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Natural Resources The big 3 resources: Why Water Resources ... · PDF fileNatural Resources Water resource ... August 1985 North Colorado River Pacific Ocean Salton Sea ... (REEs?)

Aug 10, 2018

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    Natural Resources

    Water resource issues & trends

    Scale of mineral and energy resource use

    Major energy sources

    Trends in mineral and energy resource use with time

    Economic factors resource costs, international relations

    Sustainable resource use, energy efficiency, & recycling

    The big 3 resources: Water, Minerals, & Energy

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    Everything that we do requires energy!Almost everything requires mineral & rock resources!

    Everyone needs water for basic survival.

    Natural resources news and information (updated often by Dr. Kuehn):https://www.diigo.com/outliner/6ofcnh/Water-Resources?key=7z1clz4y3bhttps://www.diigo.com/outliner/6pl8vh/Energy-Resources?key=lvvx05crt6https://www.diigo.com/outliner/6p1uxv/Mineral-Resources-and-Conservation?key=86i7t7mx3p

    Why Water Resources Matterand why they require careful, informed management

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    Toward Water Sustainability: A Blueprinthttp://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired/2016/03/wfi-report-toward-water-sustainability-a-blueprint-for-hydro-philanthropy.html

    Why Water Resources Matterand why they require careful, informed management

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    The Environmental Cost Of Growing Food http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/05/05/476600965/the-environmental-cost-of-growing-food

    The Central Valley is sinking: drought forces farmers to ponder the abyss http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/nov/28/california-central-valley-sinking-farmers-deepwater-wells

    Draining Oregon Creeks and wells in crisis (multi-part series) http://www.oregonlive.com/environment/index.ssf/page/draining_oregon_day_3.html

    What Happens to the U.S. Midwest When the Water's Gone? http://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/08/vanishing-midwest-ogallala-aquifer-drought/

    A third of the worlds biggest groundwater basins are in distress - Reserves likely far smaller than previously thought http://news.agu.org/press-release/a-third-of-the-worlds-biggest-groundwater-basins-are-in-distress/

    More than half of south Asia's groundwater too contaminated to use https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/aug/30/more-than-half-of-south-asias-groundwater-too-contaminated-to-use-study?CMP=share_btn_tw

    The demise of the Maya civilization: water shortage can destroy cultures http://blogs.agu.org/geospace/2016/08/30/the-demise-of-the-maya-civilization-water-shortage-can-destroy-cultures/

    Israel Proves the Desalination Era Is Here (July 2016) https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/israel-proves-the-desalination-era-is-here/?WT.mc_id=SA_TW_ENGYSUS_NEWS

    Vital Water Graphics United Nationshttp://www.unep.org/vitalwater/

    4Availability of Water Sources

    Vital Water Graphics United Nationshttp://www.unep.org/vitalwater/

    5Availability of Water Sources

    Fig. 10.17 Keller, Environmental Geology

    Water Resource Use by source: surface vs. ground water

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    Worldwide, agriculture uses about 75% of global water consumption and industry 20% (electricity production is also a major user)

    Fig. 12.17 Understanding Earth

    7Water Resource Use by purpose 8Water Resource Use and US Economic Growth

    Via @PeterGleickhttps://mobile.twitter.com/azgeology/status/797613173951971329

    Overuse of groundwater depresses the water table and can change the direction of groundwater flow. Water also can flow underground from wetlands toward the area of lowered water table, possibly causing the wetlands to go dry. Land areas can sink. Near oceans, sea water can seep in.

    Fig. 15-18 Geology 2nd edition - Chernicoff

    9Effects of Using Groundwater

    Fig. 10.13 Keller, Environmental Geology

    Groundwater use exceeds recharge in much of the U.S. and many other places around the world. What are the consequences?

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    Dropping well water levels in California

    Vital Water Graphics United Nations http://www.unep.org/vitalwater/

    In many places, much of the water in the ground has been there for a very long time. Some of this water is left over from a time when the local climate was wetter than today. When this very old or fossil water is used, it is may not be replaced by modern-day recharge. Use of such water sometimes is called water miningsince the resource is limited and may eventually run out just like when mineral resources are mined.

