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NIO- HTL LTL Demarcation

Oct 10, 2015



Ignatius Samraj

NIO- HTL LTL Demarcation
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    CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyDona Paula, Goa


    Dr B.Prabhakara Rao Senior Principal Scientist

    CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyVisakhapatnam

  • CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyDona Paula, Goa

    CRZ areas as declared by Central Government are :

    i) The land area from High Tide Line (HTL) to 500m on the landward side along the seafront.

    ii) In case of Tidal influenced Creeks/Rivers, the land area between HTL to 100 m orwidth of the creek/River

    (iii) The land area falling between the hazard line and 500 m from HTL on the landwardside for the open sea and between the hazard line and 100m for tidal influencedcreek/rivers .

    (iv) Land area between HTL and LTL (intertidal zone)

    (v) The area between LTL to the territorial water limit (12 nm) towards sea. For Creeks ,LTL to LTL on either side of the tidal influenced creek /Rivers.

  • CRZ map generally depicts the following features

    Demarcation of High Tide Line Demarcation of Low Tide Line Demarcation of 200 m and 500m setback lines from HTL for open sea Mapping of 100 m setback lines for creeks and Rivers Mapping of eco sensitive zones like Mangroves , sand dunes , Mudflats etc. Mapping of Hazard Line (If provided by SOI) Superposition of the following over CRZ map

    1) CRZ boundaries2) HTL, LTL, Ecologically sensitive zones such as mangroves, sand dunes etc.3) Boundary and other facilities of the proposed project site

    Presentation of Maps in 1:25000 and 1: 4000 scale with all the above details.


    CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyDona Paula, Goa

    Demarcation of High Tide Line

    High Tide Line (HTL) in the coastal regulation zone notification is defined as line up to whichhighest high tide reaches in spring tides. As per CRZ notification ,it is delineated by walking overor remote sensing data or by helicopter survey. We demarcate the HTL by walking over theHTL physical all along the shore . During delineation of HTL, the geographic coordinates of HTLare collected in Everest / WGS 84 datum.

    Demarcation of Low Tide Line (LTL):

    The Low Tide Line is the limit up to which the lowest low tide recedes during spring tide. A LowTide Line (LTL) is marked by bathymetric chart of the coastal area with the consideration ofchart datum line (0 line) in the bathymetry chart. The line along which zero meter depth occurson this bathymetric chart is the low tide line.

    In general, in the east coast of India LTL is demarcated mainly by taking observations alongwater line during low tide time as the bathymetry is not possible in the surf zone area.

  • CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyDona Paula, Goa

    CRZ -Classification For the purpose of conserving and protecting the coastal areas and marine waters, the CRZ area shall be classified as CRZ-I, CRZ II. CRZ III and CRZ-IV.

    Category I (CRZ -I):

    A. The areas that are ecologically sensitive and the geomorphologic features which play a role inthe maintaining the integrity of the coast,-

    Mangroves, in case mangrove area is more than 1000 sq mts. Corals and coral reefs andassociated biodiversity (b) Sand Dunes (c) Mudflats which are biologically active(d)National parks, marine parks, sanctuaries, reserve forests, wildlife habitats and otherprotected areas under the provisions of Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 or Environment(Protection) including Biosphere Reserves (e) Salt Marshes (f) Turtle nesting grounds (g)Horse shoe crabs habitats (h) Sea grass beds (i) Nesting grounds of birds and (j) Areas orstructures of archaeological importance and heritage sites.

    B. The area between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line;

  • CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyDona Paula, Goa

    Category II (CRZ II):

    The areas which are developed up to or close to the shoreline and falling withinmunicipal limits.

    Buildings are permissible on the landward side of the existing road, authorizedstructure or hazardous line where there are no authorised structures.

    Category III (CRZ -III):

    CRZ-III areas are those areas that are relatively undisturbed and do not fall undereither in Category I or II and also include rural and urban areas that are notsubstantially developed

    a) The area up to 200m from the HTL is 'No Development Zone where noconstruction shall be permitted .

    b) In general , between 200 and 500m, construction and repair of houses of localFishermen communities and tourism projects are permissible activities.

  • CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyDona Paula, Goa

    Category IV (CRZ-IV):

    The water area from the Low Tide Line to twelve nautical miles seaward.

    The area between LTL to LTL for creeks/Rivers .


    (v) Areas requiring special consideration for the purpose of protecting the critical coastalenvironment and difficulties faced by local communities,-

    A. (i) CRZ area falling within municipal limits of Greater Mumbai;

    (ii) The CRZ areas of Kerala including the backwaters and backwater islands;

    (iii) CRZ areas of Goa.

    B. Critically Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA) such as Sunderbans of West Bengal

    C. Island Protection Zone (IPZ)


    A.Demarcation of High Tide Line

    1. Demarcation of High Tide Line (HTL) and Low Tide Line (LTL) shall be carried out by one of theagencies authorised by MoEF based on the recommendations of the National Centre forSustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM).

