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Jan 12, 2016
ObjectivesThe presentation will:define/describe early interventionprovide examples of early intervention strategiesdemonstrate an early intervention programdiscuss newly researched tools in assisting early interventionencourage active listening during this presentation through the use of questioningprovide teachers with resources dealing with early intervention
Early InterventionJodi KelleyKatie PageCarol PetrulakJulie Thomas
What is Early Intervention?Early intervention applies to children of school age or younger who are discovered to have or be at risk of developing a handicapping condition or other special need that may affect their development. Early intervention is designed to improve outcomes for children with disabilities by providing early, appropriate, and intensive interventions.Early intervention can be remedial or preventative in naturecorrecting existing developmental problems or preventing their occurrence.It may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together.
Early intervention may:Focus on the child alone or on the child & family togetherBe center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination
Services range from identification (that is, the hospital or school screening and referral services) to diagnostic and direct intervention programs. **Early intervention may start at any time between birth and school age; however, it should begin as early as possible.***
What is Early Intervention?
Why Intervene Early?3 primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child:To enhance the childs developmentTo provide support and assistance to the familyTo maximize the childs and familys benefit to society
The rate of human learning and development is most rapid during the preschool years. Therefore, the timing of intervention becomes particularly important when child runs the risk of missing an opportunity to learn during a state of maximum readiness. ~If the most teachable moments or stages of greatest readiness are not taken advantage of, a child may have difficulty learning a particular skill at a later time.
Why Intervene Early?Early intervention services also have a significant impact on the parents and siblings of an exceptional infant or young child. They often feel: DisappointmentSocial isolationAdded stressFrustrationHelplessness
The compounded stress of the presence of the exceptional child may affect the familys well-being and interfere with the childs development.
Early Intervention Can Help FamiliesEarly intervention can result in:parents having improved attitudes about themselves and their childimproved information and skills for teaching their childmore release time for leisure and employment*Parents of gifted preschoolers also need early services to that they may better provide the supportive and nurturing environment needed for the child.
*By intervening early, society will reap the maximum benefits as well. The childs increased developmental and educational gains and decreased dependence upon social institutions, the familys increased ability to cope with the presence of an exceptional child, and perhaps the childs increased eligibility for employment, all provide economic as well as social benefits.
Is Early Intervention Really Effective?Quatative and qualitative evidence prove that early intervention increases the developmental and educational gains for child, improves the functioning of the family, and reaps long-term benefits for society.Early intervention has been shown to result in the child:needing fewer special education and other habilitative services later in lifebeing retained in grade less oftenbeing indistinguishable from non handicapped classmates years after intervention
Is Early Intervention Cost Effective?The highly specialized, comprehensive services necessary to produce the desired developmental gains are often, on a short-term basis, more costly than traditional school-aged service delivery models. However, there are significant examples of long-term cost savings that result from such early intervention programs.
Studies have found that when schools invest $3,000 for 1 year of preschool education for a child, they immediately begin to recover their investments through savings in special education services.
Public schools saved $3,353 because children with preschool education had fewer years in grades.
Is Early Intervention Cost Effective?Another study calculated the total cumulative costs to age 18 of special education services to child beginning intervention at: (a) birth; (b) age 2; (c) age 6; and (d) at age 6 with no eventual movement to regular education. She found that the total costs were actually less if begun at birth!
Total cost of special services begun at birth was $37,273 and total cost begun at age 6 was between $46,816 and $53,340!
During the 2006-2007 program year Head Start had 976,150 children enrolled and 95,547 children enrolled in Early Head Start. The average cost per child in Head Start is $7,429 and for Early Head Start $10,591.
(Early Head Start is birth to 3 and Head Start is 3 and up- preschool age)
Are There Critical Features To Include In Early Intervention?
The age of the child at the time of intervention
The intensity and/or the amount of structure of the program model
Individualized Literacy Plans (ILP) What are ILPs?Preventive interventions aimed at young children who are thought to be at risk for developing reading programs developed by the classroom teacher in partnership with the Early Literacy Support Team, parents, and/or guardians.
Children fall into this group if they do not reach certain benchmarks that have been set or because of teacher and/or parental concerns.
Each child has their own literacy basket that includes items that meet their needs and pertain to the interests of the child.
Each session is five to ten minutes long. Child works one on one with a teacher.
What Should Be Included in Basket? Alphabet booksLetter BINGOColored sand for child to write inLetter stampersPlay dough to shape lettersDifferent writing utensilsMagnetic letters and boards
What Are the Goals for ILPs?
Name writingUpper/lowercase identificationDeveloping fine motor skills
Direct InstructionDirect Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning. Its creators, Siegfried Engelmann and Dr. Wesley Becker and their c olleagues believe and have proved that correctly applied, DI can improve academic performance as well as certain affective behaviors. It is currently in use in thousands of schools across the nation as well as in Canada, the UK and Australia. A crucial element in the implementation of DI in most cases is change.
Direct InstructionRequires hard work, dedication and commitment to all students. It is crucial that all concerned adopt and internalize the belief that all students, if properly taught, can learn.
A $59 million study that compared 20 different programs used in the federal governments Follow Through concluded that of all the programs studied, Direct Instruction produced the biggest gains in students basic skills and thinking abilities-even in self-esteem.
Language for LearningDirect Instruction Language Program for Pre-K through second grade that is designed to teach young pre-readers language, concepts, information, and knowledge that will be beneficial to them in a classroom setting as they are learning to read. Can be used as part of a pre-school or kindergarten curriculum; to give a head start to children who are developmentally delayed or at-risk; or for children in first or second grade who have not yet acquired essential language and social skills. Curriculum comprises of 150 lessons organized into six groups of skills: Actions, Description of Objects, Information and Background Knowledge, Instructional Words and Problem-Solving Concepts, Classification, and Problem-Solving Strategies and Applications. Program uses an explicit instructional approach, entailing scripted lessons, signaled responses, immediate error correction, cumulative review, and mastery learning.
Lessons are taught to small groups of 4 to 8 students in the beginning stages and 8-12 students for those who are more advanced. It can be used for whole group instruction as well.
Early Repairs for Reading DifficultiesRecent findings drawn from the meta-analysis of intervention studies have shown that the majority of children who experience early reading difficulties can become functional readers if they are provided with early and intensive remediation tailored to their individual needs.
It can also be concluded from recent studies that many impaired readers can be successfully remediated with less intensive and extensive remediation provided that the intervention is provided at an early point in their reading development.
One of the important objectives of future research is to develop the means for determining which children require intensive one-to-one tutoring to be successfully remediated and which children can be successfully remediated with small-group instruction.
Early Repairs for Reading DifficultiesA growing number of neurologists and educators say that with the latest diagnostic tests, children at high risk for reading problems can be identified in preschool and treated before they ever