with the use of a pH meter and universal indicator.

SE: 251

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Guidance: G1 • Students will not be assessed on pOH values. G2 • Students should be concerned only with strong acids and bases in this subtopic.

SE: 250

G3 • Knowing the temperature dependence of w is not required. G4 • Equations involving H3O+ instead of H+ may be applied.

SE: 242

8.4 Strong and weak acids and bases Essential idea: The pH depends on the concentration of the solution. The strength of acids or bases depends on the extent to which they dissociate in aqueous solution. Understandings: U1 • Strong and weak acids and bases differ in the extent of ionization.

SE: 254-255

U2 • Strong acids and bases of equal concentrations have higher conductivities than weak acids and bases.

SE: 257

U3 • A strong acid is a good proton donor and has a weak conjugate base.

SE: 255

U4 • A strong base is a good proton acceptor and has a weak conjugate acid.

SE: 255

Applications and skills: A1 • Distinction between strong and weak acids and bases in terms of the rates of their reactions with metals, metal oxides, metal hydroxides, metal hydrogen carbonates and metal carbonates and their electrical conductivities for solutions of equal concentrations.

SE: 257, 264-265

Guidance: G1 • The terms ionization and dissociation can be used interchangeably.

SE: 254-255

G2 • See section 21 in the data booklet for a list of weak acids and bases.

SE: 256

8.5 Acid deposition Essential idea: Increased industrialization has led to greater production of nitrogen and sulfur oxides leading to acid rain, which is damaging our environment. These problems can be reduced through collaboration with national and intergovernmental organizations. Understandings: U1 • Rain is naturally acidic because of dissolved CO2 and has a pH of 5.6. Acid deposition has a lower pH, usually below 5.0.

SE: 258, 263

U2 • Acid deposition is formed when nitrogen or sulfur oxides dissolve in water to form HNO3, HNO2, H2SO4 and H2SO3.

SE: 258-260

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U3 • Sources of the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen and the effects of acid deposition should be covered.

SE: 259-260

Applications and skills: A1 • Balancing the equations that describe the combustion of sulfur and nitrogen to their oxides and the subsequent formation of H2SO3, H2SO4, HNO2 and HNO3.

SE: 259

A2 • Distinction between the pre-combustion and post-combustion methods of reducing sulfur oxides emissions.

SE: 262

A3 • Deduction of acid deposition equations for acid deposition with reactive metals and carbonates.

SE: 260-261, 263, 264

Topic 9: Redox processes 9.1 Oxidation and reduction Essential idea: Redox (reduction–oxidation) reactions play a key role in many chemical and biochemical processes. Understandings: U1 • Oxidation and reduction can be considered in terms of oxygen gain/hydrogen loss, electron transfer or change in oxidation number.

SE: 268-269

U2 • An oxidizing agent is reduced and a reducing agent is oxidized.

SE: 276-277

U3 • Variable oxidation numbers exist for transition metals and for most main-group non-metals.

SE: 270-272

U4 • The activity series ranks metals according to the ease with which they undergo oxidation.

SE: 279

U5 • The Winkler Method can be used to measure biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), used as a measure of the degree of pollution in a water sample.

SE: 284-286

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Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the oxidation states of an atom in an ion or a compound.

SE: 270-271, 301

A2 • Deduction of the name of a transition metal compound from a given formula, applying oxidation numbers represented by Roman numerals.

SE: 273, 301

A3 • Identification of the species oxidized and reduced and the oxidizing and reducing agents, in redox reactions.

SE: 276-277, 300-301

A4 • Deduction of redox reactions using half-equations in acidic or neutral solutions.

SE: 274-275, 300-301

A5 • Deduction of the feasibility of a redox reaction from the activity series or reaction data.

SE: 279-280, 302

A6 • Solution of a range of redox titration problems.

SE: 282-284, 286

A7 • Application of the Winkler Method to calculate BOD.

SE: 284-285

Guidance: G1 • Oxidation number and oxidation state are often used interchangeably, though IUPAC does formally distinguish between the two terms. Oxidation numbers are represented by Roman numerals according to IUPAC.

SE: 273

G2 • Oxidation states should be represented with the sign given before the number, eg +2 not 2+.

SE: 270

G3 • The oxidation state of hydrogen in metal hydrides (-1) and oxygen in peroxides (-1) should be covered.

SE: 271

G4 • A simple activity series is given in the data booklet in section 25.

SE: 279

9.2 Electrochemical cells Essential idea: Voltaic cells convert chemical energy to electrical energy and electrolytic cells convert electrical energy to chemical energy. Understandings: Voltaic (Galvanic) cells: U1 • Voltaic cells convert energy from spontaneous, exothermic chemical processes to electrical energy.

SE: 287-288

U2 • Oxidation occurs at the anode (negative electrode) and reduction occurs at the cathode (positive electrode) in a voltaic cell.

SE: 289

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Electrolytic cells: U3 • Electrolytic cells convert electrical energy to chemical energy, by bringing about non-spontaneous processes.

SE: 294-295

U4 • Oxidation occurs at the anode (positive electrode) and reduction occurs at the cathode (negative electrode) in an electrolytic cell.

SE: 295-296

Applications and skills: A1 • Construction and annotation of both types of electrochemical cells.

SE: 286-290, 296-297, 301

A2 • Explanation of how a redox reaction is used to produce electricity in a voltaic cell and how current is conducted in an electrolytic cell.

SE: 287-289, 295-297, 301

A3 • Distinction between electron and ion flow in both electrochemical cells.

SE: 292, 295, 301

A4 • Performance of laboratory experiments involving a typical voltaic cell using two metal/metal-ion half-cells.

SE: 292

A5 • Deduction of the products of the electrolysis of a molten salt.

SE: 296, 301

Guidance: G1 • For voltaic cells, a cell diagram convention should be covered.

SE: 291

Topic 10: Organic chemistry 10.1 Fundamentals of organic chemistry Essential idea: Organic chemistry focuses on the chemistry of compounds containing carbon. Understandings: U1 • A homologous series is a series of compounds of the same family, with the same general formula, which differ from each other by a common structural unit.

SE: 308-309

U2 • Structural formulas can be represented in full and condensed format.

SE: 312

U3 • Structural isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms.

SE: 317-320

U4 • Functional groups are the reactive parts of molecules.

SE: 309, 314-315

U5 • Saturated compounds contain single bonds only and unsaturated compounds contain double or triple bonds.

SE: 306

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U6 • Benzene is an aromatic, unsaturated hydrocarbon.

SE: 322-324

Applications and skills: A1 • Explanation of the trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series.

SE: 309-310, 342

A2 • Distinction between empirical, molecular and structural formulas.

