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Nonprofit Nuts & Bolts

Dec 30, 2015



Nonprofit Nuts & Bolts. o rganizational basics for the nonprofit professional. Agenda. The Nonprofit Sector Governance Board vs Staff Organization structure Nonprofit Lifecycle Strategic Planning & Evaluation Nonprofit Finances Volunteers Risk Management Q & A. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Nonprofit Nuts & Bolts

Nonprofit Nuts & Boltsorganizational basics for the nonprofit professionalAgendaThe Nonprofit SectorGovernanceBoard vs StaffOrganization structureNonprofit LifecycleStrategic Planning & EvaluationNonprofit FinancesVolunteersRisk ManagementQ & A2Three Sectors of the EconomyNonprofit



Three Sectors of the EconomyNonprofit 501 c 3s: (arts, education, health & human services, environmental, churches, foundations, etc)Social welfare orgsMembership orgs

For-ProfitSole proprietorshipsLLCsPartnershipsCooperativesCorporationsS-Corporations


CITIZENSThe Ownership QuestionA nonprofit corporation is formed to carry out a public purpose, whether that be religious, educational, charitable, scientific or some other. It is prohibited from acting in a manner that results in private inurement to individuals.How can that be? Someone has to own it, right? No, not really. The nonprofit organization is not owned by the person or persons that started it. It is a public organization that belongs to the public at-large. The parties responsible to operate the organization for the stakeholders are the members of the board of directors.Nonprofit/Tax-Exempt Organizations

*Graph from the Natl Center for Charitable Statistics website: nccsweb.urban.orgHow big are we?1,429,801 tax-exempt organizations,including:966,599public charities96,584private foundations366,618other types of nonprofit organizations,including chambers of commerce, fraternal organizations and civic leagues.(Source:NCCS Business Master File 6/2014)

In 2010, nonprofits accounted for 9.2% ofall wages and salaries paid in the United States. (Source:TheNonprofitAlmanac,2012)

Nonprofit Share of GDP was 5.5% in 2012. (Source: The Nonprofit Almanac, 2012)How big are we?In 2012, public charities reportedover $1.65 trillion in total revenues and$1.57 trillion in total expenses. Of the revenue:21% came from contributions, gifts and government grants.73% came from program service revenues, which include government fees and contracts.6% came from "other" sources including dues, rental income, special event income, and gains or losses from goods sold.(Source: NCCS Core Files 2012

80/20 ratio. How does hunger relief orgs compare?

Oregon Food Bank

Growth Spurt!Operating Public Charities 501 c 3s with $25K or more in revenue2003:260,537 - 19.0% (of all nonprofits)2013:576,757 - 40.6% Percentage Change:121.4% 11Governance: So many rules!!Policies are many, Principles are few, Policies will change, Principles never do.-John C. Maxwell


WA Secretary of State ArticlesIRSInitial BylawsGovernanceArticles of IncorporationFiled at inception with Washingtons Secretary of State establishes a Nonprofit CorporationSpecifies: Name Address Purpose / Mission StatementInitial board members MembershipPersonal liability Dissolution

BylawsFiled at inception and submitted to IRS to obtain 501c3 statusSpecifies:Size of the board and how it will functionRoles and duties of directors and officersRules and procedures for holding meetings, electing directors, and appointing officersBoard committeesConflict of interest policies and procedures

State nonprofit laws usually address nonprofit governance matters. However, you can choose different rules, as long as they dont violate state law and are included in your bylaws. GovernanceDo Articles and Bylaws matter to me? YES!Read them every now and againCheck for compliance:Do you need to consider updating your bylaws?Is your board committee working within or outside its bounds?Are you engaging your membership accordingly?

Pop Quiz!What document specifies what constitutes a quorum?

Where would you find information on what authority is vested in the members of your organization?

What group do your board members represent?

Governance & ManagementStaffBoardBoard / Staff

versusandThe Hand-off

Board and StaffGovernance & FundraisingAdherence to articles, bylaws; creation of policiesFinancial OversightAdvocacyStakeholder representationOversight of Ex. Dir.

