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Module 4 - Developing Conceptual Framework - Dr Raja Munirah

Apr 14, 2018

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    IGSRESEARCHSKILLSEMINAR

    DEVELOPINGCONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK

    APRIL2012

    By:

    Associate Professor Dr Raja Munirah Raja MustaphaHead of Graduate Studies (Research)Institute of Graduate StudiesUniversiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)

    http://www.ipsis.uitm.edu.my

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    INFORMATIONTOBESHARED

    1 DEFINITIONOFACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK

    2 WHYHAVEACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK?3 FUNCTIONSOFACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK4 LINKINGPROBLEMTOTHECONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK5 LINKINGRESEARCHOBJECTIVESTOTHECONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK6 THEORYANDCONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK7 COMPONENTSOFACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK8 EXAMPLESOFCONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK9 WHATNEXT?10 EXERCISES

    2

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    1DEFINITIONOFACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK

    analy>calframework,theore>calframeworkandtheorecalperspec>ve

    specifiesarelaonshipbetweenmorethanoneconceptorvariable-eitherinaqualitaveoraquantavemanneroracombinaonofthetwo.

    providesastructureforyourargument astructuredorganisaonofideassupportedbyevidencesoastoproduceavalidexplana>on

    establisharela>onshipbetweenmorethanoneconceptorvariable

    derivesfrompreviousresearch(theories/models)andorexperience specifiesrela>onshipsinabstractterms

    WHATISIT?

    3

    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND THEORETICAL

    FRAMEWORK

    CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - grounds the study in the relevant knowledge basesthat lay the foundation for the importance of the problem statement and research

    questions.

    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK - used when investigating a specific theory, a

    conceptual framework is made up of theoretical and empirical work relevant to the

    manuscripts purpose, where the purpose is not to further investigate a specific theory.

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    1DEFINITIONOFACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK

    Aconceptualframeworkisacasualorientaontowardthecontemplatedstudy.Assuch,itformulatesadetailedmodelofthegivenpolicyproblemanditsproposedsoluon.Italsofurnishesasupporveframeworkforthemodel,basedontheempirical

    evidencegarneredfrompriorresearchand/orexperienceplusthevalueassumponsunderlyingtheproposedsoluons.Theconceptualframeworkpresentsallthisinrelavelyabstractterms.

    Itidenfies,definesandelaboratestheconceptsreflectedinthepolicyproblem,itproposedsoluons,andthevarioussocialforcesimpinginguponthem.Theconceptualframeworkmaybethoughtofasamentaldiagram,ormap,whichinterrelatestheseconcepts,

    showingwhere,whenandhowtheyfittogether.Thewrienstatementoftheconceptualframeworkis,therefore,theanalyst'sdescriponandexplanaonofthisconceptualmap.

    Mayer,R.R.andE.Greenwood(1980).TheDesignofSocialPolicyResearch,EnglewoodCliffs,N.J:Prence-Hall,p121

    WHATISIT?

    4

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    2WHYHAVEACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK?

    GoodPostgraduateresearchareguidedbytheoriesormodels

    Researchthatdoesnottheorisedependsonfactstospeakforthemselves.

    Ifyouareseekingtosimplyanswerawhatqueson,empiricalresearchdoesnotneedtohaveaconceptualframework

    However,ifyourresearchquesonisahowand(or)awhyqueson,youwillhavetoprovideanexplanaon.

    WHY?

    5

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    3FUNCTIONSOFACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK?

    spellsoutthevariablesthattheanalystmusttakeintoaccount indicatestherela>onshipsthatprobablyexistamongthesevariables(thesearchfortheserelaonshipsthenbecomestheprincipalaimoftheinvesgaon)

    delimitstheboundariesoftheprospecveinvesgaonbysuggesngwhichvariablesaretobeconsideredasirrelevantandhencetobeignored

    providesastructurebyspecifyingarela>onshipbetweentwoormorevariables idenfiestheboundariesofyourresearch

    FUNCTIONS

    6

    Relationship of framework to the problem statement - literature review or the theoretical

    or conceptual framework must support the problem which had been stated in thepreceding writing.