SE: 311-312

A3 • Identification of different classes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, amines, amides, nitriles and arenes.

SE: 314-315, 341-342

A4 • Identification of typical functional groups in molecules e.g. phenyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, carboxamide, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, nitrile, alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl.

SE: 314

A5 • Construction of 3-D models (real or virtual) of organic molecules.

SE: 312-313, 320-321, 323, 342

A6 • Application of IUPAC rules in the nomenclature of straight-chain and branched-chain isomers.

SE: 313-315, 342

A7 • Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atoms in halogenoalkanes and alcohols and primary, secondary and tertiary nitrogen atoms in amines.

SE: 320-321

A8 • Discussion of the structure of benzene using physical and chemical evidence.

SE: 321-324, 326

Guidance: G1 • Skeletal formulas should be discussed in the course.

SE: 325

G2 • The general formulas (e.g. CnH2n+2) of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acids should be known.

SE: 314

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G3 • The distinction between class names and functional group names needs to be made. E.g. for OH, hydroxyl is the functional group whereas alcohol is the class name.

SE: 314

G4 • The following nomenclature should be covered:

– non-cyclic alkanes and halogenoalkanes up to halohexanes. – alkenes up to hexene and alkynes up to hexyne. – compounds up to six carbon atoms (in the basic chain for nomenclature purposes) containing only one of the classes of functional groups: alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, halogenoalkanes, ketones, esters and carboxylic acids.

SE: 313-316, 318-319

10.2 Functional group chemistry Essential idea: Structure, bonding and chemical reactions involving functional group interconversions are key strands in organic chemistry. Understandings: Alkanes: U1 • Alkanes have low reactivity and undergo free-radical substitution reactions.

SE: 327-329

Alkenes: U2 • Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes and undergo addition reactions.

SE: 330-332

U3 Bromine water can be used to distinguish between alkenes and alkanes.

SE: 332

Alcohols: U4 • Alcohols undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions with acids (also called esterification or condensation) and some undergo oxidation reactions.

SE: 335-338

Halogenoalkanes: U5 • Halogenoalkanes are more reactive than alkanes. They can undergo (nucleophilic) substitution reactions. A nucleophile is an electron-rich species containing a lone pair that it donates to an electron-deficient carbon.

SE: 338-339

Polymers: U6 • Addition polymers consist of a wide range of monomers and form the basis of the plastics industry.

SE: 332-334

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Benzene: U7 • Benzene does not readily undergo addition reactions but does undergo electrophilic substitution reactions.

SE: 340

Applications and skills: Alkanes: A1 • Writing equations for the complete and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

SE: 327-328, 334, 341

A2 • Explanation of the reaction of methane and ethane with halogens in terms of a free-radical substitution mechanism involving photochemical homolytic fission.

SE: 328-329, 341-342

Alkenes: A3 • Writing equations for the reactions of alkenes with hydrogen and halogens and of symmetrical alkenes with hydrogen halides and water.

SE: 330-331, 341-342

A4 • Outline of the addition polymerization of alkenes.

SE: 332-333, 341

A5 • Relationship between the structure of the monomer to the polymer and repeating unit.

SE: 332, 341

Alcohols: A6 • Writing equations for the complete combustion of alcohols.

SE: 335, 340

A7 • Writing equations for the oxidation reactions of primary and secondary alcohols (using acidified potassium dichromate (VI) or potassium manganate (VII) as oxidizing agents). Explanation of distillation and reflux in the isolation of the aldehyde and carboxylic acid products.

SE: 335-337, 342-343

A8 • Writing the equation for the condensation reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid, in the presence of a catalyst (eg concentrated sulfuric acid) to form an ester.

SE: 338, 341

Halogenoalkanes: A9 • Writing the equation for the substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes with aqueous sodium hydroxide.

SE: 338-339

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Guidance: G1 • Reference should be made to initiation, propagation and termination steps in free-radical substitution reactions. Free radicals should be represented by a single dot.

SE: 328-329

G2 • The mechanisms of SN1 and SN2 and electrophilic substitution reactions are not required. Topic 11: Measurement and data processing 11.1 Uncertainties and errors in measurement and results Essential idea: All measurement has a limit of precision and accuracy, and this must be taken into account when evaluating experimental results. Understandings: U1 • Qualitative data includes all non-numerical information obtained from observations not from measurement.

SE: 346-347

U2 • Quantitative data are obtained from measurements, and are always associated with random errors/uncertainties, determined by the apparatus, and by human limitations such as reaction times.

SE: 346-349

U3 • Propagation of random errors in data processing shows the impact of the uncertainties on the final result.

SE: 351-352

U4 • Experimental design and procedure usually lead to systematic errors in measurement, which cause a deviation in a particular direction.

SE: 349

U5 • Repeat trials and measurements will reduce random errors but not systematic errors.

SE: 349

Applications and skills: A1 • Distinction between random errors and systematic errors.

SE: 348-349, 350, 381

A2 • Record uncertainties in all measurements as a range (±) to an appropriate precision.

SE: 347, 349, 355

A3 • Discussion of ways to reduce uncertainties in an experiment.

SE: 346-347, 354-355, 381-382

A4 • Propagation of uncertainties in processed data, including the use of percentage uncertainties.

SE: 351-352, 355-356

A5 • Discussion of systematic errors in all experimental work, their impact on the results and how they can be reduced.

SE: 349, 354-355, 362, 381-382

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A6 • Estimation of whether a particular source of error is likely to have a major or minor effect on the final result.

SE: 349-350, 355

A7 • Calculation of percentage error when the experimental result can be compared with a theoretical or accepted result.

SE: 351

A8 • Distinction between accuracy and precision in evaluating results.

SE: 349-350, 362

Guidance: G1 • The number of significant figures in a result is based on the figures given in the data. When adding or subtracting, the final answer should be given to the least number of decimal places. When multiplying or dividing the final answer is given to the least number of significant figures.

SE: 347, 352-354

G2 • Note that the data value must be recorded to the same precision as the random error.

SE: 349

G3 • SI units should be used throughout the programme.

SE: 347

11.2 Graphical techniques Essential idea: Graphs are a visual representation of trends in data. Understandings: U1 • Graphical techniques are an effective means of communicating the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable, and can lead to determination of physical quantities.

SE: 357-358

U2 • Sketched graphs have labelled but unscaled axes, and are used to show qualitative trends, such as variables that are proportional or inversely proportional.

SE: 360

U3 • Drawn graphs have labelled and scaled axes, and are used in quantitative measurements.

SE: 357-360

Applications and skills: A1 • Drawing graphs of experimental results including the correct choice of axes and scale.