    Authorised agencies by MoEF for carrying out CRZ mapping

    Space Application Centre AhmadabadCentre for Remote Sensing CESS ,TiruvanantapuramInstitute for Remote Sensing Anna University ChennaiInstitute for wetland Management and ecological designs KolkataNational Hydrographic Office DehradunNational Institute of Oceanography GoaNational Institute of Ocean Technology ChennaiThe above agencies follow different methodology for demarcation of HTL and . LTL. Wesuggest to have uniform methodology to be adopted by all agencies to avoid any ambiguityin demarcation of HTL.

  • 2. Demarcation of the High Tide Line or LTL shall be made on the Coastal Zone Management(CZM) Maps of scale 1:25,000 prepared by the agencies identified by the MoEF.

    We are unable to procure CZMP maps to superimpose our CRZ map

    As per MOEF guidelines, it is also required to submit 1:25000 and also 1:4000 maps for clearance.

    However as per our experience 1: 4000 scale maps are too big (A0 Size) even for 4 KMlength of the coast line and use by the concerned experts of MoEF. If the area is more , thenit is difficult to view the maps at a glance. Hence, it is ideal to prepare 1: 10000 scale mapsin lieu of 1: 4000 , in addition to 1:25000 which would be easy for handling and evaluation bythe concerned experts.

    3. Local level CZM Maps shall be prepared for use of officials of local bodies for determination of the CRZ.

    Local Level CZM Maps are prepared by respective state Governments based on CRZ maps prepared by Authorized agencies for the purpose of local bodies

  • B. Preparation of CRZ Maps

    Base Maps of 1:25,000 scale shall be acquired from the Survey of India (SOI) and wherever1:25,000 maps are not available, 1:50,000 maps shall be enlarged to 1:25,000 for the purpose ofbase map preparation and these maps will be of the standard specification given below:Unit : 7.5 minutes X 7.5minutesNumbering : Survey of India Sheet Numbering SystemHorizontal Datum : Everest or WGS 84Vertical Datum : Mean Sea Level (MSL)

    At present all existing czm maps are prepared by taking the consideration of SOI topo sheet asbase maps.

    As Survey of India maps are restricted for some coastal areas , base maps are preparedfrom data acquired by us only with above datum.

  • The following geomorphological features shall be considered while demarcating in HTL or LTL:

    Landward (monsoonal) berm crest in the case of sandy beaches, Rocks, Headlands, Cliffs Seawalls or revetments or embankmentsIn general, we are consideration the above factors for Physical demarcated of HTL.

    200 meter and 500 meter lines will be demarcated with respect of HTL.

    Classification of different coastal zones shall be done as per the CRZ notification

    Symbols and code Numbers will be adopted from CZM Maps.

    Colour codes as given in CZMP Maps shall be used.

    At present , Color codes are not uniform and features are denoted with different colors by different states in CZMP maps. Hence common color codes and numbers in CZMP Maps of all states are to be defined by MoEF/NCZMA to avoid confusion.

    D. Hazard mapping:-

    Hazard Line Mapping will be carried out by Survey of India (SOI)


    (1) Demarcation of High Tide line, Low Tide Line and delineation of CRZboundaries along the coast between Visakhapatnam and Kakinada,Andhra Pradesh.

    To Promote investment in the Petroleum, Chemicals and Petro Chemical industry and makethe country an important hub for both domestic and international markets, Government of Indiahas decided to attract major investments, both domestic and foreign, by providing a transparentand investment-friendly policy regime.

    The Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemicals Investment Region (PCPIR) may include oneor more Special Economic Zones(SEZs),Industrial Parks, Free Trade &Warehousing Zones,Export Oriented Units and Growth Centers, duly notified under the relevant Central or Statelegislation or Policy. PCPIRs at Visakhapatnam-Kakinada in the state of Andhra Pradesh is onesuch initiative.

  • For this project, we are doing CRZ mapping for the coastal stretch between Gangavaram Portand Kakinada port. The total length to cover CRZ is around 500 km including Creeks. For thecreeks we are using DGPS and for the open coast we are using Total station to collect the HTLdata. For mapping of land use features we use satellite imagery.

    (2) Demarcation of High Tide line, Low Tide Line and delineation of CRZ boundaries along the Tapi river and open coast near Hazira.

    Reliance Industries Ltd intends to install Coal based steam cum power plant of 360MW capacityat Hazira manufacturing Division in Gujarat in place of the existing gas based power plant. Theyalso proposed coal jetty along the Tapi estuary to transport the coal. We are carrying out theCRZ studies in the 7 Km radius of the project area.

    For this project work we are using Total station for open coast and DGPS for Tapi river to collectthe HTL data.

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