Strategic PlanningOperations & FundraisingManagementBudgeting / AccountingPersonnelProgramsEvaluation

Strategic Planning

BOARDSTAFFGovernance & ManagementStaffBoardLegal Responsibilities of BoardThe Tree DsDuty of care: Actively participate in organizational planning and decision-making and to make sound and informed judgments.Duty of loyalty: When acting on behalf of the organization, board members must put the interests of the nonprofit before any personal or professional concerns and avoid potential conflicts of interest.Duty of obedience: Board members must ensure that the organization complies with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations, and that it remains committed to its established mission.

Fiduciary ResponsibilityBoard members must evaluate financial policies, approve annual budgets, and review periodic financial reports to ensure that the organization has the necessary resources to carry out its mission and remains accountable to its donors and the general public.

Organizational StructureBoard of DirectorsExecutive DirectorOperationsMarketingProgramsDevelopmentExec Com.Finance Com.Mktg Com.Prgms Com.Dev Com.Nominating Com.Working with CommitteesExtent of Committees authority should be specified in bylawsEx. Dir. may or may not be on committee with staff membersTake advantage of committee members expertiseWhen you find you have more experience, take advantage of their advocacy and stakeholder representation roles

Committee are often vehicles for recruiting new board members. Committee members should feel valued.

Mission CreepCauses:Chasing the money!Excitable board Excitable staffDangers:Staff burnoutDonor/constituent confusionLoss of organizational integrity

Using Governance to Define Operations!!

Nonprofit Lifecycle

Nonprofit Lifecycle

Judith Sharken Simon, 2002 The 5 Life Stages of NonproiftsNonprofit Lifecycle

Strategic Planning & Evaluation

Nonprofit Lifecycle

Judith Sharken Simon, 2002 The 5 Life Stages of NonproiftsStrategic Planning & EvaluationUpdate your strategic plan every 3 5 years:Revisit Mission/VisionDefine internal/external opportunities and threatsInclude well defined goals with timelines and project ownersInclude evaluation methods and benchmarks for programs USE the plan! They can be wonderful management tools that keep your organization from stagnating.Strategic Planning & EvaluationStrategic Planning Resources:

Evaluation Resources:

Nonprofit Finances

Nonprofit FinancesStanford Social Innovation Review:

Running a nonprofit is generally more complicated than running a comparable size for-profit business.

When a for-profit business finds a way to create value for a customer, it has generally found its source of revenue; the customer pays for the value. With rare exceptions, that is not true in the nonprofit sector. When a nonprofit finds a way to create value for a beneficiary (for example, integrating a prisoner back into society or saving an endangered species), it has not identified its economic engine. That is a separate step.

Our beneficiaries are our cost-drivers!Nonprofit FinancesSame basic financial statements as for-profits:Balance Sheet (Statement of Financial Position)Income Statement (Statement of Activities)Cash FlowOdditiesUnrestricted, temporarily restricted and permanently restricted assetsIn-kind contributions, pledgesSpecial Events and Membership Dues (know what portion is tax-deductible!)

Nonprofit FinancesHow do funders use financial statements to evaluate health of a nonprofit:

Cash reserves, operating deficits, debtRatio of earned vs. contributed incomeOverhead Ratio Under major scrutiny right now!

Nonprofit FinancesEndowmentsPermanently restricted capitalInterest income is only spendable cashIs it what you need most?Managing Grant MoneyThis is a restricted assetMust track spending of grant money very carefully!Nonprofits have been sued for misuse of grant funding

Nonprofit FinancesWhat if a nonprofit makes a profit?

Questions on Finances?Volunteers

VolunteersAccording to the IRS, 85% of all charitable nonprofits have no paid staff and are run entirely by volunteers. Volunteers are not entitled to compensation (and receiving it can turn them into employees in the eyes of the law). In most states volunteers are not covered by workers' compensation insurance which is why some nonprofits elect to purchase "volunteer accident insurance.Train, supervise, and evaluate volunteers! Provide a volunteer handbook.

VolunteersKnow whats deductible and not deductible for volunteers:Item or expense must be absolutely critical to performing volunteer dutyValue of their time not deductibleKEEP RECORDS miles, receipts, hours, etc.If more than $250 value, charity must provide written acknowledgement.Charity must keep records for reimbursements so that they are not regarded as compensation.

You must keep track of hours if:The volunteer time results in the creation or enhancement of non-financial assets, such as volunteer labor to renovate a child care center; orThe services volunteered are specialized skills, such as those provided by accountants, nurses, electricians, teachers, or other professionals and craftsmen

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