SE: 360-361, 363

A2 • Interpretation of graphs in terms of the relationships of dependent and independent variables.

SE: 357, 363

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A3 • Production and interpretation of best-fit lines or curves through data points, including an assessment of when it can and cannot be considered as a linear function.

SE: 357-359, 362

A4 • Calculation of quantities from graphs by measuring slope (gradient) and intercept, including appropriate units.

SE: 358, 360. 362

11.3 Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds Essential idea: Analytical techniques can be used to determine the structure of a compound, analyse the composition of a substance or determine the purity of a compound. Spectroscopic techniques are used in the structural identification of organic and inorganic compounds. Understandings: U1 • The degree of unsaturation or index of hydrogen deficiency (IHD) can be used to determine from a molecular formula the number of rings or multiple bonds in a molecule.

SE: 368-369

U2 • Mass spectrometry (MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) are techniques that can be used to help identify compounds and to determine their structure.

SE: 364-367, 370-372, 375-378, 379-381

Applications and skills: A1 • Determination of the IHD from a molecular formula.

SE: 368-369, 372

A2 • Deduction of information about the structural features of a compound from percentage composition data, MS, 1H NMR or IR.

SE: 364-367, 370-374, 375-378, 379-381, 382-385

Guidance: G1 • The electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) is given in the data booklet in section 3. The regions employed for each technique should be understood.

SE: 369-370

G2 • The operating principles are not required for any of these methods.

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G3 • The data booklet contains characteristic ranges for IR absorptions (section 26), 1H NMR data (section 27) and specific MS fragments (section 28). For 1H NMR, only the ability to deduce the number of different hydrogen (proton) environments and the relative numbers of hydrogen atoms in each environment is required. Integration traces should be covered but splitting patterns are not required.

SE: 366, 372, 376-377

Option A: Materials Core topics A.1 Materials science introduction Essential idea: Materials science involves understanding the properties of a material, and then applying those properties to desired structures. Understandings: U1 • Materials are classified based on their uses, properties, or bonding and structure.

SE: 388

U2 • The properties of a material based on the degree of covalent, ionic or metallic character in a compound can be deduced from its position on a bonding triangle.

SE: 388-390

U3 • Composites are mixtures in which materials are composed of two distinct phases, a reinforcing phase that is embedded in a matrix phase.

SE: 391

Applications and skills: A1 • Use of bond triangle diagrams for binary compounds from electronegativity data.

SE: 389-390, 395

A2 • Evaluation of various ways of classifying materials.

SE: 388-391

A3 • Relating physical characteristics (melting point, permeability, conductivity, elasticity, brittleness) of a material to its bonding and structures (packing arrangements, electron mobility, ability of atoms to slide relative to one another).

SE: 392-393, 395

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Guidance: G1 • Permeability to moisture should be considered with respect to bonding and simple packing arrangements.

SE: 392, 394

G2 • Consider properties of metals, polymers and ceramics in terms of metallic, covalent, and ionic bonding.

SE: 392-394, 395

G3 • See section 29 of the data booklet for a triangular bonding diagram.

SE: 389-390

A.2 Metals and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy Essential idea: Metals can be extracted from their ores and alloyed for desired characteristics. ICP-MS/OES Spectroscopy ionizes metals and uses mass and emission spectra for analysis. Understandings: U1 • Reduction by coke (carbon), a more reactive metal, or electrolysis are means of obtaining some metals from their ores.

SE: 396-398

U2 • The relationship between charge and the number of moles of electrons is given by Faraday’s constant, F.

SE: 401

U3 • Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of metals with other metals or non-metals.

SE: 402-403

U4 • Diamagnetic and paramagnetic compounds differ in electron spin pairing and their behaviour in magnetic fields.

SE: 404

U5 • Trace amounts of metals can be identified and quantified by ionizing them with argon gas plasma in Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy using Mass Spectroscopy ICP-MS and Optical Emission Spectroscopy ICP-OES.

SE: 405-408

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of redox equations for the reduction of metals.

SE: 398-399, 402, 445

A2 • Relating the method of extraction to the position of a metal on the activity series.

SE: 396

A3 • Explanation of the production of aluminium by the electrolysis of alumina in molten cryolite

SE: 399-401, 402, 445

A4 • Explanation of how alloying alters properties of metals.

SE: 402-403, 445

A5 • Solving stoichiometric problems using Faraday’s constant based on mass deposits in electrolysis.

SE: 401-402

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A6 • Discussion of paramagnetism and diamagnetism in relation to electron structure of metals.

SE: 404

A7 • Explanation of the plasma state and its production in ICP- MS/OES.

SE: 405-408

A8 • Identify metals and abundances from simple data and calibration curves provided from ICP-MS and ICP-OES.

SE: 407-408

A9 • Explanation of the separation and quantification of metallic ions by MS and OES.

SE: 405-408

A10 • Uses of ICP-MS and ICP-OES. SE: 405, 408 Guidance: G1 • Faraday’s constant is given in the data booklet in section 2.

SE: 401

G2 • Details of operating parts of ICP-MS and ICP-OES instruments will not be assessed. G3 • Only analysis of metals should be covered.

SE: 405, 408

G4 • The importance of calibration should be covered.

SE: 406

A.3 Catalysts Essential idea: Catalysts work by providing an alternate reaction pathway for the reaction. Catalysts always increase the rate of the reaction and are left unchanged at the end of the reaction. Understandings: U1 • Reactants adsorb onto heterogeneous catalysts at active sites and the products desorb.

SE: 409-410

U2 • Homogeneous catalysts chemically combine with the reactants to form a temporary activated complex or a reaction intermediate.

SE: 411

U3 • Transition metal catalytic properties depend on the adsorption/absorption properties of the metal and the variable oxidation states.

SE: 410-411

U4 • Zeolites act as selective catalysts because of their cage structure.

SE: 412

U5 • Catalytic particles are nearly always nanoparticles that have large surface areas per unit mass.

SE: 412-413

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Applications and skills: A1 • Explanation of factors involved in choosing a catalyst for a process.

SE: 413-414, 415, 446

A2 • Description of how metals work as heterogeneous catalysts.

SE: 409-410, 446

A3 • Description of the benefits of nanocatalysts in industry.

SE: 412-413, 415, 446

Guidance: G1 • Consider catalytic properties such as selectivity for only the desired product, efficiency, ability to work in mild/severe conditions, environmental impact and impurities.

SE: 413-414

G2 • The use of carbon nanocatalysts should be covered.

SE: 413

A.4 Liquid crystals Essential idea: Liquid crystals are fluids that have physical properties which are dependent on molecular orientation relative to some fixed axis in the material. Understandings: U1 • Liquid crystals are fluids that have physical properties (electrical, optical and elasticity) that are dependent on molecular orientation to some fixed axis in the material.

