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Module 01: Psychology’s History
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Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Dec 29, 2015

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Page 1: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Module 01:Psychology’s History

Page 2: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.
Page 3: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Prescientific Psychology

• Ancient Greeks:– Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek

Philosophy (600-400 B.C.E.)– Socrates/Plato-mind is separate from the body &

knowledge is born within us– Aristotle-believed careful observation was the

key; knowledge NOT innate.

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

Page 4: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Prescientific Psychology (cont.)

• Rene Descartes

• Francis Bacon

• John Locke

• Empiricism

-agreed with & built on the ideas of Socrates & Plato that the mind & body were separate

-a founder of modern science, his influence can still be seen in modern psychological science

-Tabula Rasa (blank slate); we are born knowing nothing

Page 5: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born

Page 6: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born• Wilhelm Wundt

Page 7: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born• Wilhelm Wundt

– 1st psychological laboratory- University of Leipzig (1879)

Page 8: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born• Wilhelm Wundt

– 1st psychological laboratory- University of Leipzig (1879)

– Focused on the self-examination of conscious experience by objective observation of one's consciousness

Page 9: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born

Page 10: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born– Reaction time experiment (demonstrated there

is a difference between actual perception & one’s awareness of one’s own perception)

Page 11: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born– Reaction time experiment (demonstrated there

is a difference between actual perception & one’s awareness of one’s own perception)

– 1st experiment designed specifically to measure mental processes; led to Wundt being called the “father of experimental psychology.”

Page 12: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born– Reaction time experiment (demonstrated there

is a difference between actual perception & one’s awareness of one’s own perception)

– 1st experiment designed specifically to measure mental processes; led to Wundt being called the “father of experimental psychology.”

– One of his students, G. Stanley Hall, established the 1st U.S. Psychology laboratory, at Johns Hopkins University

Page 13: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born

Page 14: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born• Psychology as a science in the late

19th/early 20th century would soon become organized into varied schools of thought.

Page 15: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Psychological Science is Born• Psychology as a science in the late

19th/early 20th century would soon become organized into varied schools of thought.

• The early schools would be: Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism

Page 16: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure

Page 17: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure• Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)

Page 18: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure• Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)

– Classified the the mind by breaking it down into component parts (or structures)

Page 19: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure• Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)

– Classified the the mind by breaking it down into component parts (or structures)

– Sensations and thoughts were structures of the mind

Page 20: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure• Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)

– Classified the the mind by breaking it down into component parts (or structures)

– Sensations and thoughts were structures of the mind

–Structuralism

Page 21: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure

Page 22: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure‾ Structuralism was strictly based on

introspection

Page 23: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure‾ Structuralism was strictly based on

introspection

‾ Very strict experimental methodology

Page 24: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Structure‾ Structuralism was strictly based on

introspection

‾ Very strict experimental methodology

‾ After Titchener’s death, structuralism faded away.

Page 25: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function

Page 26: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function

• William James

Page 27: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function

• William James

• What purpose (function) does the mind serve?

Page 28: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function

• William James

• What purpose (function) does the mind serve?

• How does the mind help the individual adapt to his environment?

Page 29: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function

• William James

• What purpose (function) does the mind serve?

• How does the mind help the individual adapt to his environment?

• Based on Darwinism

Page 30: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function

• William James• What purpose (function) does the

mind serve? • How does the mind help the

individual adapt to his environment?

• Based on Darwinism–Functionalism

Page 31: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function

Page 32: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function• Experimental psychology

Page 33: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function• Experimental psychology• Exploration of behavior & thinking through scientific

experiments

Page 34: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function• Experimental psychology• Exploration of behavior & thinking through scientific

experiments• Mary Calkins-1st woman to complete doctoral

coursework; also 1st woman to be president of the APA (American Psychological Association)

Page 35: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology’s Roots

Thinking About the Mind’s Function• Experimental psychology• Exploration of behavior & thinking through scientific

experiments• Mary Calkins-1st woman to complete doctoral

coursework; also 1st woman to be president of the APA (American Psychological Association)

• Margaret Floy Washburn-1st woman to be granted a PhD in psychology.

Page 36: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

Page 37: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Sigmund Freud

Page 38: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Sigmund Freud• Emphasized emotional responses to childhood

experiences and our unconscious thoughts affected our behavior

Page 39: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Sigmund Freud• Emphasized emotional responses to childhood

experiences and our unconscious thoughts affected our behavior

• Psychology was a “science of mental life”

Page 40: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Sigmund Freud• Emphasized emotional responses to childhood

experiences and our unconscious thoughts affected our behavior

• Psychology was a “science of mental life”

• This definition of psychology would persist until the 1920’s

Page 41: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Sigmund Freud• Emphasized emotional responses to childhood

experiences and our unconscious thoughts affected our behavior

• Psychology was a “science of mental life”• This definition of psychology would persist

until the 1920’s• Freud’s influence on psychology would

continue as Freudian psychology would be a major force in psychology until the 1960’s

