Modern America Emerges Chapters 6 and 7 A New Industrial Age Immigrants and Urbanization
Chapter 6: A New Industrial Age Expansion of Industry At the end of the 19 th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and growing markets fuel an industrial boom.
The Growth of Industry By 1920s, U.S. is worlds leading industrial power, due to several reasons Wealth of natural resources Government support for business Growing urban population
Black Gold Pre-European arrival, Native Americans make fuel, medicine from oil 1859, Edwin L. Drake successfully uses steam engine to drill for oil Petroleum-refining industry first makes kerosene, then gasoline
Bessemer Steel Process Abundant deposits of coal, iron spur industry Bessemer process puts air into iron to remove carbon to make steel Steel used in railroads, barbed wire, farm machines Changes construction: Brooklyn Bridge; steel-framed skyscrapers
Inventions Promote Change Electricity runs numerous machines, becomes available in homes; encourages invention of appliances Inventions impact factory work, lead to industrialization Industrialization makes jobs easier; improves standard of living By 1890 average workweek 10 hours shorter Consumers, workers regain power in market
The Age of Railroads The growth and consolidation of railroads benefits the nation but also leads to corruption and required government regulation.
Railroads Encourage Growth Rails make local transit reliable, westward expansion possible Government makes land grants, loans to railroads To help settle West To develop country A National Network 1859, railroads expand west of Missouri River 1869, first transcontinental railroad completed, spans the nation
Romance and Reality Railroads offer land, adventure, fresh start to many People of diverse backgrounds build railroad under harsh conditions: Central Pacific hires Chinese immigrants Union Pacific, Irish immigrants, Civil War vets Accidents, disease disable and kill thousands every year
New Towns and Markets Railroads require great supply of materials, parts Iron, coal, steel, lumber, glass industries grow to meet demand Railroads link isolated towns, promote trade, interdependence Nationwide network of suppliers, markets develop Towns specialize, sell large quantities of their product nationally New towns grow along railroad lines
Pullman 1880, George M. Pullman builds railcar factory on Illinois prairie Pullman provides for workers: housing, doctors, shops, sports field Company tightly controls residents to ensure stable work force
Railroad Abuses Famers angry over perceived railroad corruption Railroads sell government lands to businesses, not settlers Fix prices, keep farmers in debt Charge different customers different rates
Interstate Commerce Act 1886, Supreme Court: states cannot set rates on interstate commerce Public outrage leads to Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 Federal government can supervise railroads Establishes Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Panic and Consolidation Abuses, management, competition almost bankrupt many railroads Railroad problems contribute to panic of 1893, depression By mid-1894, 25% of railroads taken over by financial companies
Big Business and Labor The expansion of industry results in the growth of big business and prompts laborers to form unions to better their lives.
Andrew Carnegie: New Business Strategies Carnegie searches for ways to make better products more cheaply Hires talented staff; offers company stock; promotes competition Uses vertical integrationbuys out suppliers to control materials Through horizontal integration merges with competing companies Carnegie controls almost entire steel industry
Principles of Social Darwinism Darwins theory of biological evolution: the best-adapted survive Social Darwinism, or social evolution, based on Darwins theory Economists use Social Darwinism to justify doctrine of laissez faire
Fewer Control More Growth an Consolidation Businesses try to control industry with mergers buy out competitors Buy all others to form monopoliescontrol production, wages, prices Holding companies buy all the stock of other companies John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, forms trust trustees run separate companies as if one
Rockefeller and the Robber Barons Rockefeller profits by paying low wages, underselling others when controls market, raises prices Critics call industrialists robber barons industrialists also become philanthropists
Sherman Antitrust Act Government thinks expanding corporations stifle free competition Sherman Antitrust Act: trust illegal if interferes with free trade Prosecuting companies difficult; government stops enforcing act
Labor Unions Emerge Long hours and danger National Labor Unionfirst large-scale national organization 1868, NLU gets Congress to give 8-hour day to civil servants Local chapters reject blacks; Colored National Labor Union forms NLU focus on linking existing local unions Noble Order of the Knights of Labor open to women, blacks, unskilled Knights support 8-hour day, equal pay, arbitration
Union Movements Diverge Craft Unionism Craft unions include skilled workers from one or more trades Samuel Gompers helps found American Federation of Labor (AFL) AFL uses collective bargaining for better wages, hours, conditions AFL strikes successfully, wins higher pay, shorter workweek Industrial Unionism Industrial unions include skilled, unskilled workers in an industry Eugene V. Debs forms American Railway Union; uses strikes
Socialism and the IWW Some labor activists turn to socialism: government control of business, property equal distribution of wealth Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), or Wobblies, forms 1905 Organized by radical unionists, socialists; include African Americans Industrial unions give unskilled workers dignity, solidarity
Strikes Turn Violent The Great Strike of 1877 The Haymarket Affair The Homestead Strike The Pullman Company Strike
Women Organize Women barred from many unions; unite behind powerful leaders Mary Harris Jones most prominent organizer in womens labor works for United Mine Workers leads childrens march Pauline Newmanorganizer for International Ladies Garment Workers 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire results in public outrage
Chapter 7: Immigrants & Urbanization The New Immigrants Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico reach a new high in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.
Through the Golden Door Millions of immigrants seek better lives and/or temporary jobs Europeans Chinese and Japanese The West Indies and Mexico
Life in the New Land Ellis Island Almost all immigrants travel by steamship, most in steerage Ellis Islandchief U.S. immigration station, in New York Harbor Immigrants given physical exam by doctor; seriously ill not admitted Inspector checks documents to see if meets legal requirements 18921924, about 17 million immigrants processed at Ellis Island Angel Islandimmigrant processing station in San Francisco Bay Immigrants endure harsh questioning, long detention for admission
Cooperation for Survival Immigrants must create new life: find work, home, learn new ways Many seek people who share cultural values, religion, language ethnic communities form Friction develops between hyphenated Americans, native- born
The Rise of Nativism Melting potin U.S. people blend by abandoning native culture immigrants dont want to give up cultural identity Nativismovert favoritism toward native-born Americans Nativists believe Anglo-Saxons superior to other ethnic groups Some object to immigrants religion: many are Catholics, Jews 1897, Congress passes literacy bill for immigrants; Cleveland vetoes 1917, similar bill passes over Wilsons veto
Anti-Asian Sentiment Nativism finds foothold in labor movement, especially in West fear Chinese immigrants who work for less Labor groups exert political pressure to restrict Asian immigration 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act bans entry to most Chinese
The Gentlemens Agreement Nativist fears extend to Japanese, most Asians in early 1900s San Francisco segregates Japanese schoolchildren Gentlemens AgreementJapan limits emigration in return, U.S. repeals segregation
The Challenges of Urbanization The rapid growth of cities force people to contend with problems of housing, transportation, water, and sanitation
Immigrants Settle in Cities Industrialization leads to urbanization, or growth of cities Most immigrants settle in cities; get cheap housing, factory jobs Ameri
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