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Module I - Materials Process

Jun 03, 2018

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    RichardE.Eitel

    TeachingAssociateProfessor

    Email:[email protected]

    Office:Burchard307B

    DepartmentofChemical

    EngineeringandMaterials

    Science

    StevensInstitute

    of

    Technology

    E344:MaterialsProcessing

    IntroductiontoMaterialsScience

    andEngineering

    2

    Introductions

    Coursestructure&learning

    approachandobjectives.

    Thisclassperiodwillservesasanintroductiontothecourse

    andMaterials

    Science

    &

    Engineering

    discipline.

    Exploringstructure

    propertyrelationships.

    vs

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    BorninClevelandOhio:

    HOMEoftheBROWNSandtheRockandRollHallofFame!

    Undergrad:AlfredUniversity(19941998)

    B.S.in

    Ceramic

    Engineering

    SouthernTierofNewYorkState

    HomeoftheSaxons

    X

    Nowhere

    Alfred

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    PennState:19992006

    MaterialsResearchInstitute

    MaterialsResearchLaboratoryFoundedin1956:

    1stInterdisciplinaryResearchLabinMaterialsScience

    Ph.D.inMaterialsScienceand

    Engineering:

    Thesis:

    NovelPiezoelectricCeramics:DevelopmentofHigh,Temperature,HighPerformance

    Materials

    on

    the

    BasisofToleranceFactor

    UniversityofKentucky(20062013)

    Teaching: DepartmentofChemicaland

    MaterialsEngineering IntroductiontoMaterials CeramicEngineering MaterialsCharacterization ThreedifferentlabcoursesResearch:

    PiezoelectricMaterialsMicrofluidics

    MaterialsSynthesis Sensing

    Biofluidics

    CellBasedSensors

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    Pastimes:AsinthingsusedtodobeforeIstartedteaching!

    2015NYC

    Marathon?

    Yearsofeducationalresearchshowsthattheaverageanindividuals

    averageattentionspaninapassivelectureisabout15minutes.

    Learning howeverrequiresnotjustattentionbutactivethought!

    After15minuteofLecture LearninginanActiveClassroom

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    TeambasedGuidedInquiry

    9

    1. Breakinto

    groups

    of

    3or

    4.

    2. Rearrangeseatsotheyoucantalk

    comfortably.

    3. Onestudentineachgrouplogonto:

    m.socrative.com

    4. Room#129851

    GuidedInquiryI:Heat(10minutes)

    UseFigure1.1.1toanswerthefollowingquestions(workasagroup

    makesureeveryoneagreesbeforemovingtothenextquestion):

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    ConceptCheckI:

    Ahotpieceofcopperisplacedincontactwithacoldbrick?

    Ifthecopperloses5caloriesofenergy,howmuchenergy

    doesthe

    brick

    gain?

    Guided Inquiry II:

    Heat and Work (10 Minutes)

    Heat

    Transfer of energywhen there is adifference intemperature.

    Work Transfer of energywhen there is nodifference intemperature.

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    ConceptCheck:

    AccordingtotheFirstLawofthermodynamics,couldheatbetransferredfromacoldobjecttoahotobject,resultinginthehotobjectgettinghotterandthecoldobjectgettingcolder'?

    14

    GuidedInquiryIII:ActiveLearning

    (10minutes)

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    RichardE.Eitel

    AssociateProfessor

    Email:[email protected]

    Office:Burchard307B

    DepartmentofChemical

    EngineeringandMaterials

    Science

    StevensInstitute

    of

    Technology

    E344:MaterialsProcessing

    01 IntroductiontoMaterialsScience

    andEngineering

    Bytheendofthislectureyoushouldbeableto:

    Theoverallobjectistointroducethefieldofmaterials

    science

    and

    engineering.

    Appreciatetheinterdependence

    ofstructure,processing,

    properties,andperformancefor

    materialsdesignandselection.

    Classifymaterialonthebasisof

    structureandbonding.

    Beabletopredictbondingand

    materialpropertiesbasedonthe

    atomicstructure.

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    Thegoalofmaterialsscienceandengineeringistodescribethe

    structure,processing,andpropertiesrelationshipwhichdictatethe

    performanceofamaterialforaspecificengineeringapplication.

    Acompletestructuraldescriptionofanengineeringmaterial

    may

    span

    length

    scales

    from

    the

    nano to

    the

    macro.AtomicStructure:

    10 m

    BondingandCrystalStructure:

    10 10 m

    Macrostructure:

    10

    Microstructure:

    10 10 m

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    Materialspropertiesarecharacteristicswhichareintrinsic

    tothematerialandformthebasisformaterialsselection.