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    Center-pivot irrigation in a desert region, Saudi Arabia, January 1990The water being extracted to irrigate these fields entered deep aquifers at a time when the climate was much wetter than it is today. The amount of this fossil water is limited, and eventually the wells may go dry. Water left behind by ancient wetter climates is being used in many parts of the world. image from NASA

    12http://blogs.agu.org/geospace/2010/09/23/dangerous-dependence-on-virtual-water-deepens/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/05/100505-fossil-water-radioactive-science-

    environment/

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    13Global Use of Non-renewable Water Supplies(by nation as a percent)

    Wada,Y. 2012, Non-sustainable groundwater sustaining irrigation, GWF Discussion Paper 1205, Global Water Forum: http://www.globalwaterforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Non-sustainable-groundwater-sustaining-irrigation-12051.pdf

    Also: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2012/2011WR010562.shtml

    Lighter Blue: irrigation using surface water and renewable groundwaterGreen: soil water from local rainfallDarker Blue: non-renewable water useLarger circles = more total water use

    Irrigated agriculture in a desert, Southern California and Northwestern MexicoAgricultural field patterns stand out in contrast to the natural desert landscape. Two rivers, the Colorado and the Gila, are the major sources of water for this arid region. Because of water use for agriculture and other activities, the Colorado River usually goes dry before it reaches the ocean.

    NASA photo taken August 1985

    North

    Colorado River

    Pacific Ocean

    Salton Sea

    Overuse of water also occurs with our limited supplies of surface water San Diego

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    http://www.nasa.gov/jpl/multimedia/california-drought-20140225/#.U1lEwF7o3eg

    California Drought - Folsom Lake example

    Left: July 20, 2011 - 97 percent of total capacity

    Right: Jan. 16, 2014 - 17 percent of capacity

    Why Mineral Resources Matter; Mining for Minerals; Economics16

    Elemental Urgency: Most Metals Have Inadequate or Nonexistent Alternatives https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/elemental-urgency-most-metals-have-inadequate-or-nonexistent-alternatives/

    A world of minerals in your mobile device https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip167

    Inside the Billion-Dollar Dig to Americas Biggest Copper Deposit http://www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-arizona-copper-mine/

    New technique to find copper deposits http://scienmag.com/new-technique-to-find-copper-deposits/

    High in the Andes, A Mine Eats a 400-Year-Old City http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/12/151202-Cerro-de-Pasco-Peru-Volcan-mine-eats-city-environment/

    Think about a world without roads, rails & airplane runways https://mobile.twitter.com/meceducation/status/656838788971384832

    Source: Mineral Information Institute

    http://www.mii.org/

    17At current rates of consumption,

    See also: The Importance of Minerals and Mininghttp://www.mii.org/sites/default/files/uploads/July_2012_PowerPoint_Reid%2010_25_12.pdfThink about a world without roads, rails & airplane runways https://mobile.twitter.com/meceducation/status/656838788971384832

    Fig. 14.21 Keller, Environmental Geology

    Stages and Flow of Materials in Resource Use

    Mining's Hard Rock Legacy http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/inside-the-earth/hard-rock/

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    Reichard Environmental Geology

    19Resource Trends and Economics

    Reichard Environmental Geology

    U.S. Energy Use Trends Long Term20

    Fig. 22-3 Understanding Earth 3rd edition

    Origin of stored energy in fossil fuels

    fossil sunshine

    Cycle of CO2 and H2O in the Production and Consumption of Organic Matter and Fossil Fuels

    (Part of the global carbon cycle)

    21Where our energy comes from

    Fig. 15.30 Keller, Environmental Geology

    Renewable Energy Options

    Other, non-solar sources:

    Geothermal Tides Etc.

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    Fig. 14.2 Keller, Environmental Geology

    Classification of Mineral & Fossil Fuel Resources

    Importance of Economics and Technology in Resource Extraction

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    http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2011/10/28/cheap-oil-isnt-coming-back.aspx

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    If the unconventional oil and more difficult/lower grade sources are included, we

    wont run out any time soon.

    What are the costs?

    Oil Cost of Production

    Its not just oil. Coal mining keeps getting more

    expensive too.

    What it costs to produce a barrel of oilhttp://money.cnn.com/2015/11/24/news/oil-prices-production-costs/This is a major control on who can make a profit as oil prices change.

    In recent years, fracking has completely changed the economics of extracting oil and gas

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    Reichard Environmental Geology

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    Reichard Environmental Geology

    Efficiency has big potential to change

    the energy and materials markets

    too!

    If only a fraction of the energy goes where we

    need it, what happens to the rest?

    Overall energy efficiency in the U.S. is estimated at less than

    50%.

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    LEDs are even better (REEs?)

    (REEs?)

    U.S. energy trends and efficiency: https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2012/Oct/NR-12-10-08.html

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    Mining for metals in societ

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