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ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH SOLUTION CIRCUIT FOR LOW-GRADE HEAT RECOVERY

Sep 12, 2015

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ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH SOLUTION CIRCUIT FOR LOW-GRADE
HEAT RECOVERY

  • Graduate School ETD Form 9 (Revised 12/07)

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL

    Thesis/Dissertation Acceptance

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    By

    Entitled

    For the degree of

    Is approved by the final examining committee:

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    To the best of my knowledge and as understood by the student in the Research Integrity and Copyright Disclaimer (Graduate School Form 20), this thesis/dissertation adheres to the provisions of Purdue Universitys Policy on Integrity in Research and the use of copyrighted material.

    Approved by Major Professor(s): ____________________________________

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    Approved by: Head of the Graduate Program Date

    Abhinav Krishna

    ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH SOLUTION CIRCUIT FOR LOW-GRADE HEATRECOVERY

    Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering

    Eckhard A. Groll

    Suresh V. Garimella

    James E. Braun

    W. Travis Horton

    Eckhard Groll

    David Anderson 07/25/2012

  • Graduate School Form 20 (Revised 9/10)

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    Title of Thesis/Dissertation:

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    ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH SOLUTION CIRCUIT FOR LOW-GRADE HEATRECOVERY

    Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering

    Abhinav Krishna

    07/12/2012

  • ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH SOLUTION CIRCUIT FOR LOW-GRADE HEAT RECOVERY

    A Thesis

    Submitted to the Faculty

    of

    Purdue University

    by

    Abhinav Krishna

    In Partial Fulfillment of the

    Requirements for the Degree

    of

    Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering

    August 2012

    Purdue University

    West Lafayette, Indiana

  • All rights reserved

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  • ii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The contents of this work, and my personal growth during its development, is due

    in no small part to several people. My advisors Eckhard Groll and Suresh Garimella

    provided plenty of guidance and support, not to mention commensurate intellectual

    freedom, throughout my Masters studies. Jim Braun and Travis Horton thank you for

    all your useful insights during the course of this project.

    I would like to thank everyone that helped in the design and construction of the

    challenging experimental setup for this project. Frank, Bob and Gilbert thank you for

    your efforts. Special thanks to two tireless students, Philipp Danecker and Nick Czapla,

    for the countless hours you spent working on the setup. Your motivation and competence

    went a long way in raising my enthusiasm for this project.

    I have had the privilege of working with some of the best graduate students

    around. Brandon Woodland unassuming and soft spoken provided plenty of brain

    power for this work. Not that he represents a victory of substance over style, because he

    has plenty of both. Ian Bell and Craig Bradshaw provided quality mentorship and plenty

    of ideas. My other colleagues at Herrick Laboratories including Bryce, Christian, Dong

    Han, Howard, Huize, Simba, Stephen and several others have lent me their time, of

    which they had precious little. I have been lucky to foster several friendships that extend

    beyond professional interests during my time at Herrick Laboratories.

  • iii

    Finally, I would like to thank the Cooling Technologies Research Center, and

    TORAD Engineering for funding this research and providing customized equipment. I

    would also like to thank ASHRAE for providing me with financial support during my

    Masters studies.

  • iv

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. vi LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... vii NOMENCLATURE .......................................................................................................... ix ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................. xii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................1

    1.1 Background ........................................................................................ 1 1.2 Motivation .......................................................................................... 2 1.3 Objective ............................................................................................ 3 1.4 Approach ............................................................................................ 6

    CHAPTER 2. CURRENT STATUS OF TECHNOLOGY ...............................................8 2.1 Organic Rankine Cycles .................................................................... 8 2.2 Absorption Power Cycles .................................................................. 9 2.3 Working Fluid Mixtures .................................................................. 11

    CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND RESULTS .......................................................................................13

    3.1 Baseline Cycles ................................................................................ 13 3.1.1 Organic Rankine Cycle ............................................................ 13 3.1.2 Vapor Compression Cycle with Solution Circuit ..................... 14 3.1.3 Organic Rankine Cycle with Solution Circuit .......................... 16

    3.2 Thermodynamic Features of Binary Mixtures ................................. 18 3.2.1 Phase Equilibrium .................................................................... 18 3.2.2 Absorption / Desorption Process .............................................. 20 3.2.3 Temperature Glide and Capacity Control ................................ 22

    3.3 Cycle Model of an Organic Rankine Cycle with Solution Circuit .. 25 3.3.1 Mass Balance ............................................................................ 27 3.3.2 Energy Balance ......................................................................... 28

    3.4 Organic Rankine Cycle with Solution Circuit Model Results ......... 32 CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL TEST SYSTEM ..................................45

    4.1 System Sizing................................................................................... 45 4.2 System Design and Layout .............................................................. 48 4.3 Design and Selection of Major Components ................................... 53

    4.3.1 Pump ......................................................................................... 53 4.3.2 Heat Exchangers ....................................................................... 57 4.3.3 Expander ................................................................................... 60 4.3.4 Separator ................................................................................... 64

  • v

    Page

    4.3.5 Receiver .................................................................................... 66 4.3.6 Expansion Valves ..................................................................... 66 4.3.7 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition ...................................... 67

    4.4 Experimental Error and Uncertainty ................................................ 68 CHAPTER 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ...................................71

    5.1 Experimental Program Overview .................................................... 71 5.2 Experimental Performance Trends .................................................. 75 5.3 Experimental Program Summary ............................................