SE: 416-419

U2 • Thermotropic liquid-crystal materials are pure substances that show liquidcrystal behaviour over a temperature range.

SE: 416

U3 • Lyotropic liquid crystals are solutions that show the liquid-crystal state over a (certain) range of concentrations.

SE: 416-417

U4 • Nematic liquid crystal phase is characterized by rod shaped molecules which are randomly distributed but on average align in the same direction.

SE: 416-417, 421

Applications and skills: A1 • Discussion of the properties needed for a substance to be used in liquid-crystal displays (LCD).

SE: 418-421, 422, 447

A2 • Explanation of liquid-crystal behaviour on a molecular level.

SE: 416-417, 422, 447

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Guidance: G1 • Properties needed for liquid crystals include: chemically stable, a phase which is stable over a suitable temperature range, polar so they can change orientation when an electric field is applied, and rapid switching speed.

SE: 420

G2 • Soap and water is an example of lyotropic liquid crystals and the biphenyl nitriles are examples of thermotropic liquid crystals.

SE: 417, 419-420

G3 • Liquid crystal behaviour should be limited to the biphenyl nitriles.

SE: 419-420, 447

G4 • Smectics and other liquid crystals types need not be discussed. A.5 Polymers Essential idea: Polymers are made up of repeating monomer units which can be manipulated in various ways to give structures with desired properties. Understandings: U1 • Thermoplastics soften when heated and harden when cooled.

SE: 428

U2 • A thermosetting polymer is a prepolymer in a soft solid or viscous state that changes irreversibly into a hardened thermoset by curing.

SE: 429-430

U3 • Elastomers are flexible and can be deformed under force but will return to nearly their original shape once the stress is released.

SE: 428-429

U4 • High density polyethene (HDPE) has no branching allowing chains to be packed together.

SE: 425

U5 • Low density polyethene (LDPE) has some branching and is more flexible.

SE: 425

U6 • Plasticizers added to a polymer increase the flexibility by weakening the intermolecular forces between the polymer chains.

SE: 426-427

U7 • Atom economy is a measure of efficiency applied in green chemistry.

SE: 430-431

U8 • Isotactic addition polymers have substituents on the same side.

SE: 426

U9 • Atactic addition polymers have the substituents randomly placed.

SE: 426

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Applications and skills: A1 • Description of the use of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride and volatile hydrocarbons in the formation of expanded polystyrene.

SE: 426-427, 446-447

A2 • Solving problems and evaluating atom economy in synthesis reactions.

SE: 430-431

A3 • Description of how the properties of polymers depend on their structural features.

SE: 423-424, 431, 447

A4 • Description of ways of modifying the properties of polymers, including LDPE and HDPE.

SE: 425, 446-447

A5 • Deduction of structures of polymers formed from polymerizing 2- methylpropene.

SE: 424, 447

Guidance: G1 • The equation for percent atom economy is provided in the data booklet in section 1.

SE: 430

G2 • Consider only polystyrene foams as examples of polymer property manipulation.

SE: 427

A.6 Nanotechnology Essential idea: Chemical techniques position atoms in molecules using chemical reactions whilst physical techniques allow atoms/molecules to be manipulated and positioned to specific requirements. Understandings: U1 • Molecular self-assembly is the bottom-up assembly of nanoparticles and can occur by selectively attaching molecules to specific surfaces. Self-assembly can also occur spontaneously in solution.

SE: 433-434

U2 • Possible methods of producing nanotubes are arc discharge, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and high pressure carbon monoxide (HIPCO).

SE: 436-437

U3 • Arc discharge involves either vaporizing the surface of one of the carbon electrodes, or discharging an arc through metal electrodes submersed in a hydrocarbon solvent, which forms a small rod-shaped deposit on the anode.

SE: 437

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Applications and skills: A1 • Distinguishing between physical and chemical techniques in manipulating atoms to form molecules.

SE: 437, 446

A2 • Description of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes.

SE: 435-436, 446

A3 • Explanation of why an inert gas, and not oxygen, is necessary for CVD preparation of carbon nanotubes.

SE: 436

A4 • Explanation of the production of carbon from hydrocarbon solvents in arc discharge by oxidation at the anode.

SE: 437

A5 • Deduction of equations for the production of carbon atoms from HIPCO.

SE: 437

A6 • Discussion of some implications and applications of nanotechnology.

SE: 437-438, 446

A7 • Explanation of why nanotubes are strong and good conductors of electricity.

SE: 436, 438, 446

Guidance: G1 • Possible implications of nanotechnology include uncertainty as to toxicity levels on a nanoscale, unknown health risks with new materials, concern that human defence systems are not effective against particles on the nanoscale, responsibilities of the industries and governments involved in this research.

SE: 437-438

G2 • Conductivity of graphene and fullerenes can be explained in terms of delocalization of electrons. An explanation based on hybridization is not required.

SE: 436

A.7 Environmental impact—plastics Essential idea: Although materials science generates many useful new products there are challenges associated with recycling of and high levels of toxicity of some of these materials. Understandings: U1 • Plastics do not degrade easily because of their strong covalent bonds.

SE: 440

U2 • Burning of polyvinyl chloride releases dioxins, HCl gas and incomplete hydrocarbon combustion products.

SE: 440-442

U3 • Dioxins contain unsaturated six-member heterocyclic rings with two oxygen atoms, usually in positions 1 and 4.

SE: 442

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U4 • Chlorinated dioxins are hormone disrupting, leading to cellular and genetic damage.

SE: 442

U5 • Plastics require more processing to be recycled than other materials.

SE: 443-444

U6 • Plastics are recycled based on different resin types.

SE: 443

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the equation for any given combustion reaction.

SE: 441

A2 • Discussion of why the recycling of polymers is an energy intensive process.

SE: 440, 443, 446-447

A3 • Discussion of the environmental impact of the use of plastics.

SE: 440-441, 446-447

A4 • Comparison of the structures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins.

SE: 442, 447

A5 • Discussion of the health concerns of using volatile plasticizers in polymer production.

SE: 439, 446-447

A6 • Distinguish possible Resin Identification Codes (RICs) of plastics from an IR spectrum.

SE: 444

Guidance: G1 • Dioxins do not decompose in the environment and can be passed on in the food chain.

SE: 442

G2 • Consider polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and PCBs as examples of carcinogenic chlorinated dioxins or dioxin-like substances.

SE: 442

G3 • Consider phthalate esters as examples of plasticizers.

