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Organic pollutants in the water cycle properties, occurrence, analysis

Aug 19, 2014

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Civil engineers, environmental scientists, students.

  • Organic Pollutants in the Water Cycle Edited by Thorsten Reemtsma and Martin Jekel Organic Pollutants in the Water Cycle. T. Reemtsma and M. Jekel (Eds.). Copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-31297-8
  • Related Titles Chiou, CT Partition and Adsorption of Organic Contminants in Environmental Systems 2002 ISBN 0-471-23325-0 Frimmel, F. H., Abbt-Braun, G., Heumann, K. G., Hock, B., Ldemann, H.-D., Spiteller, M. (eds.) Refractory Organic Substances in the Environment 2002 ISBN 3-527-30173-9
  • Organic Pollutants in the Water Cycle Edited by Thorsten Reemtsma and Martin Jekel Properties, Occurrence, Analysis and Environmental Relevance of Polar Compounds
  • The Editors Dr. Thorsten Reemtsma Sekr. KF 4 Technical University of Berlin Strasse des 17. Juni 135 10623 Berlin Germany Prof. Dr. Martin Jekel Sekr. KF 4 Technical University of Berlin Strasse des 17. Juni 135 10623 Berlin Germany Cover G. Schulz, Fugnheim Cover illustration: V8 light metal engine block, by Josef Schmid, NAGEL Maschinen- und Werkzeugfabrik GmbH Cover This text describes the cover with its very interesting details and includes the photo- graphers name and maybe his address. This text describes the cover with its very interesting details and includes the photo- graphers name and maybe his address. This text describes the cover with its very interesting details and includes the photo- graphers name and maybe his address. All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information con- tained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate. Library of Congress Card No. applied for British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at http://dnd.ddb.de. 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany Printed on acid-free paper Composition Detzner Fotosatz, Speyer Printing betz-druck GmbH, Darmstadt Bookbinding Litges & Dopf Buchbinderei GmbH, Heppenheim ISBN-13: 978-3-527-31297-9 ISBN-10: 3-527-31297-8
  • Contents Preface XIII 1 Analytical Methods for Polar Pollutants 1 Thorsten Reemtsma and Jos Benito Quintana 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The Analytical Process 1 1.3 Sample Pretreatment and Analyte Extraction 2 1.3.1 Sample Pretreatment 2 1.3.2 Solid Samples 3 1.3.3 Aqueous Samples 6 1.3.3.1 Solid Phase Extraction 6 1.3.3.2 Microextractions 10 1.4 Gas Chromatographic Methods 14 1.4.1 Derivatization 14 1.4.1.1 Alkylation and Esterification 15 1.4.1.2 Acylation 16 1.4.1.3 Silylation 16 1.4.2 Separation and Detection 17 1.4.2.1 Separation 17 1.4.2.2 Detection 17 1.5 Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry 19 1.5.1 Liquid Chromatography 20 1.5.1.1 Ionic Analytes 20 1.5.1.2 Non-Ionic Analytes 23 1.5.1.3 Amphoteric Compounds 25 1.5.1.4 Multiresidue Methods 26 1.5.1.5 Chiral Separation 26 1.5.2 Mass Spectrometry 27 1.5.2.1 Ionization 27 1.5.2.2 Mass Spectrometers and Modes of Operation 29 1.5.2.3 Quantitation Strategies and Matrix Effects 32 1.6 Conclusions 33 References 34 V Organic Pollutants in the Water Cycle. T. Reemtsma and M. Jekel (Eds.). Copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-31297-8
  • 2 Residues of Pharmaceuticals from Human Use 41 Thomas Heberer and Thomas Ternes 2.1 Introduction 41 2.2 Routes into the Environment 42 2.3 Wastewater 43 2.3.1 Occurrence 43 2.3.2 Removal in Municipal STPs 46 2.4 Surface Water 50 2.4.1 Occurrence 50 2.4.2 Degradation in Surface Waters 52 2.4.3 Sediments 52 2.5 Groundwater and Underground Passage 53 2.6 Drinking Water Treatment 56 2.6.1 Sorption and Flocculation 56 2.6.1.1 Flocculation 56 2.6.2 Oxidation 56 2.6.2.1 Ozonation 56 2.6.2.2 Ozonation Products 57 2.6.3 Membrane Filtration 58 2.6.4 Evaluation of the Treatment Processes 59 References 59 3 Antibiotics for Human Use 65 Radka Alexy and Klaus Kmmerer 3.1 Introduction 65 3.2 Use of Antibiotics 65 3.3 Emissions into the Environment 69 3.4 Occurrence and Fate of Antibiotics 70 3.4.1 Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment 70 3.4.1.1 Hospital Wastewater 70 3.4.1.2 Municipal Wastewater 71 3.4.2 Surface Water 74 3.4.3 Groundwater 75 3.5 Elimination and Degradation in the Aquatic Environment 76 3.5.1 Elimination by Sorption 76 3.5.2 Non-biotic Degradation 78 3.5.2.1 Photolysis 78 3.5.2.2 Hydrolysis 79 3.5.3 Biodegradation 79 3.6 Effects on Aquatic Organisms 80 3.6.1 Effects on Aquatic Bacteria and Resistance 80 3.6.2 Effects on Higher Aquatic Organisms 82 3.7 Conclusion 82 Acknowledgments 83 References 83 VI Contents