Page 42: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

Page 43: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Behaviorism

Page 44: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Behaviorism– human behavior is influenced by learning

& behavior can (unlike feelings/thoughts) be observed by scientists

Page 45: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Behaviorism– human behavior is influenced by learning

& behavior can (unlike feelings/thoughts) be observed by scientists

– John B. Watson

Page 46: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Behaviorism– human behavior is influenced by learning

& behavior can (unlike feelings/thoughts) be observed by scientists

– John B. Watson

– Rosalie Raynor

Page 47: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Behaviorism– human behavior is influenced by learning

& behavior can (unlike feelings/thoughts) be observed by scientists

– John B. Watson

– Rosalie Raynor• “Little Albert” experiment

Page 48: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

Page 49: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• B.F. Skinner

Page 50: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• B.F. Skinner– “study of observable behavior”

Page 51: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• B.F. Skinner– “study of observable behavior”

– Reinforcement-if actions lead to positive outcomes, those outcomes are more likely to be repeated, and vice versa

Page 52: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• B.F. Skinner– “study of observable behavior”

– Reinforcement-if actions lead to positive outcomes, those outcomes are more likely to be repeated, and vice versa

– Operant conditioning: use of reinforcement to cause the repetition of desired behaviors.

Page 53: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

Page 54: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology

Page 55: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology• Less limiting than behaviorism & Freudian psychology;

focused on how our environment can nurture/limit our growth

Page 56: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology• Less limiting than behaviorism & Freudian psychology;

focused on how our environment can nurture/limit our growth

-Carl Rogers

Page 57: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology• Less limiting than behaviorism & Freudian psychology;

focused on how our environment can nurture/limit our growth -Abraham Maslow

-Carl Rogers

Page 58: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology• Less limiting than behaviorism & Freudian psychology;

focused on how our environment can nurture/limit our growth -Abraham Maslow

-Carl Rogers

Page 59: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology• Less limiting than behaviorism & Freudian psychology;

focused on how our environment can nurture/limit our growth -Abraham Maslow

-Carl Rogers

• Cognitive Neuroscience

Page 60: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology• Less limiting than behaviorism & Freudian psychology; focused

on how our environment can nurture/limit our growth -Abraham Maslow

-Carl Rogers

• Cognitive Neuroscience• Exploration of human’s perception, processing, & memory of

information

Page 61: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychological Science Develops

• Humanistic psychology• Less limiting than behaviorism & Freudian psychology; focused on

how our environment can nurture/limit our growth -Abraham Maslow

-Carl Rogers

• Cognitive Neuroscience• Exploration of human’s perception, processing, & memory of information

-Phrenology -Brain mapping

Page 62: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

EXIT TICKET

Briefly describe (2-4 sentences) one of these Historical Approaches to Psychology:

StructuralismFunctionalismBehaviorismFreudian PsychologyHumanistic PsychologyCognitive Neuroscience

Page 63: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.
Page 64: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Definition Slides

Page 65: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Empiricism

= the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.

Page 66: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Structuralism

= early school of psychological thought that used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.

Page 67: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Functionalism

= a school of psychological thought that explored how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

Page 68: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Experimental Psychology

= the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.

Page 69: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Behaviorism

= the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes.

• Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

Page 70: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Humanistic Psychology

= a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people.

Page 71: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Cognitive Neuroscience

= the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

Page 72: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychology

= the science of behavior and mental processes.

Page 73: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Nature-Nurture Issue

= the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.

• Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.

Page 74: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Natural Selection

= the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

Page 75: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Levels of Analysis

= the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

Page 76: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Biopsychosocial Approach

= an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

Page 77: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Behavioral Psychology

= the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

Page 78: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Biological Psychology

= the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.

• Some biological psychologists call themselves– behavioral neuroscientists, – neuropsychologists, – behavior geneticists, – physiological psychologists, or – biopsychologists.

Page 79: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Cognitive Psychology

= the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Page 80: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Evolutionary Psychology

= the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.

Page 81: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychodynamic Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

Page 82: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Social-Cultural Psychology

= the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

Page 83: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychometrics

= the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

Page 84: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Basic Research

= pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

Page 85: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Developmental Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

Page 86: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Educational Psychology

= the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

Page 87: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Personality Psychology

= the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Page 88: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Social Psychology

= the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Page 89: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Applied Research

= scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

Page 90: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychologists

= the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

Page 91: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Human Factors Psychologists

= an I/O subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.

Page 92: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Counseling Psychology

= a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, and marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

Page 93: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Clinical Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treat people with psychological disorders.

Page 94: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Psychiatry

= a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

Page 95: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Positive Psychology

= the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

Page 96: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Community Psychology

= a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

Page 97: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Testing Effect

= enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information.

• Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

Page 98: Module 01: Psychology’s History. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks: – Psychology has its roots in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

SQ3R

= a study method incorporating five steps; Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.