    Relationship of framework to the discussion and implications - the framework should be

    integrated into the discussion and implication sections of an empirical study to make

    meaningful connections between the data presentation and the findings used to support

    the problem and purpose of the study.

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    4LINKINGPROBLEMTOTHECONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK?

    vExplains the nature of the problem to be researched.

    vProvide some authoritative support for the

    problem.

    vOutline the lack of understanding or void or unsatisfactory state of affairs which needs clarifying or researching

    v Is there a gap in our present understanding?v Is the gap an important one to study

    Statement of the Research problemPoints to ponder:

    Problems can be looked atfrom many perspectives.

    Problems are not necessarilynegative.

    Not knowing why a business issuccessful is a problem knowledge void.

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    Points to ponder:

    Symptoms are manifestations ofsome underlying conditions

    Causes are the problemsA gap in the literature is not aproblem.

    Practical or theoretical problem

    Symptoms

    (Indicators)

    Problems

    (Causes)

    Turnover/absenteeismHigh reject rate, low

    productivity, low sharing ofknowledge

    Low morale, lack jobsatisfaction, job conflict,

    role clarity, trust/distrust,self preservation

    Causal

    connections are

    inferred fromtheory, logic,

    experience, hunch

    etc.

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    Symptoms

    (Indicators)

    Problems

    (Causes)

    Data, statistics,

    reports, statements etc

    adduced to show the

    existence of the

    symptoms

    The causes are

    posited, claimed,

    alleged through

    systematic analysis

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    Symptoms(Indicators)

    Problems(Causes)

    Better performance of

    national types schools

    in critical subjects

    Principals leadership

    behavioral & motivation

    style

    Balasandran (2007) DBA Thesis, Schoolof Management, USM 2007

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    Symptoms(Indicators)

    Problems(Causes)

    Strict division of duties,

    slow decision making,

    unhappy line execs.

    Low empowerment of

    line, lack of trust in

    ability, not risk taking

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    Points to ponder:

    Perspectives change problemunderstanding.

    There are multiple causes ofthe problem

    The challenge is to make thecase for the most compelling

    one

    On what basis theory,evidence, logic, experience etc.

    Perspective IV

    Multiple causationMultiple perspectives

    Perspective I

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    UnemployedGraduates

    PS1: The universities

    have failed - employers

    PS4: The employershave failed -

    universities

    Many ways to look at thesame problem

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    UnemployedGraduates

    PS1: The universitieshave failed - employers

    Many ways to look at thesame problem

    Research objectives1. Determine type of market study2. Categorize information sought from

    employers.

    3. Ascertain level of match ormismatch.

    Research questions1. How do universities develop

    curriculum?2. Are employers involved in curriculum

    development and approval?Specific

    Broad

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    UnemployedGraduates

    Many ways to look atthe same problem

    PS2: The economy

    has failed - economist

    Research questions1. Is there enough job creation?2. Where is the job creation?

    Research objectives1. Ascertain trend in job creation

    between 1990-2004.2. Determine the job and econ

    growth relationship in the k-industries.

    Specific

    Broad

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    UnemployedGraduates

    PS3: The governmenthas failed - opposition

    Many ways to look at thesame problem

    Research questions1. Is the government policy of

    expansion wise?2. Should the government limit

    admission into social science?

    Research objectives1. To ascertain the opinions of VCs

    about the expansion.2. To examine the mechanisms

    used to control the universities.

    Specific

    Broad

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    UnemployedGraduates

    PS4: The employers

    have failed -universities

    Many ways to look at thesame problem

    Research questions1. Are employers sexist?2. Are they prepared to train new

    employees?

    Research objectives1. To determine if male grads are

    favoured over female.2. To examine the level of new

    employee training.

    Specific

    Broad

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