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    Nonlinear Static Stress Analysis Tutorial

    2-D Cantilever Beam Model

    Part Number 6700.420

    Revision 12.04

    June 1999

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    Nonlinear Static Stress Analysis Tutorial, Revision 12.04printed locally from files supplied electronically. 2

    June 18, 1999

    ALGOR, INC.

    150 Beta Drive

    Pittsburgh, PA 15238-2932 USAPhone: +1 (412) 967-2700

    FAX: +1 (412) 967-2781

    Product/Services E-mail:

    [email protected]

    Technical Support E-mail:

    [email protected]

    Internet Address:

    www.algor.com

    Please refer to Appendix B to see a list of the Algor software programs and version numbers used in this tutorial. If you have

    any problems running this tutorial, please contact your account representative or technical support.

    Copyright 1999 Algor, Inc.

    All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose, either in part or in

    its entirety, without the expressed written permission of Algor, Inc.

    This publication describes the state of Algor software at the time of its printing and may not reflect the software at all times in

    the future. This publication may be changed without notice. This publication is not designed to transmit any engineering

    knowledge relating specifically to any company or individual engineering project. In providing this publication, Algor does

    not assume the role of engineering consultant to any user of this publication and hereby disclaims any and all responsibility

    for any errors or omissions arising out of any engineering activity in which this publication may be utilized.

    This document has been designed to be printed on the customer's local computer and printer. Algor cannot be held

    responsible for any errors incurred in the printing of this document.

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    The Purpose of this Tutorial

    Welcome to the Algor Design and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Systemthe best value in desktop computer FEA. This

    Nonlinear Static Stress Analysis Tutorial provides an introduction to the system in general and the Accupak/NLM software inparticular.

    Note: You must have Algors Accupak/NLM or Accupak/VE software installed on your computer to complete the

    demonstration model in this tutorial. The tutorial specifically demonstrates use of Accupak/NLM, and, if you use

    Accupak/VE instead, some of the keystrokes, text and figures will differ.

    After working through the tutorials demonstration model of a two-dimensional cantilever beam, you should have a basic

    understanding of how the system works. You should also have a good appreciation for some of the advanced modeling tools

    included in the Algor Design and FEA System.

    For additional information about FEA, see Appendix A. For complete product and purchasing information, please contact

    your account representative at Algor, Inc., by calling +1 (412) 967-2700.

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    Nonlinear Static Stress Analysis Tutorial, Revision 12.04printed locally from files supplied electronically. 4

    Tutorial Conventions

    To make this tutorial easy to use, the following conventions will be employed. For the command conventions, the item (or an

    example of one) that you need to perform is noted in bold on the left. To the right of the item is a short description of the

    action and/or results of the action.

    User Input Notation Conventions

    1.04 Enter "1.04" using the keyboard. Text that you need to enter is noted in bold type using a Courier font.

    Press the key (or choose "Esc" from the current menu if using Superview). Some of the other keys

    expressed in this manner are , and the function keys, for example .

    -c Press and the letter "c" simultaneously. Keys to be pressed at the same time are shown with a

    hyphen between them.

    "Enclose" Select the "Enclose" option. The names of pop-up menus, options and buttons are enclosed in quotation

    marks and shown as they are on the screen.

    "Modify: Select the MODIFY pull-down menu and choose the "Copy" option. Then, choose "Rotate Last"

    Copy...: from the "Copy Options" pop-up window. Commands in sequences are separated by colons.

    Rotate Last"

    Mouse Use the mouse to click on the specified location. Algor software is designed for a two-button mouse.

    Where "click" or "left click" is used, you should press the left mouse button. "Right click" means you

    should press the right mouse button. The left mouse button is used for entering new points and making

    menu selections. The right mouse button is used to "snap" to the nearest point in Algor graphics programs

    or to access certain help screens in Superdraw. If you have a three-button mouse, you will not use your

    middle button for Algor software.

    In the tables throughout this tutorial, input instructions using toolbars and pull-down menus are in the two left columns.

    Descriptions or more detailed instructions are given in the right column. For example:

    Selection

    Tools"Select:All" Access the SELECT menu and click on "All" to select all points in

    the model.

    OtherNotation Conventions

    sd3.reb, an .esdfile Filenames and file extensions are lowercase and italic.

    filename.doc Filenames that are user-supplied are in bold, lowercase italics.

    \modeldirectory Directory names may appear in Courier type and be followed by the term "directory". (The directory

    where all your Algor software is stored is usually referred to as the algor directory, where "algor" is

    in bold, lowercase italics.)

    FILE menu Menu names are shown in uppercase characters.

    The rest of "The Basics" section provides introductory information about Algor software, particularly Superdraw III. If you

    would prefer to immediately begin the tutorial's demonstration model, skip ahead to the "Preprocessing" section.

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    Starting Algor Software

    Algor software may be started by:

    Selecting "Algor FEA" from your windows environment. Typing a program name from a command line prompt (e.g., sd3)and pressing .

    For this tutorial, you will be starting Algor software by selecting "Algor FEA". Windows 95/98 and Windows NT 4.0 users

    will find it from the "Start" button under "Programs:Algor Software".Navigating the Superdraw III InterfaceThe Superdraw III interface allows you to access program functions through pull-down menus and toolbars. Superdraw III

    displays the "Add CAD Objects", "File Utilities", "Selection Tools" and "View Utilities" toolbars on default startup.

    Displaying Toolbars

    You can display or hide toolbars or adjust the icon size by selecting the SETTINGS menu and choosing "Toolbars...". Todisplay the toolbars used in the tutorial but not displayed by default, follow these steps:

    "Settings:Toolbars..." Click on "Settings" in the menu bar and then choose "Toolbars" from the pull-downmenu. A pop-up window will appear displaying all of the toolbar titles.Mouse Locate the toolbars you wish to display. Click on each so it is highlighted.Note:If you want to turn a toolbar off, click on the title so it is not highlighted."Close" Click on "Close" to exit the "Toolbars" pop-up.

    You can also adjust the toolbar size while in the "Toolbars" pop-up menu by clicking on one of the display choices on the

    right under "Icon Size".

    As you build your model, you may find that the toolbars prevent you from seeing the whole model. You can move or resizethe toolbars at your convenience.

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    Moving ToolbarsTo move a toolbar, click and hold on the toolbars title bar as shown below. Drag it to the desired location and then release.

    Click on the title bar and drag to a new location.

    Resizing Toolbars

    To adjust the size of a toolbar, position the cursor on the side of the toolbar that you want to change. As shown below, thecursor will become a two-headed arrow. Click and hold. Drag the mouse so that the outline of the toolbar changes to the

    shape you want and then release the mouse button.

    Click on the appropriate side and adjust the toolbar shape.

    Making Corrections

    You can make changes or corrections to your model in a variety of ways using Superdraw III. The following are threemethods to try if you find a flaw in your model:

    or "Undo": In the status bar, an "Undo" button is located on the left-hand side of the screen. If the"Undo" button is green, the last command can be undone. Just click on "Undo" or press on the keyboard.

    "Select:Point:Add Mode": Suppose you find that you have added too many boundary conditions. You canselect each individual condition in succession. (The same applies to the "Subtract Mode", except you are

    deselecting conditions.) Then, use "Modify:Delete" to eliminate the unwanted conditions.

    "Add:Line...": Suppose you accidentally erase a line in the model. You can redraw the line by bringing up the"Line" pop-up window. Right click on the end of the line you want to connect to and then right click again on the

    other connecting line. (You must right click for the new line to "snap" to the existing lines.) You can r

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