    PERFOMANCEREQUIREMENT:

    Supporta6000poundtruck TensileStrengthofHardenedSteel:250,000PSI

    Materialspropertiesareinputsinordertodesignacomponentto

    achievesuitableperformanceinagivenapplication.

    HighTensionWire:

    PerformanceSpec:90%lighttransmission

    MaterialProperty:

    TotalHipReplacement:

    PerformanceSpec:20yearlife

    MaterialProperty:

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    Processingincludestheentirehistoryofamaterialrequired

    toforminintoacomponentwiththerequiredperformance.

    ProcessingimpactBOTHtheSTUCUTREandthePROPERTIES

    Theperformanceofamaterialinagivenapplicationisa

    consequenceofcarefulmaterialsselectionandengineeringofthe

    materialinto

    acomponent.

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    Materialsclassificationmaydependonwhetherwearetryingto

    developunderstandingofselectamaterialsforagivenapplication.

    StructuralClassification ApplicationsBasedClassification

    Structural

    Classification

    Ceramics

    Polymers

    Composites

    Metals

    Thetraditionalclassificationofmaterialintoceramics,polymers,

    metals,andcompositionisprimarilyonthebasisofatomicbonding

    andstructure. Ceramics:

    Inorganic,nonmetallicsolids

    composedofasleastone

    metallicandonenon

    metallicatom.

    Polymers:Macromoleculesformedby

    covalentbondingofsimpler

    molecularrepeatunits.

    Metals:

    Pureandalloyedatomic

    speciesheldtogetherby

    metallicbonding.

    Composites:

    Twoormoreoftheabovecombined

    toproduceanewmaterialwith

    uniquepropertiesorcombinations.

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    Metals

    Consistofpureandalloyedatomsheldtogetherbydelocalizedelectronsthatovercomethemutualrepulsionbetweentheioncores(MetallicBonding)Excellentstructuralmaterials:

    high strength, toughness

    (resistance to impact)

    Electrical,thermalconductors

    Atomsarrangedinregularlydefined,

    repeatingpositionsthroughoutstructure

    Steel:An alloy of iron, containing various amounts of carbon,manganese, and one or more other elements, such as sulfur,

    nickel, silicon, phosphorus, chromium, molybdenum, andvanadium. These elements, when combined with iron, formdifferent types of steels with varying properties.

    Metals?

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    CeramicsandInorganicGlassesInorganic,nonmetallicsolids,composedofacombinationofoneormoremetallic

    andoneormorenonmetallicatoms:

    Al2O3 (alumina);

    SiO2 (quartz, glass)

    Mixedatomicbonding(ionicandcovalent)

    Highstrength(compression),butbrittle

    Excellent(electrical)insulators

    Highthermalresistance;resistancetochemicalattack

    High-end application: ceramic

    tiles for use as heat shield inaerospace vehicles (> 1600C)

    Ceramics?

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    PolymersMacromoleculesformedbycovalentbondingofsimplermolecularrepeatunits(mers)Easilyprocessedtoawiderangeofshapes,dimensions

    Moderatestrength;goodductility. Lightweight.

    Usuallynotsuitableforhightemperatureapplications

    (>100to200C)

    polyethylene

    polypropylene polystyrene PVC

    Polymers?

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    CompositesTwoormorematerialscombinedtoproduceanewmaterialwith

    desiredproperties(newpropertiesareaveragedvaluesof

    components)

    Lowtechexamples:

    plywood(panelcomprised

    ofmultiplelayersofwood

    veneer,plusadhesive;grain

    laidat90angles)

    concrete(cement[binder]

    plussandandgravel)

    steelbeltedtires(steel

    belts,polyestercord,

    rubber)

    Hightechexamples:

    carbonfiber

    epoxy

    composites

    ceramicfibermetalmatrix

    composites(SiC fibersinAl)

    Innovation:

    Boeings new 787 DREAMLINER is bepredominantly carbon fiber epoxylaminate, yielding a savings of ~20% infuel costs owing to weight reduction.

    Alternativelymaterialsmaybeclassifiedandselectedbasedon

    theirfunctionorsuitabilitytoaparticularengineeringneed.

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    RichardE.Eitel

    AssociateProfessor

    Email:[email protected]

    Office:Burchard307B

    DepartmentofChemical

    EngineeringandMaterials

    Science

    StevensInstitute

    of

    Technology

    E344:MaterialsProcessing

    02 GuidedInquiryAtomicBonding

    Bytheendofthislectureyoushouldbeableto:

    Theoverallobjectiveofthesesessionistodescribehow

    atomic

    structure

    leads

    to

    bonding

    in

    materials.

    DefineElectronegativity

    Predictthedistributionof

    electronsinabond.

    Predictthetypesofbonds

    formedindifferentatomsand

    theirproperties

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