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Feb 23, 2016
Music TherapyGavin Degen, Marissa Earley, Tara Furlong, & Will MatthewsBackgroundMusic Therapy (as defined by musictherapy.org) is the use ofmusic interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approvedmusic therapyprogram.The national leader in music therapy is the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA).The AMTA was founded in 1998 in a merger between the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) and the American Association for Music Therapy (AAMT).A certified music therapist must have a Bachelors degree or higher in Music Therapy and be certified through the Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT). HistoryIt is believed that music therapy was first mentioned in writing by Aristotle and Plato.The profession formally began just after WWII when musicians started playing at Veterans hospitals to cheer up wounded soldiers.As the mental & physical health of the soldiers improved, the doctors began to request on-staff musicians in the hospitals.E. Thayer Gaston, known as the father of music therapy, spearheaded the effort to improve the quality of music therapy from an academic standpoint.The CBMT was created in 1983 to give qualified professionals added credibility.
Physiological Effects of MusicHumans vs. Animals: Music Affects the BrainAs a species: brain is unlike any other species; music causes brain regions to respond in different ways.Triggers emotions and feelingsCauses memories to resurfaceBrings groups of people together: ConcertsCollectivist need.Lyrics and beats mirror bodys processes: words speaking thoughts, pounding in the heart.Music Entering the BrainDifferent parts respond to different aspects.1. Auditory Cortex brings stimulus through ear to brain. Lasting impressions of song/melody; makes it recognizable.2. Frontal, Parietal, and Temporal lobes: process how it makes us feel.Rhythm: keeping time requires auditory cortex, cerebellum, parietal cortexes, and frontal cortexes.
How Music Effects Areas of the Brain
Brain Imaging helped detect active parts of the n brain while listening to music.3. Corpus Callosum: connects brain so music interpretation is diffused.4. Sensory cortex: Depending on stimuli, feedback is given after playing instrument, dancing, etc. i.e.: energized or lethargic.5. Motor Cortex: Depending on the beat, this is where body decides how body reacts to music; foot tapping, dancing, bobbing head.6. Prefrontal Cortex: area of judgment for a song. Forms expectations. Success of song is decided; listening to favorite band, artist you dislike.7. Hippocampus: Memories associated with music; location, who you were with. Nucleus Accumbens: emotional reactions/memories to music; how you felt when you heard the song.8. Visual Cortex: May seem unrelated HOWEVER! As music travels through ear to brain, sights we see help form perceptions about melody. Same occurrence while reading music/watching a performance. The ResearchStudies have shown music therapy reduces anxiety and stress levels.Suggested that, while paired with some drug therapy, it can reduce pain. Pain is perceived in brain; music therapy possibly neutralizing this stimuli.Higher levels of Immunoglobin A. Strengthens bodys immune system.Replace drug therapy? More cost effective, easier on the human body, no damaging side effects.Emotional Effects of Music TherapyFeelings: isolation, depression, tension, loss, grief & painMusic Therapy = comfortWhole families copeHopeStages of Music Therapy in Cancer PatientsContact=Trust between the therapist, patient & familyWorking RelationshipAwareness=Focus on oneselfFeelings, needs & desiresResolution=Letting goConnect to the world & themselves
Music Therapy is Experienced DifferentlyConnect sensory systemsMusic helps people connect to othersSounds send messages based on experiencePositive memories help with copingIs Music Therapy Effective?Is Music Therapy Effective?