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Nutrition CHPT 13 Diet During Childhood & Adolescence

Nutrition CHPT 13 Diet During Childhood & Adolescence.

Mar 27, 2015



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Nutrition CHPT 13 Diet During Childhood & Adolescence Slide 2 Inadequate Diets Studies show that mental ability and size of an individual are directly influenced by nutrition in the early years Slide 3 Children ages 1-2 years old Children learn by imitation at this age The parents are the role models for their children Good habits must be enforced starting from this early of an age Slide 4 Mealtime Should be in an enjoyable environment that is calm and relaxed Nutritious foods should be available at all times, snacks should be provided All meals should include a wide variety of foods to to ensure good intake Slide 5 Picky eaters The picky group Kids at this age have varying appetites, likes and dislikes they call this food jags Wt gain of a child during the 2 nd year of life is only 5 pounds Slide 6 NO! Children at 2 y.o want to decide things for themselves They need guidance, not whatever they want Encourage high nutrient dense foods, stay away from sweets, this becomes habit Slide 7 Milk Whole milk is recommended until age 2 because kids of this age dont eat a lot of food Low fat milk is recommended after age 2 Fat is necessary for growth, not fat-laden junk food Slide 8 Salt intake Watch the added salt, there should be known for children of this age Keep foods high in sodium off of their diet plan Slide 9 How much should you expect a child to eat? For preschool kids: 1 tablespoon of food for every year of age If a kid is 3, then they get 3 tablespoons of food Slide 10 Choking Up till the age of 4 years old, these kids are at risk to choke on the same foods that were a problem in the earlier years: Peanuts Grapes Hot dogs Raw carrots Candy Thick P.B. Slide 11 Forcing children to eat Can lead to : anorexia Bulimia Later in life Slide 12 As kids grow In this age group of 1-2 y.o, the caloric requirement diminishes as the child gets older. This picks back up as the child starts to get into pre-teen years Children still need nutritious foods, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals Slide 13 What to limit in 1-2 y.o.s Limit fruit juices Increase water and fiber Avoid excessive amounts of milk, it can crowd out other foods such as iron-rich foods leaving the child with an iron deficiency Slide 14 Childhood obesity Normal ht and wt are calculated based on standardized charts Pediatrician can tell you where your child is on the ht and wt scale for the childs age 1 in 5 kids are now overweight in the U.S. Slide 15 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is seen in kids in the early years Insulin is needed if diet isnt followed and if blood glucose is elevated Slide 16 Cumulative problems related to obesity in children Type 2 diabetes mellitus Asthma Sleep apnea Hyperlipidemia HTN Slide 17 As these kids get older They are likely to suffer other ailments: Hip and knee problems Social stigma Depression Suicide attempts Anorexia from the peer pressure Slide 18 How to handle the obese child Offer dietician to see pt Discuss My Pyramid Discuss exercise regimen, offer fun activities Parents need education and tips that encourage kids to move Slide 19 Healthy Food Options for obese child Health after school snacks such as: Fruits and veggies Salsa as dip Low-fat popcorn Single serving of cereal (whole grain) Individual bag of pretzels AVOID SODAS AND SUGAR DRINKS Slide 20 Other healthful tips for parents Limit t.v. and computer use Get moving yourself, it enforces good habits Never tell a child he is fat Become familiar with My Pyramid Never provide food as a comfort or as a reward Encourage child to drink plenty of water Slide 21 Childhood Type 2 Diabetes Most obese children of ages 10-14 develop this Children need to see Endocrinologist to watch disease Dietician is also needed Slide 22 Adolescence Slide 23 Persons between ages 13 and 20 Period of rapid growth that causes many changes Bones grow and gain density, muscle and fat tissue develop, blood volume increases, boys voices change, girls start menses Different changes occur in different kids, be aware of their needs as individuals, counseling may be needed for these pre-teens and teens Slide 24 Adolescents Tend not to imitate adults, rather they imitate other kids Peer pressure is on in this