SE: 439

G4 • House fires can release many toxins due to plastics (shower curtains, etc). Low smoke zero halogen cabling is often used in wiring to prevent these hazards.

SE: 443

G5 • Resin Identification Codes (RICs) are in the data booklet in section 30.

SE: 443

G6 • Structures of various materials molecules are in the data booklet in section 31.

SE: 442

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Option B: Biochemistry Core topics B.1 Introduction to biochemistry Essential idea: Metabolic reactions involve a complex interplay between many different components in highly controlled environments. Understandings: U1 • The diverse functions of biological molecules depend on their structures and shapes.

SE: 453

U2 • Metabolic reactions take place in highly controlled aqueous environments.

SE: 450

U3 • Reactions of breakdown are called catabolism and reactions of synthesis are called anabolism.

SE: 451

U4 • Biopolymers form by condensation reactions and are broken down by hydrolysis reactions.

SE: 452-453

U5 • Photosynthesis is the synthesis of energy-rich molecules from carbon dioxide and water using light energy.

SE: 453-454

U6 • Respiration is a complex set of metabolic processes providing energy for cells.

SE: 454-455

Applications and skills : A1 • Explanation of the difference between condensation and hydrolysis reactions.

SE: 452-453, 504-505

A2 • The use of summary equations of photosynthesis and respiration to explain the potential balancing of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

SE: 455-456

Guidance: G1 • Intermediates of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis are not required. B.2 Proteins and enzymes Essential idea: Proteins are the most diverse of the biopolymers responsible for metabolism and structural integrity of living organisms. Understandings: U1 • Proteins are polymers of 2-amino acids, joined by amide links (also known as peptide bonds).

SE: 461-463

U2 • Amino acids are amphoteric and can exist as zwitterions, cations and anions.

SE: 459-460

U3 • Protein structures are diverse and are described at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels.

SE: 463-467

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U4 • A protein’s three-dimensional shape determines its role in structural components or in metabolic processes.

SE: 463, 466-467

U5 • Most enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts by binding specifically to a substrate at the active site.

SE: 468-469

U6 • As enzyme activity depends on the conformation, it is sensitive to changes in temperature and pH and the presence of heavy metal ions.

SE: 471-473

U7 • Chromatography separation is based on different physical and chemical principles.

SE: 474-475

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the structural formulas of reactants and products in condensation reactions of amino acids, and hydrolysis reactions of peptides.

SE: 461-462, 504-505

A2 • Explanation of the solubilities and melting points of amino acids in terms of zwitterions.

SE: 459

A3 • Application of the relationships between charge, pH and isoelectric point for amino acids and proteins.

SE: 460

A4 • Description of the four levels of protein structure, including the origin and types of bonds and interactions involved.

SE: 463-468, 504-505

A5 • Deduction and interpretation of graphs of enzyme activity involving changes in substrate concentration, pH and temperature.

SE: 470-473, 505

A6 • Explanation of the processes of paper chromatography and gel electrophoresis in amino acid and protein separation and identification.

SE: 474-476, 477

Guidance: G1 • The names and structural formulas of the amino acids are given in the data booklet in section 33.

SE: 459

G2 • Reference should be made to alpha helix and beta pleated sheet, and to fibrous and globular proteins with examples of each.

SE: 457-458, 464-465

G3 • In paper chromatography the use of Rf values and locating agents should be covered.

SE: 475

G4 • In enzyme kinetics Km and Vmax are not required.

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B.3 Lipids Essential idea: Lipids are a broad group of biomolecules that are largely non-polar and therefore insoluble in water. Understandings: U1 • Fats are more reduced than carbohydrates and so yield more energy when oxidized.

SE: 478-479

U2 • Triglycerides are produced by condensation of glycerol with three fatty acids and contain ester links. Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated.

SE: 481-483

U3 • Phospholipids are derivatives of triglycerides.

SE: 486-487

U4 • Hydrolysis of triglycerides and phospholipids can occur using enzymes or in alkaline or acidic conditions.

SE: 485-487

U5 • Steroids have a characteristic fused ring structure, known as a steroidal backbone.

SE: 487

U6 • Lipids act as structural components of cell membranes, in energy storage, thermal and electrical insulation, as transporters of lipid soluble vitamins and as hormones.

SE: 479

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the structural formulas of reactants and products in condensation and hydrolysis reactions between glycerol and fatty acids and/or phosphate.

SE: 481-482, 486, 504-505

A2 • Prediction of the relative melting points of fats and oils from their structures.

SE: 483-484, 504-505

A3 • Comparison of the processes of hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity in fats with respect to the site of reactivity in the molecules and the conditions that favour the reaction.

SE: 485-486, 488, 504-505

A4 • Application of the concept of iodine number to determine the unsaturation of a fat.

SE: 484-485, 488, 505

A5 • Comparison of carbohydrates and lipids as energy storage molecules with respect to their solubility and energy density.

SE: 479, 505

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A6 • Discussion of the impact of lipids on health, including the roles of dietary high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, saturated, unsaturated and trans-fat and the use and abuse of steroids.

SE: 479-480

Guidance: G1 • The structures of some fatty acids are given in the data booklet in section 34.

SE: 482-483

G2 • Specific named examples of fats and oils do not have to be learned. G3 • The structural differences between cis- and trans-fats are not required. B.4 Carbohydrates Essential idea: Carbohydrates are oxygen-rich biomolecules, which play a central role in metabolic reactions of energy transfer. Understandings: U1 • Carbohydrates have the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

SE: 488

U2 • Haworth projections represent the cyclic structures of monosaccharides.

SE: 490

U3 • Monosaccharides contain either an aldehyde group (aldose) or a ketone group (ketose) and several –OH groups.

SE: 489

U4 • Straight chain forms of sugars cyclize in solution to form ring structures containing an ether linkage.

SE: 489

U5 • Glycosidic bonds form between monosaccharides forming disaccharides and polysaccharides.

SE: 490-492

U6 • Carbohydrates are used as energy sources and energy reserves.

SE: 488-489

Applications and skills: A1 • Deduction of the structural formulas of disaccharides and polysaccharides from given monosaccharides.

SE: 490-492, 505

A2 • Relationship of the properties and functions of monosaccharides and polysaccharides to their chemical structures.

SE: 488-489, 505

Guidance: G1 • The straight chain and α-ring forms of glucose and fructose are given in the data booklet in section 34.

SE: 489

G2 • The component monosaccharides of specific disaccharides and the linkage details of polysaccharides are not required. G3 • The distinction between α- and β- forms and the structure of cellulose are not required.

