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Dec 29, 2015
NONRENEWABLE ENERGYChapter 16Energy ResourcesEnergy is the ability to do workFlows in a one-way path through the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.Examples:Potential energyKinetic energyMechanical energyChemical energySolar (light) energyElectrical energyThermal energy (convection or conduction) Units of EnergyEnergy unitsJoule (J)*Calorie (cal)British thermal unit (Btu)*Kilowatt hour (kW)*
Power UnitsWatt (W)*Horsepower (hp)LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICSFirst Law of Thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics all energy conversions decrease the usefulness or quality of energy (high quality to low quality).
Because of the 2nd law, energy cannot be recycled.History of Energy Use in the USHuman and animal power; wood
Coal used during the Industrial Revolution to power steam engines- coal overtook wood in 1885
Oil cleaner burning than coal; has more advantages in enginesOil overtook wood in 1915; overtook coal in 1950.
Hydropower overtook wood around 1968.
Nuclear 1972 (wood); 1973 (hydro)
Energy Usage Models:World vs. US
This energy model is NOT sustainable.6Non-Renewable Energy SourcesFossil Fuels coal, oil and natural gas.
Estimated reserves educated guesses about how much of a fossil fuel is left and where it may be found.
Proven reserves exact amounts of oil that can be economically obtained; determined only after drilling.
Oil (Petroleum)Most widely used resource in the world.
Greatest use in US is for transportation.
No new oil refineries have been built in US since 1974.
Since 1985, oil extraction in the US has declined.
ExtractionCrude oil a thick liquid containing hydrocarbons that we extract from underground deposits and separate into products such as gasoline, heating oil and asphalt.Only 35 50% can be economically recovered.As prices rise, about 10 -25% more can be recovered from expensive secondary extraction techniques.This lowers the net energy yield.Recovery MethodsPrimary recovery conventional pumping; removes about 25% of the oil.
Secondary recovery involves injecting brine or steam into a well to pressurize and force out remaining oil; removes about 50% more.
Enhanced recovery carbon dioxide injected into oil field; breaks up oil droplets and allows for more removal.Refining ProcessUses distillation process and melting points of various hydrocarbons.4 StepsDistillation separates different hydrocarbons by melting points.Hydro-cleaning removes sulfur and contaminants.Cracking breaks larger hydrocarbons into smaller, simpler ones.Blending adding smaller hydrocarbons to make different blends (motor oil).
Economics and National SecurityThe US has become increasingly dependent upon foreign oil reserves.Problems and Concerns30% of US balance-of-payment deficit goes to oil.The Middle East is politically unstable; US needs a strong military presence to maintain access to oil.Domestic supplies are running low; no new oil fields expected to be found.Foreign OilOPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesFormed in 1960 so that developing countries could get higher price for oil.11 OPEC countries (Algeria, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Nigeria, Indonesia, Libya, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela)Have 78% of worlds proven oil reserves and most of worlds unproven oil reserves.Peak Oil ProductionUS oil production peaked in 1974
After global production peaks and begins a slow decline, oil prices will rise and could threaten the economies of countries that have not shifted to new energy alternatives.StatsUS is the largest oil user; has only 2.9% of the worlds proven oil reserves.US imports between 60% 70% of its oil, followed by China and Japan.Most of US domestic oil comes from offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico, followed by Alaskas North Slope.Domestic oil costs $7.50 - $10/barrel; costs $1-$2/barrel from Saudi Arabia.
Oil Consumption by Country
Stats cont.Saudi Arabia could supply the world with oil for about 10 years.Alaskas North Slope could meet the world oil demand for about 6 months (US 3 years).Alaskas Arctic National Wildlife Refuge would meet the world demand for 1-5 months (US: 7- 25 months).OptionsWhat can we do?Look for more oil
Use or waste less oil
Develop alternativesOther Sources of OilOil Shales and Oil (Tar) SandsHeavy and tar-like oilsCould supplement conventional oilButenvironmental problemsHigh sulfur contentExtracting and processing produces toxic sludge, uses and contaminates large volumes of waterExpensiveRequires large inputs of natural gas which reduces net energy yield
Ways to Extend Oil SuppliesIncrease the fuel efficiency of vehicles
Utilize fossil fuels other than just oil
Develop alternative fuels
Take a hit in the ole pocket bookTaxes
Advantages1)Currently available2)Simple combustion process that can directly heat or generate electricity3)Inexpensive4)Easily distributed, handled and stored5)Mainly used for transportation and in technologies such as plastics, lubrication, etc.
DisadvantagesDependence on foreign sources Pollution caused by spills and off-shore drilling3) Air pollution caused by burning4) Probably a contributor to global warming5) Questionable availability over a long period of time6) Major price swings based on politics7) Transported thousands of miles by tankers, pipeline, and trucks - all of which can add up to a lot of environmental damage.
Natural GasConsists mostly of methane; but can also be in the form of butane, ethane and propane; removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).Often found above reservoirs of crude oil and is sometimes burned off as an unwanted by-product of oil drilling. WASTEFUL! Also found in Coal bedsIce crystals under the arctic permafrostDeep ocean sediments
StatsRussia and Iran have almost half of the worlds reserves of conventional natural gas, and global reserves should last 62 125 years.
The US has a 25 year supply, with an estimated reserve of 50 years.
Imports come mostly from Canada.
Some damage to land due to drillingThe Future?Some analysts see natural gas as the best fuel to help us make the transition to improved energy efficiency and greater use of renewable energy.Honda offers a cng version of the Civic.
Ford offers kits to convert gas engines to cng.cng = compressed natural gas