age group Keep kids involved in allowing them to make health food choices, they will feel more independent Offer nutritious snacks and foods, get rid of the junk and sodas Slide 25 Calorie and Nutrient needs Are increased in the teen years Boys need more calories than girls Girls need more iron than boys d/t menses Slide 26 Anorexia Nervosa Is a physiological disorder seen more prevalent in girls than in boys Slide 27 Effects of Anorexia Hair loss Low B.P Weakness Amenorrhea ( stoppage of monthly menstrual cycle) Brain damage death Slide 28 Slide 29 Causes of Anorexia Unclear overall but is believed to be due to: An inordinate fear of being fat Those with demanding parents try and gain their own control, they choose to not eat Some want to resemble slim fashion models Overachievers and perfectionists who want control over their body Slide 30 Slide 31 Odd behaviors of Anorexics Count calories of every bit of food they put into their mouths Drink large amounts of water and eat ice to feel full Drink boiling hot water with lemon to burn taste buds Chew up food to taste it, then spit it out to not take in the calories Eat large amounts of fruit only Exercise ALL DAY LONG, performing over 2.000 sit ups in a day Using ketone strips to test urine, they want to be in ketosis Slide 32 Bulimia A syndrome in which the pt alternately binges food and then purges by inducing vomiting, using laxatives and diuretics to get rid of ingested foods They are high achievers who are perfectionists, obsessive and depressed, they hide their disease Slide 33 Slide 34 Bulimia starts in late teens into the thirties They binge on high calorie, high fat foods and can do this for a length of time, then they purge to feel better Stress increases the frequency of binges Slide 35 Effects of Bulimia Not usually life-threatening Causes irritation in the esophagus d/t acid coming back up = bleeding Causes loss of electrolytes, malnutrition, dehydration and dental caries Slide 36 Both Anorexia & Bulimia Cause pts to be VERY manipulative, pt doesnt want you to know they are doing this because you will stop them Sneaky people Both illnesses need psychological treatment, usually in-patient setting works best to keep pts focused and in the watchful eyes of others Slide 37 Being overweight Lowers self esteem or ones self worth Slide 38 Fast Foods Try and discourage the consumption of these, limit these to once a week or less These foods contain high Na+ and high calories and fat Slide 39 Alcohol Is a depressant, is addicting and is mistaken for just a happy fun time! Drinking impairs ones judgment and leads to accidents and crime, sleepiness, loss of consciousness, and when too much is consumed in a short time, alcohol poisoning occurs = death Periods of excessive drinking can lead to alcoholism, cirrhosis, kidney and liver damage and death Slide 40 Marijuana Use increases among teens Increases appetite, especially for sweets 1 marijuana cigarette is = to 4-5 tobacco cigarettes because the smoke is held in your lungs longer and the lung absorbs the fat-soluble (THC) and stores it in fat Use of marijuana can lead to the used of there street drugs A.K.A. Mary Jane, weed, grass, pot, dope Slide 41 Cocaine Is highly addictive and extremely harmful Causes: Restlessnesshallucinations Heightened self-confidence Euphorialoss of appetite Irritabilitycardiac irregularities InsomniaM.I. DepressionDeath Cig. Smoking is addictive Confusionsmokable form is crack Slide 42 Tobacco Smokers need extra vitamins like vit C and other vits Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and heart disease Slide 43 Methamphetamine Potent form of amphetamine Causes Hrt, R.R. and BP to increase Mouth is dry, swallowing is difficult Urination is difficult, appetite is decreased Pupils are dilated, reflexes speed up As the drug wears off, fatigue and depression are present Other names: crank, speed, crystal meth, zip and ice Slide 44 Slide 45 Athletes Big in the teen years Athletes need additional: Water needs to be regularly replaced d/t perspiration Calories B Vitamins are needed for energy metabolism Na+K+ Ironprotein Slide 46 IN REVIEW The rate of growth slows between the ages of 1 and 10 Adolescence is a time for rapid growth Fast foods and fads are on the rise, limit intake of fast foods Alcohol and drugs have always been a problem for teens, period of trial and error Increase in Na+, K+, B vits and iron are needed for the athlete Slide 47 THE END