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B.5 Vitamins Essential idea: Vitamins are organic micronutrients with diverse functions that must be obtained from the diet. Understandings: U1 • Vitamins are organic micronutrients which (mostly) cannot be synthesized by the body but must be obtained from suitable food sources.

SE: 493-494

U2 • The solubility (water or fat) of a vitamin can be predicted from its structure.

SE: 493-494

U3 • Most vitamins are sensitive to heat. SE: 493 U4 • Vitamin deficiencies in the diet cause particular diseases and affect millions of people worldwide.

SE: 494-495

Applications and skills: A1 • Comparison of the structures of vitamins A, C and D.

SE: 494

A2 • Discussion of the causes and effects of vitamin deficiencies in different countries and suggestion of solutions.

SE: 494-496

Guidance: G1 • The structures of vitamins A, C and D are provided in the data booklet section 35.

SE: 494

G2 • Specific food sources of vitamins or names of deficiency diseases do not have to be learned. B.6 Biochemistry and the environment Essential idea: Our increasing knowledge of biochemistry has led to several environmental problems, while also helping to solve others. Understandings: U1 • Xenobiotics refer to chemicals that are found in an organism that are not normally present there.

SE: 497

U2 • Biodegradable/compostable plastics can be consumed or broken down by bacteria or other living organisms.

SE: 500-501

U3 • Host–guest chemistry involves the creation of synthetic host molecules that mimic some of the actions performed by enzymes in cells, by selectively binding to specific guest species, such as toxic materials in the environment.

SE: 502-503

U4 • Enzymes have been developed to help in the breakdown of oil spills and other industrial wastes.

SE: 501-502

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U5 • Enzymes in biological detergents can improve energy efficiency by enabling effective cleaning at lower temperatures.

SE: 503

U6 • Biomagnification is the increase in concentration of a substance in a food chain.

SE: 498-499

U7 • Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an approach to chemical research and engineering that seeks to minimize the production and release to the environment of hazardous substances.

SE: 502-503

Applications and skills: A1 • Discussion of the increasing problem of xenobiotics such as antibiotics in sewage treatment plants.

SE: 497-498, 505

A2 • Description of the role of starch in biodegradable plastics.

SE: 500-501, 505

A3 • Application of host–guest chemistry to the removal of a specific pollutant in the environment.

SE: 499-500

A4 • Description of an example of biomagnification, including the chemical source of the substance. Examples could include heavy metals or pesticides.

SE: 498-499

A5 • Discussion of the challenges and criteria in assessing the “greenness” of a substance used in biochemical research, including the atom economy.

SE: 502-503

Guidance: G1 • Specific names of “green chemicals” such as solvents are not expected. G2 • The emphasis in explanations of host–guest chemistry should be on noncovalent bonding within the supramolecule.

SE: 499-500

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Option C: Energy Core topics C.1 Energy sources Essential idea: Societies are completely dependent on energy resources. The quantity of energy is conserved in any conversion but the quality is degraded. Understandings: U1 • A useful energy source releases energy at a reasonable rate and produces minimal pollution.

SE: 508-509

U2 • The quality of energy is degraded as heat is transferred to the surroundings. Energy and materials go from a concentrated into a dispersed form. The quantity of the energy available for doing work decreases.

SE: 509-511

U3 • Renewable energy sources are naturally replenished. Non-renewable energy sources are finite.

SE: 508, 510

U4 • Energy density = energy released from fuel/volume of fuel consumed.

SE: 510-511

U5 • Specific energy = energy released from fuel/mass of fuel consumed.

SE: 510-511

U6 • The efficiency of an energy transfer = useful output energy/total input energy x 100%.

SE: 511-512

Applications and skills: A1 • Discussion of the use of different sources of renewable and non-renewable energy.

SE: 508-510, 512, 558

A2 • Determination of the energy density and specific energy of a fuel from the enthalpies of combustion, densities and the molar mass of fuel.

SE: 510-511, 513, 558

A3 • Discussion of how the choice of fuel is influenced by its energy density or specific energy.

SE: 510-511, 513

A4 • Determination of the efficiency of an energy transfer process from appropriate data.

SE: 511-512

A5 • Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the different energy sources in C.2 through to C.8.

SE: 510-511

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C.2 Fossil fuels Essential idea: The energy of fossil fuels originates from solar energy which has been stored by chemical processes over time. These abundant resources are nonrenewable but provide large amounts of energy due to the nature of chemical bonds in hydrocarbons. Understandings: U1 • Fossil fuels were formed by the reduction of biological compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen.

SE: 513

U2 • Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that can be split into different component parts called fractions by fractional distillation.

SE: 515-516

U3 • Crude oil needs to be refined before use. The different fractions are separated by a physical process in fractional distillation.

SE: 516-517

U4 • The tendency of a fuel to auto-ignite, which leads to “knocking” in a car engine, is related to molecular structure and measured by the octane number.

SE: 518-519

U5 • The performance of hydrocarbons as fuels is improved by the cracking and catalytic reforming reactions.

SE: 519-520

U6 • Coal gasification and liquefaction are chemical processes that convert coal to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons.

SE: 521, 524

U7 • A carbon footprint is the total amount of greenhouse gases produced during human activities. It is generally expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide.

SE: 525-526

Applications and skills: A1 • Discussion of the effect of chain length and chain branching on the octane number.

SE: 519-521, 522, 558-559

A2 • Discussion of the reforming and cracking reactions of hydrocarbons and explanation how these processes improve the octane number.

SE: 517-518, 520, 558-559

A3 • Deduction of equations for cracking and reforming reactions, coal gasification and liquefaction.

SE: 517-518, 521, 522, 524, 558

A4 • Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the different fossil fuels.

SE: 525, 557-559

A5 • Identification of the various fractions of petroleum, their relative volatility and their uses.

SE: 517

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A6 • Calculations of the carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere, when different fuels burn and determination of carbon footprints for different activities.

SE: 525-526, 557-559

Guidance: G1 • The cost of production and availability (reserves) of fossil fuels and their impact on the environment should be considered.

SE: 524-525

C.3 Nuclear fusion and fission Essential idea: The fusion of hydrogen nuclei in the sun is the source of much of the energy needed for life on Earth. There are many technological challenges in replicating this process on Earth but it would offer a rich source of energy. Fission involves the splitting of a large unstable nucleus into smaller stable nuclei. Understandings: Nuclear fusion U1 • Light nuclei can undergo fusion reactions as this increases the binding energy per nucleon.

SE: 530-531

U2 • Fusion reactions are a promising energy source as the fuel is inexpensive and abundant, and no radioactive waste is produced.

SE: 532-534

U3 • Absorption spectra are used to analyse the composition of stars.

SE: 531-532

Nuclear fission U4 • Heavy nuclei can undergo fission reactions as this increases the binding energy per nucleon.

