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NATIONAL FOREIGN TRADE POLICY: Positioning Jamaica to ... · PDF file Foreign Trade Policy, Definition 11 Foreign Trade Policy, Purpose 13 Foreign Trade Policy, Historical Overview

May 17, 2020

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  • Government of Jamaica

    NATIONAL FOREIGN TRADE POLICY: Positioning Jamaica to Increase Foreign Trade

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade October 2017

  • Alphabetical Index of Thematic (Policy) Issues

    Page Ackee Exports 108 Agriculture 59 Agro-Parks 39 Aid-for-Trade 55 Business Outsourcing 39 CARICOM Regional Integration 28 CSME (CARICOM Single Market and Economy) 50 Capacity-Building in Foreign Trade Policy 56 Climate Change 75 Clothing and Textiles (a Case Study) 95 Competition Policy 70 Competitiveness of MSMEs 73 Cultural and Creative Industries 69 Customs Duties (Tariffs and Other Duties and Charges) 61 Diaspora 79 Diaspora, Contribution to Trade and Investment 107 Dispute Settlement (International and Regional) 55 E-commerce 54 Energy 81 Environmental Standards and Sustainable Development 74 Existing Trade Agreements 52 Export Trade Promotion 53 FDI 23 Fiscal Measures 72 Fisheries 59 Food Security 67 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) 23 Foreign Trade Policy, Definition 11 Foreign Trade Policy, Purpose 13 Foreign Trade Policy, Historical Overview 14 GMOs, Trade in 66 Gender 76 General Cross-cutting Issues 49 Genetically-Modified Organisms (GMOs) 66 Goals 47 GOODS, Trade in 59 Government Procurement 71 Guiding Principles 47 Health 78 Informal Trade 80 Innovation 77 Intellectual Property (IP) Rights 70 International Agreements with Trade Provisions to which Jamaica is Party, Other 27

  • Page Investment 71 Labour Standards 75 Logistics Hub 37 Macro-economic Situation in Jamaica 31 Managing and Mainstreaming Trade and Achieving Policy Coherence 49 Manufacturing 59 Market Access 51 Mining and Quarrying 59 National and Regional Consultation and Coordination 57 National Security 79 Natural and Man-made Hazards 82 Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) and Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) 62 NTBs 62 NTMs 62 Partnerships, Public-Private 57 Public-Private Sector Partnerships 57 Policy Issues and Strategies 48 Policy Objectives 48 Private Standards 65 Public Education 58 Remittances 110 Rules of Origin (RoO) 60 SPS Measures 63 Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures 63 Science, Technology and Innovation 77 SERVICES, Trade in 68 Sustainable Development 74 TBTs 64 Technical Barriers to Trade (Technical Regulations, Standards and Conformity Assessment Procedures)

    64

    Technology 77 Trade Facilitation 61 Trade in Genetically-Modified Organisms (GMOs) 66 Trade in Goods (General) 59 TRADE IN GOODS (Manufacturing, Agriculture, Fisheries and Mining and Quarrying) 59 TRADE IN SERVICES 68 Trade Negotiations 53 Trade Remedies 66 TRADE-RELATED ISSUES 69 Transportation 81 US-Caribbean Strategic Engagement Act 27 Vision Statement 47 Wider Regional Integration 51 Youth 77

  • i

    Table of Contents

    Pages ACRONYMS

    Reference for Glossary of Trade Terms

    viii

    xii Executive Summary

    2

    SECTION 1 – Introduction 11 1.1. DEFINITION OF TRADE POLICY 11

    1.2. THE TRADING ARRANGEMENTS CONTRIBUTING TO JAMAICA’S FOREIGN TRADE POLICY

    11

    1.3. PURPOSE OF THE FOREIGN TRADE POLICY 13

    1.4. SCOPE OF THE FOREIGN TRADE POLICY DOCUMENT 13

    1.5. RATIONALE AND CONTEXT 14

    1.5.1. Historical Overview 14

    1.5.2. Justification 17

    1.5.2.1. Scope of Foreign Trade Policy and Relevance to Economic Development 17

    1.6. USE OF TRADE POLICY INSTRUMENTS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES

    18

    1.7. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREIGN TRADE TO THE JAMAICAN ECONOMY 18

    1.8. RESPONDING TO THE CHANGING TRADE ENVIRONMENT 20

    1.9. OVERALL SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS 23

    1.10. THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT FOR JAMAICA’S FOREIGN TRADE POLICY 23

    1.10.1. Foreign Direct Investment 23

    1.10.2. The Jamaican Diaspora and Investment in Jamaica 24

    1.10.3. Other Global Trends Shaping International Trade 24

  • ii

    1.10.4. The United States-Caribbean Strategic Engagement Act 27

    1.11. JAMAICA’S CURRENT MARKET ACCESS AGREEMENTS 27

    1.11.1. Other International Agreements with Trade Provisions to which Jamaica is a Party

    27

    1.12. TRADE AS A COMPONENT OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS - AGENDA 2030 OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND ITS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS)

