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Parenting and Development. Parenting Diana Baumrind

Dec 28, 2015

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  • Parenting and Development

  • Parenting

    Diana Baumrind

  • Dimensions of Parenting1. Punitiveness

  • Dimensions of Parenting1. Punitiveness2. Withdrawal of Love

  • Dimensions of Parenting1. Punitiveness2. Withdrawal of Love 3. Encourages give-and-take

  • Dimensions of Parenting1. Punitiveness2. Withdrawal of Love 3. Encourages give-and-take4. Demandingness

  • Dimensions of Parenting1. Punitiveness2. Withdrawal of Love 3. Encourages give-and-take4. Demandingness5. Restricts Autonomy

  • Dimensions of Parenting1. Punitiveness2. Withdrawal of Love 3. Encourages give-and-take4. Demandingness5. Restricts Autonomy6. High Power

  • Dimensions of Parenting1. Punitiveness2. Withdrawal of Love 3. Encourages give-and-take4. Demandingness5. Restricts Autonomy6. High Power7. Firm Control

  • AuthoritarianPunitivevariesLove w/drawalvariesGive & takelowDemandshighAutonomylowExerts powerhighFirm controlhigh

  • What does the Authoritarian parent do? Attempts to shape, control, and evaluate the childs behavior and attitudes based on the parents own set of standards, which are usually rigid and absolute

    Values obedience, believes in keeping the child in his/her place and in restricting the child's autonomy

    Does not encourage verbal give-and-take; believes child should take the parent's word for whats right

  • AuthoritarianPermissivePunitivevarieslowLove w/drawalvariesvariesGive & takelowhighDemandshighlowAutonomylowhighExerts powerhighlowFirm controlhighlow

  • What does the Permissive parent do? Consults with the child about all decisionsMakes few demands regarding chores & responsibilitiesDoes not view herself as a resource as an active agent responsible for shaping or changing the child's behaviorsAllows child to regulate own activitiesAvoids exercising control

  • AuthoritarianPermissiveAuthoritativePunitivevarieslowlowLove w/drawalvariesvarieslowGive & takelowhighhighDemandshighlowmoderateAutonomylowhighmoderateExerts powerhighlowmoderateFirm controlhighlowhigh

  • What does the Authoritative parent do?Encourages verbal give-and-takeShares with child the reasons behind expectations and rulesValues both autonomy and disciplined conformityExerts consistent and firm, but not excessive, controlAffirms child's qualities but sets standards of behaviorDoes not base decisions solely on child's desires

  • outcomes of authoritarian parentinglow social & cognitive competencelow self-esteemlittle initiativeanxious, withdrawnwhen frustrated, respond with hostilityboys: anger and defiancegirls: dependence and retreat from challengeif authoritarian and punitive: more severe problems

  • outcomes of permissive parentingimmaturelow impulse controllittle responsibilitylittle independencedisobedient of demands that conflict with own desiresdemanding of adultsaggression

  • outcomes of authoritative parentinghigh social and cognitive competenceself-reliant, self-controlledmoral maturitygirls: high achievement orientationboys: high social cooperation

  • Neglecting/Uninvolved ParentingLow responsiveness Low demandingness/control May be neglectful Sometimes related to parental depression

    Outcomes: antisocial behavior, poor self-regulation, low academic and social competence

  • Effective versus ineffective discipline strategiesEffective Remain CalmPick battlesNegotiate from a position of authorityBe authoritative, but respect the childs autonomyBe consistentBe contingent

    Ineffective Harsh language or behaviorPersonal attacksThreats (particularly idle threats)Lack of follow throughPermissivenessLong winded explanations

  • Responding to negative emotionsAnger, Fear, Hurt/Disappointment

    Reinforce the distinction between words and actionsDo not negate or suppress the expression of negative emotions in pro-social waysContain and withstand childs emotions

  • Parent ChildChilds temperament influences parental behaviors.

  • Parent ChildChilds temperament influences parental behaviors.Childs characteristics influence outcomes of discipline.

  • Parent ChildChilds temperament influences parental behaviors.Childs characteristics influence outcomes of discipline.Parents tend to parent different children differently

  • Parent ChildChilds temperament influences parental behaviors.Childs characteristics influence outcomes of discipline.Parents tend to parent different children differentlyParents of hyperactive children change their parenting style when their children go on medication.

  • Parent ChildChilds temperament influences parental behaviors.Childs characteristics influence outcomes of discipline.Parents tend to parent different children differentlyParents of hyperactive children change their parenting style when their children go on medication.

    Not a unidirectional relation!

  • The Transition to Parenthood:

    Preparing for a chronic emergency

  • Transition to ParenthoodCross-sectional Studiesmarital satisfaction declines over the first 15 years of marriage

    similar curves for parents and non-parents, but childless couples tend to be more satisfied

    U shaped curve (but least satisfied couples may have divorced)

  • Transition to ParenthoodLongitudinal Studiesmarital satisfaction declines after birth of babylack of comparison group of childless couples

    continuity over time in new parents marital qualitybabies dont appear to create severe stress where it was not present beforeinitially, babies do not bring parents closer together

  • a normal consequence of the transition to parenthood is

    polarization

  • Changes inidentity and inner life

  • Changes inidentity and inner life

    the roles and relationships within the marriage

  • Changes inidentity and inner life

    the roles and relationships within the marriage

    the three-generational roles and relationships

  • Changes inidentity and inner life

    the roles and relationships within the marriage

    the three-generational roles and relationships

    roles and relationships outside of the family

  • Changes inidentity and inner life

    the roles and relationships within the marriage

    the three-generational roles and relationships

    roles and relationships outside of the family

    new parenting roles and expectations

  • Factors that affect the quality of the couple relationship during the transitionCapacity to balance individuality and mutuality

  • Factors that affect the quality of the couple relationship during the transitionCapacity to balance individuality and mutualityCommunication skills of both parents

  • Factors that affect the quality of the couple relationship during the transitionCapacity to balance individuality and mutualityCommunication skills of both parentsRealistic expectations about what the baby will bring

  • Factors that affect the quality of the couple relationship during the transitionCapacity to balance individuality and mutualityCommunication skills of both parentsRealistic expectations about what the baby will bringDivision of labor in ways that are consistent with both parents beliefs

  • Factors that affect the quality of the couple relationship during the transitionCapacity to balance individuality and mutualityCommunication skills of both parentsRealistic expectations about what the baby will bringDivision of labor in ways that are consistent with both parents beliefsConflict management skills (regulation of affect)

  • Marriage is a developmental phenomenon rooted in the individuals early family experience

  • Marital satisfaction affects parental competence