  • 4 Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media 87 Anke Putschew and Martin Jekel 4.1 Introduction 87 4.2 Source 88 4.3 Wastewater Treatment 89 4.4 Receiving Water 91 4.5 Groundwater/Exposed Groundwater 92 4.6 Treatment 94 4.7 Summary 96 References 97 5 Veterinary Pharmaceuticals 99 Gerd Hamscher 5.1 Introduction 99 5.2 Substance Classes 100 5.2.1 Aminoglycosides 101 5.2.2 -Lactam Antibiotics 102 5.2.3 Macrolides 103 5.2.4 Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones 104 5.2.5 Sulfonamides 105 5.2.6 Tetracyclines 107 5.2.7 Various Antibiotics 108 5.3 Pathways to the Environment 110 5.3.1 Liquid Manure 111 5.3.2 Soil Fertilization 112 5.3.3 Aquaculture 113 5.4 Occurrence in Wastewater Treatment Plants 114 5.5 Surface Waters 115 5.6 Groundwater 116 5.7 Water Treatment 117 5.8 Summary 117 Acknowledgments 118 References 118 6 Polar Herbicides and Metabolites 121 Rita Fobbe, Birgit Kuhlmann, Jrgen Nolte, Gudrun Preu, Christian Skark, and Ninette Zullei-Seibert 6.1 General 121 6.1.1 History 122 6.1.2 Classification and Application 122 6.1.2.1 Classification 122 6.1.2.2 Application 123 6.1.3 Herbicide Classes Considered 125 6.1.3.1 Phenoxycarboxylic Acids 125 6.1.3.2 Triazines 126 VIIContents
  • 6.1.3.3 Aromatic Acid Herbicides 127 6.1.3.4 Benzonitriles 128 6.1.3.5 Dinitroalkylphenol Herbicides 129 6.1.3.6 Phosphorus Compounds 130 6.1.3.7 Ureas 131 6.1.3.8 Nitrogenous Compounds 133 6.2 Entry into the Environment 134 6.3 Polar Herbicides in Wastewater 135 6.4 Polar Herbicides in Surface Water 136 6.4.1 Pathways to Surface Waters 136 6.4.2 Occurrence in Surface Water 137 6.5 Polar Herbicides in Groundwater 140 6.5.1 Pathways to Groundwater 140 6.5.2 Occurrence in Groundwater 141 6.5.3 Metabolites 144 6.6 Water Treatment 145 6.6.1 Activated Carbon 145 6.6.2 Physico-chemical Processes (Flocculation, Rapid Filtration, Sedimentation) 146 6.6.3 Oxidation and Disinfection 146 6.6.4 Natural Filtration Processes (Bank Filtration, Slow Sand Filtration, Underground Passage) 147 6.6.5 Membrane Filtration 148 6.6.6 Conclusions Water Treatment 148 6.7 Summary 149 References 149 7 Aminopolycarboxylate Complexing Agents 155 Carsten K. Schmidt and Heinz-Jrgen Brauch 7.1 Introduction 155 7.2 Applications and Consumption 157 7.3 Occurrence and Fate in Wastewaters 162 7.3.1 Biodegradation 162 7.3.2 Other Treatment Options 166 7.3.3 Occurrence in Wastewater 167 7.4 Occurrence and Fate in Surface Waters 169 7.4.1 Occurrence and Speciation 169 7.4.2 Fate and Effects 170 7.5 Occurrence and Fate in Groundwater 172 7.6 Behavior during Drinking Water Processing 174 7.7 Conclusions 176 References 176 VIII Contents
  • 8 Amines 181 Hilmar Brnick and Torsten C. Schmidt 8.1 Introduction 181 8.1.1 Characterization of Amines and Choice of Compounds 181 8.1.2 Properties 182 8.2 Production 184 8.3 Emission 186 8.4 Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment 189 8.4.1 Occurrence in Wastewater 189 8.4.2 Biological Treatment 189 8.4.3 Oxidative Technologies 191 8.4.4 Other Treatment Technologies 192 8.5 Surface Water 192 8.5.1 Occurrence 192 8.5.2 Transformation and Degradation Processes 193 8.5.2.1 Abiotic Processes 195 8.5.2.2 Biological Degradation 196 8.6 Groundwater 200 8.6.1 Occurrence 200 8.6.2 Sorption and Transformation Processes 201 8.7 Drinking Water and Drinking Water Treatment 203 8.7.1 Occurrence 203 8.7.2 Treatment 204 8.8 Conclusions 205 References 206 9 Surfactant Metabolites 211 Thomas P. Knepper and Peter Eichhorn 9.1 Introduction 211 9.2 Aerobic Biodegradation of Surfactants 213 9.2.1 Introduction 213 9.2.2 Anionic Surfactants 216 9.2.3 Non-ionic Surfactants 221 9.2.4 Amphoteric Surfactants 226 9.3 Surfactants and Metabolites in Wastewater Treatment Plants 228 9.3.1 Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates and their Degradation Products 229 9.3.2 Alkylphenol Ethoxylates and their Degradation Products 230 9.4 Surfactants and Metabolites in Surface Waters 232 9.4.1 Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates and their Degradation Products 232 9.4.2 Alkylphenol Ethoxylates and their Degradation Products 233 9.5 Surfactants and Metabolites in Subsoil/Underground Passage 233