SE: 534-535

U5 • 235U undergoes a fission chain reaction:

23592 U+ 10n → 236

92U → X + Y + neutrons.

SE: 535

U6 • The critical mass is the mass of fuel needed for the reaction to be self-sustaining.

SE: 536

U7 • 239Pu, used as a fuel in “breeder reactors”, is produced from 238U by neutron capture.

SE: 537

U8 • Radioactive waste may contain isotopes with long and short half-lives.

SE: 538, 540

U9 • Half-life is the time it takes for half the number of atoms to decay.

SE: 538-539

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Applications and skills: Nuclear fusion A1 • Construction of nuclear equations for fusion reactions.

SE: 530-531, 534, 558

A2 • Explanation of fusion reactions in terms of binding energy per nucleon.

SE: 529-530, 558

A3 • Explanation of the atomic absorption spectra of hydrogen and helium, including the relationships between the lines and electron transitions.

SE: 532, 534

Nuclear fission A4 • Deduction of nuclear equations for fission reactions.

SE: 535, 538, 558

A5 • Explanation of fission reactions in terms of binding energy per nucleon.

SE: 529-530, 558

A6 • Discussion of the storage and disposal of nuclear waste.

SE: 540, 557

A7 • Solution of radioactive decay problems involving integral numbers of half-lives.

SE: 538-539, 541, 557-559

Guidance: G1 • Students are not expected to recall specific fission reactions. G2 • The workings of a nuclear power plant are not required. G3 • Safety and risk issues include: health, problems associated with nuclear waste and core meltdown, and the possibility that nuclear fuels may be used in nuclear weapons.

SE: 536-538

G4 • The equations, = 0− T and 1/2 =

(ln2)/ are given in section 1 of the data booklet.

SE: 527, 538-539

C.4 Solar energy Essential idea: Visible light can be absorbed by molecules that have a conjugated structure with an extended system of alternating single and multiple bonds. Solar energy can be converted to chemical energy in photosynthesis. Understandings: U1 • Light can be absorbed by chlorophyll and other pigments with a conjugated electronic structure.

SE: 543-544

U2 • Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy: 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

SE: 547

U3 • Fermentation of glucose produces ethanol which can be used as a biofuel: C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

SE: 547-549

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U4 • Energy content of vegetable oils is similar to that of diesel fuel but they are not used in internal combustion engines as they are too viscous.

SE: 549-550

U5 • Transesterification between an ester and an alcohol with a strong acid or base catalyst produces a different ester: RCOOR1 + R2OH → RCOOR2 + R1OH

SE: 550

U6 • In the transesterification process, involving a reaction with an alcohol in the presence of a strong acid or base, the triglyceride vegetable oils are converted to a mixture mainly comprising of alkyl esters and glycerol, but with some fatty acids.

SE: 550

U7 • Transesterification with ethanol or methanol produces oils with lower viscosity that can be used in diesel engines.

SE: 550

Applications and skills: A1 • Identification of features of the molecules that allow them to absorb visible light.

SE: 543-544, 546, 558

A2 • Explanation of the reduced viscosity of esters produced with methanol and ethanol.

SE: 550

A3 • Evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of biofuels.

SE: 549, 551, 559

A4 • Deduction of equations for transesterification reactions.

SE: 550

Guidance: G1 • Only a conjugated system with alternating double bonds needs to be covered.

SE: 544

C.5 Environmental impact—global warming Essential idea: Gases in the atmosphere that are produced by human activities are changing the climate as they are upsetting the balance between radiation entering and leaving the atmosphere. Understandings: U1 • Greenhouse gases allow the passage of incoming solar short wavelength radiation but absorb the longer wavelength radiation from the Earth. Some of the absorbed radiation is re-radiated back to Earth.

SE: 552

U2 • There is a heterogeneous equilibrium between concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide and aqueous carbon dioxide in the oceans.

SE: 555

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U3 • Greenhouse gases absorb IR radiation as there is a change in dipole moment as the bonds in the molecule stretch and bend.

SE: 552

U4 • Particulates such as smoke and dust cause global dimming as they reflect sunlight, as do clouds.

SE: 556-557

Applications and skills: A1 • Explanation of the molecular mechanisms by which greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation.

SE: 552-553, 555, 557

A2 • Discussion of the evidence for the relationship between the increased concentration of gases and global warming.

SE: 553-554, 556, 557

A3 • Discussion of the sources, relative abundance and effects of different greenhouse gases.

SE: 553, 557

A4 • Discussion of the different approaches to the control of carbon dioxide emissions.

SE: 556-557

A5 • Discussion of pH changes in the ocean due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

SE: 555

Guidance: G1 • Greenhouse gases to be considered are CH4, H2O and CO2.

SE: 553

Option D: Medicinal chemistry Core topics D.1 Pharmaceutical products and drug action Essential idea: Medicines and drugs have a variety of different effects on the functioning of the body. Understandings: U1 • In animal studies, the therapeutic index is the lethal dose of a drug for 50% of the population (LD50) divided by the minimum effective dose for 50% of the population (ED50).

SE: 566-568

U2 • In humans, the therapeutic index is the toxic dose of a drug for 50% of the population (TD50) divided by the minimum effective dose for 50% of the population (ED50).

SE: 567

U3 • The therapeutic window is the range of dosages between the minimum amounts of the drug that produce the desired effect and a medically unacceptable adverse effect.

SE: 566-567

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U4 • Dosage, tolerance, addiction and side effects are considerations of drug administration.

SE: 566-567

U5 • Bioavailability is the fraction of the administered dosage that reaches the target part of the human body.

SE: 564-565

U6 • The main steps in the development of synthetic drugs include identifying the need and structure, synthesis, yield and extraction.

SE: 569-570

U7 • Drug–receptor interactions are based on the structure of the drug and the site of activity.

SE: 568

Applications and skills: A1 • Discussion of experimental foundations for therapeutic index and therapeutic window through both animal and human studies.

SE: 566-567, 570, 610

A2 • Discussion of drug administration methods.

SE: 563-564, 570, 611

A3 • Comparison of how functional groups, polarity and medicinal administration can affect bioavailability.

SE: 564-565, 570, 609

Guidance: G1 • For ethical and economic reasons, animal and human tests of drugs (for LD50/ED50 and TD50/ED50 respectively) should be kept to a minimum.

SE: 567

D.2 Aspirin and penicillin Essential idea: Natural products with useful medicinal properties can be chemically altered to produce more potent or safer medicines. Understandings: Aspirin: U1 • Mild analgesics function by intercepting the pain stimulus at the source, often by interfering with the production of substances that cause pain, swelling or fever.

