Top Banner

Click here to load reader

Non-experimental designs. Outline 1.Experimental vs. non-experimental research 2.Four kinds of non-experimental research: – Observational research – Archival

Jan 18, 2016

ReportDownload

Documents

  • Non-experimental designs

  • OutlineExperimental vs. non-experimental researchFour kinds of non-experimental research:Observational researchArchival researchCase studiesSurveys

  • 1. Experimental vs. non-experimental research Experimental research requires exerting control.

    Experimenters exert control through manipulation and assignment

  • 1. Experimental vs. non-experimental research Manipulation

    researcher systematically varies conditions under which participants perform task treatments

  • 1. Experimental vs. non-experimental research Manipulation Assignment researcher decides who gets which treatment

  • 1. Experimental and non-experimental research comparedNon-experimental research allows researcher much less control No assignment In many cases, no manipulation

  • 1. Experimental and non-experimental research comparedFour approaches:Observational

    Recording ongoing behavior without trying to influence it.

  • 1. Experimental and non-experimental research comparedFour approaches:ObservationalArchivalTesting a hypothesis using data that the researcher did not collect

  • 1. Experimental and non-experimental research comparedFour approaches:ObservationalArchivalCase studyResearcher carries out very detailed examination of individual cases

  • Experimental and non-experimental research comparedFour approaches:ObservationalArchivalCase studySurveyResearcher collects information on beliefs, attitudes, preferences, behaviors, and their correlations.

  • Observational Research The researcher observes behavior without influencing it. Goals: to describe behavior as it naturally occurs

  • Observational Research The researcher observes behavior without influencing it. Goals: to describe behavior as it naturally occurs to assess relationships among variables present

  • Observational Research Four approaches to non-experimental research:ObservationalArchivalCase studySurvey

    Four approaches to observation:Naturalistic observationParticipant-observer researchStructured observationField experiments

  • ObservationalArchivalCase StudySurveyNaturalisticParticipant-observerStructuredobservationFieldexperiments

  • Naturalistic Observation Observing phenomena that cannot be created in lab, for practical or ethical reasons Effects can be observed when such events occur naturally

  • Naturalistic Observation Physical trace measures e.g., how well-thumbed is a book? Where do paths through the snow go? Reactivity subjects react to the presence of the observer

  • Naturalistic Observation Example: effect of early childhood isolation on later psychological development. We cant isolate children to study them

    But we can use naturalistic observation when we discover such cases

  • Naturalistic observation Candland (1993) descriptions of feral children (raised outside human cultures)

    Curtiss (1977) case studies of children subjected to unusual isolation by parents (e.g., Genie) Spitz (1965) observation of institutionalized childrenShowed effects of deprivation of stimulation during infancy and early childhood

  • Observational Research Four approaches to observation:Naturalistic observationParticipant-observer researchStructured observationField experiments

  • Participant-observer research Observer joins a group for the purpose of studying group members Undisguised vs. disguised

    Why use disguised observation? Access to behavior and situations

  • Participant-observer research Observer joins a group for the purpose of studying group members Potential cost to objectivity Stockholm syndrome

  • Observational Research Four approaches to observation:Naturalistic observationParticipant-observer researchStructured observationField experiments

  • Structured observation Researcher exerts some control

    Eleanor Gibsons visual cliff studies

    Piagets studies Replication depends upon following exactly the same procedures

  • Observational Research Four approaches to observation:Naturalistic observationParticipant-observer researchStructured observationField experiments

  • Field experiments Researcher manipulates one or more variables in a natural setting to determine effect on behavior

    One end of the intervention non-intervention continuum

  • Field experiments example Crusco & Wetzel (1984)

    effect of touching on restaurant customers waitresses worked as confederates tip amount was dependent variable

  • Field experiments example Crusco & Wetzel (1984) Compared No Touch condition with Fleeting Touch and Shoulder Touch conditions

    Men tipped more than women Both men and women tipped more after being touched at some point during their meal.

  • Observational ResearchFour approaches to non-experimental research:ObservationalArchivalCase studySurvey

    Testing a hypothesis using data that the researcher did not collect

  • b. Archival Research Archival records are a rich source of data No possibility of reactivity Often very inexpensive approach Government files Corporations Universities Newspapers Google cache Internet wayback machine

  • b. Archival Research an example Lau & Russell (1980)

    Tested external validity of laboratory findings on causal attributions

    People make internal attributions for success and external attributions for failure

  • Lau & Russell (1980) Sports pages in 8 daily newspapers Found 594 explanations for success and failure involving 33 sports events Proportions of internal attributions:

    success 75% failure 45%

  • Case Studies Intensive studies of individual cases. Strength: you learn a lot about the case studied Weakness: results may not generalize Well come back to this topic when we look at Single-Subject Experiments.

  • Surveys - Definition A procedure for systematically collecting data on attitudes, preferences, knowledge, or behavior by asking people questions.

    The answers provide information about the group(s) that those people represent.

  • d. Surveys Use surveys when: You want data regarding a large group of people (a population) Measuring whole population is too expensive in time, money or other resources Population = all the cases of interest

  • Surveys Well look at surveys in greater detail in the next lecture

    *Manipulation is used to test predictions from theory about how performance will change in response to treatments*Note that researcher tries not to influence the behavior being observed even though she may do something to promote behavior, as when Gibson put babies on visual cliff apparatus. But following that, she just observed what they would do when called by their moms.* E.g., how is memory affected by an emergency such as an earthquake?

    *Victor discovered in France, 1799. Never learned to speak, but understood and responded to some simple words and commands.Kamala and Amala wolf children found in India in 1920; Amala died soon thereafter, but Kamala learned some wordsSee also: The Wild Boy of Burundi: A Study of an Outcast Child by Harlan Lane and Richard Pillard (1978 Harlow & Harlow (1966) animal experiments monkeys raised in isolation in early life preferred a cloth covered surrogate monkey to a wire surrogate, even when the latter was accompanied by food.*Notice that C & W did not randomly assign customers to tables.

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.