    28

    1.13. CARICOM REGIONAL INTEGRATION 28

    1.14. WIDER REGIONAL INTEGRATION 30

    1.15. MACRO-ECONOMIC SITUATION IN JAMAICA 31

    1.16. JAMAICA’S INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN GOODS AND SERVICES 32

    1.17. JAMAICA’S TRADE WITH CARICOM 34

    1.18. APPLICATION OF TARIFFS AND MULTILATERAL DISCIPLINES REGULATING TRADE

    35

    1.19. TRADE AND NATIONAL SECURITY 36

    1.20. THE NATIONAL GROWTH AGENDA 37

    1.20.1. The Global Logistics Hub Initiative 37

    1.20.2. Agro Parks 39

    1.20.3. Business Outsourcing 39

    1.20.4. Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises 39

    1.21. KEY CHALLENGES INFORMING THE POLICY 41

    1.22. LEGISLATIVE, INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK 42

    1.22.1. Jamaican Legislation Governing Foreign Trade Policy 42

    1.22.2. Current Institutional Framework 43

    1.22.3. Existing Policy linkages 44

  • iii

    2. SECTION 2 - POLICY 47

    2.1. VISION STATEMENT 47

    2.2. GOALS 47

    2.3. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 47

    2.4. POLICY OBJECTIVES 48

    2.5. POLICY ISSUES AND STRATEGIES 48

    2.6. GENERAL CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES 49

    2.6.1. Managing and Mainstreaming Trade and Achieving Policy Coherence 49

    2.6.2. Strengthening the CARICOM Single Market to Enhance Trade and Investment 50

    2.6.3. Wider Regional Integration 51

    2.6.4. Market Access 51

    2.6.5. Existing Trade Agreements 52

    2.6.6. Trade Negotiations 53

    2.6.7. Export Trade Promotion 53

    2.6.8. E-commerce 54

    2.6.9. International and Regional Dispute Settlement 55

    2.6.10. Aid-for-Trade 55

    2.6.11. Capacity-Building in Foreign Trade Policy 56

    2.6.12. National and Regional Consultation and Coordination 57

    2.6.13. Strengthening the Partnerships between the Public-Private Sectors 57

    2.6.14. Public Education 58

    2.7. TRADE IN GOODS (MANUFACTURING, AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND MINING AND QUARRYING)

    59

  • iv

    2.7.1. Trade in Goods (General) 59

    2.7.2. Rules of Origin (RoO) 60

    2.7.3. Trade Facilitation 61

    2.7.4. Customs Duties (Tariffs and Other Duties and Charges) 61

    2.7.5. Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) and Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) 62

    2.7.5.1. Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures 63

    2.7.5.2. Technical Barriers to Trade (Technical Regulations, Standards and Conformity Assessment Procedures)

    64

    2.7.5.3. Private Standards 65

    2.7.6. Trade Remedies 66

    2.7.7. Trade in Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) 66

    2.7.8. Food Security 67

    2.8. TRADE IN SERVICES 68

    2.8.1. Trade in Services 68

    2.8.2. Cultural and Creative Industries 69

    2.9. TRADE-RELATED ISSUES 69

    2.9.1. Intellectual Property (IP) Rights 70

    2.9.2. Competition Policy 70

    2.9.3. Government Procurement 71

    2.9.4. Investment 71

    2.9.5. Fiscal Measures 72

    2.9.6. Competitiveness of MSMEs 73

    2.9.7. Environmental Standards and Sustainable Development 74

  • v

    2.9.8. Climate Change 75

    2.9.9. Labour Standards 75

    2.9.10. Gender 76

    2.9.11. Youth 77

    2.9.12. Science, Technology and Innovation 77

    2.9.13. Health 78

    2.9.14. National Security 79

    2.9.15. Diaspora 79

    2.9.16. Informal Trade 80

    2.9.17. Energy Supplies 81

    2.9.18. Transportation 81

    2.9.19. Natural and Man-made Hazards 82

    3. SECTION 3 – IMPLEMENTATION 83

    3.1. POLICY LEVEL 83

    3.2. EXECUTION LEVEL 83

    3.3. COORDINATION 83

    3.3.1. Implementation Oversight 83

    3.3.2. Consultation 84

    3.3.3. Secretariat 84

    3.4. POLICY LINKAGES 84

    3.5. ACTION PLAN DEVELOPMENT 85

    3.6. ACTION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 85

  • vi

    3.7. PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND PUBLIC EDUCATION 86

    3.8. FINANCING 87

    3.9. MONITORING AND EVALUATION 87

    3.10. POLICY REVIEW 88

    3.11. LEGISLATION 88

    3.12. SUMMARY IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX 88

    3.13. RISKS 89

    List of Annexes 90

    ANNEX I Modes of Dispute Settlement 91

    ANNEX II Jamaica’s Preferential Access to the Markets of Trading Partners 92

    ANNEX III Case Study: Jamaica’s Clothing and Textiles Sector 95

    ANNEX IV Summary: Jamaica’s Involvement in Foreign Trade 1962 – 2016 97

    ANNEX V Schedule of International Trade and Economic Integration Agreements 103

    ANNEX VI Jamaica National Policy Register Extract: Trade-Related Policies 106

    ANNEX VII Contribution of the Jamaican Diaspora to Trade and Investment 107

    ANNEX VIII Jamaica’s Import Duty Regime 111

    ANNEX IX Indicative List of Major Trade-Related Legislation in Jamaica 113

    ANNEX X Detailed Listing of Ministries, Departments and Agencies Involved in Foreign Trade 114

    Boxes

    Box 1 International trade dispute settlement 13

    Box 2 The Consultations Process for the Revisi

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