SE: 572-573

U2 • Aspirin is prepared from salicylic acid. SE: 573 U3 • Aspirin can be used as an anticoagulant, in prevention of the recurrence of heart attacks and strokes and as a prophylactic.

SE: 575-576

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Penicillin: U5 • Penicillins are antibiotics produced by fungi.

SE: 577-578

U6 • A beta-lactam ring is a part of the core structure of penicillins.

SE: 578-579

U7 • Some antibiotics work by preventing cross-linking of the bacterial cell walls.

SE: 579

U8 • Modifying the side-chain results in penicillins that are more resistant to the penicillinase enzyme.

SE: 580

Applications and skills: Aspirin A1 • Description of the use of salicylic acid and its derivatives as mild analgesics.

SE: 573

A2 • Explanation of the synthesis of aspirin from salicylic acid, including yield, purity by recrystallization and characterization using IR and melting point.

SE: 573-575, 577

A3 • Discussion of the synergistic effects of aspirin with alcohol.

SE: 576-577, 609

A4 • Discussion of how the aspirin can be chemically modified into a salt to increase its aqueous solubility and how this facilitates its bioavailability.

SE: 576-577

Penicillin A5 • Discussion of the effects of chemically modifying the side-chain of penicillins.

SE: 580, 609-611

A6 • Discussion of the importance of patient compliance and the effects of the over-prescription of penicillin.

SE: 580, 609-610

A7 • Explanation of the importance of the beta-lactam ring on the action of penicillin.

SE: 578-579, 609-611

Guidance: G1 • Students should be aware of the ability of acidic (carboxylic) and basic (amino) groups to form ionic salts, for example soluble aspirin.

SE: 576

G2 • Structures of aspirin and penicillin are available in the data booklet in section 37.

SE: 573, 578

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D.3 Opiates Essential idea: Potent medical drugs prepared by chemical modification of natural products can be addictive and become substances of abuse. Understandings: U1 • The ability of a drug to cross the blood–brain barrier depends on its chemical structure and solubility in water and lipids.

SE: 582

U2 • Opiates are natural narcotic analgesics that are derived from the opium poppy.

SE: 581-582

U3 • Morphine and codeine are used as strong analgesics. Strong analgesics work by temporarily bonding to receptor sites in the brain, preventing the transmission of pain impulses without depressing the central nervous system.

SE: 583-584

U4 • Medical use and addictive properties of opiate compounds are related to the presence of opioid receptors in the brain.

SE: 581-582

Applications and skills: A1 • Explanation of the synthesis of codeine and diamorphine from morphine.

SE: 584, 610

A2 • Description and explanation of the use of strong analgesics.

SE: 582, 609-610

A3 • Comparison of the structures of morphine, codeine and diamorphine (heroin).

SE: 583, 586, 610

A4 • Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of using morphine and its derivatives as strong analgesics.

SE: 585-586, 610

A5 • Discussion of side effects and addiction to opiate compounds.

SE: 586, 610-611

A6 • Explanation of the increased potency of diamorphine compared to morphine based on their chemical structure and solubility.

SE: 583-584, 586, 609-610

Guidance: G1 • Structures of morphine, codeine and diamorphine can be found in the data booklet in section 37.

SE: 583

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D.4 pH regulation of the stomach Essential idea: Excess stomach acid is a common problem that can be alleviated by compounds that increase the stomach pH by neutralizing or reducing its secretion. Understandings: U1 • Non-specific reactions, such as the use of antacids, are those that work to reduce the excess stomach acid.

SE: 590-591

U2 • Active metabolites are the active forms of a drug after it has been processed by the body.

SE: 587

Applications and skills: A1 • Explanation of how excess acidity in the stomach can be reduced by the use of different bases.

SE: 588-590, 609-610

A2 • Construction and balancing of equations for neutralization reactions and the stoichiometric application of these equations.

SE: 590-591,594, 609-610

A3 • Solving buffer problems using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation.

SE: 592-594, 609-610

A4 • Explanation of how compounds such as ranitidine (Zantac) can be used to inhibit stomach acid production.

SE: 589, 609-610

A5 • Explanation of how compounds like omeprazole (Prilosec) and esomeprazole (Nexium) can be used to suppress acid secretion in the stomach.

SE: 589-590, 609-610

Guidance: G1 • Antacid compounds should include calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate.

SE: 590-591

G2 • Structures for ranitidine and esomeprazole can be found in the data booklet in section 37.

SE: 589-590

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D.5 Antiviral medications Essential idea: Antiviral medications have recently been developed for some viral infections while others are still being researched. Understandings: U1 • Viruses lack a cell structure and so are more difficult to target with drugs than bacteria.

SE: 594-595

U2 • Antiviral drugs may work by altering the cell’s genetic material so that the virus cannot use it to multiply. Alternatively, they may prevent the viruses from multiplying by blocking enzyme activity within the host cell.

SE: 596

Applications and skills: A1 • Explanation of the different ways in which antiviral medications work.

SE: 596, 610

A2 • Description of how viruses differ from bacteria.

SE: 594, 610

A3 • Explanation of how oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) work as a preventative agent against flu viruses.

SE: 598-599, 610

A4 • Comparison of the structures of oseltamivir and zanamivir.

SE: 599, 610

A5 • Discussion of the difficulties associated with solving the AIDS problem.

SE: 600-601, 602, 610

Guidance: G1 • Structures for oseltamivir and zanamivir can be found in the data booklet in section 37.

SE: 599

D.6 Environmental impact of some medications Essential idea: The synthesis, isolation, and administration of medications can have an effect on the environment. Understandings: U1 • High-level waste (HLW) is waste that gives off large amounts of ionizing radiation for a long time.

SE: 604

U2 • Low-level waste (LLW) is waste that gives off small amounts of ionizing radiation for a short time.

SE: 604

U3 • Antibiotic resistance occurs when micro-organisms become resistant to antibacterials.

SE: 606-607

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Applications and skills: A1 • Describe the environmental impact of medical nuclear waste disposal.

SE: 604-606, 608

A2 • Discussion of environmental issues related to left-over solvents.

SE: 603-604, 608

A3 • Explanation of the dangers of antibiotic waste, from improper drug disposal and animal waste, and the development of antibiotic resistance.

SE: 606-607, 608

A4 • Discussion of the basics of green chemistry (sustainable chemistry) processes.

SE: 608, 612-613

A5 • Explanation of how green chemistry was used to develop the precursor for Tamiflu (oseltamivir).

SE: 607-608

Guidance: G1 • The structure of oseltamivir is provided in the data booklet in section 37.

SE: 607