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modal verbs of english1

Jun 04, 2018



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  • 8/13/2019 modal verbs of english1



    2.2. SHALL/WILL

    I. Work on the model:

    The door of our room is open. (to shut it)

    Shall I/we shut it?

    I. Your suitcase is very heavy. (to help you) 2. This book is not very

    expensive. (to buy it) . !arry has not arrived yet. (to rin" him up) #. Youdon$t know this word. (to translate it) %. It is dark in here. (to turn the li"ht

    on) &. I think I am late. (to take a taxi) '. I have found a mistake. (to correct

    it) . The radio is too loud. (to turn it down) . You don$t have enou"h

    money. (to lend you some)

    II. E!ress "ns"sten#e or threat $% us"n& shall.Work on the model:

    I insist that they come here tomorrow.

    Theyshall #omehere tomorrow.

    *. +e assure you that you will re"ret that, 2. I insist that they tell us the

    truth. . The pupils must be present before o$clock. #. +e insist that they

    produce the evidence at once. %. You will remember this one-day, &. They

    are obli"ed to wear uniforms in this school. '. I insist that you "o there at

    once. . +e assure you that this boy will admit his faults.

    III. Ask 'or the o!"n"on o' other !eo!le $% us"n& the stru#ture let's ...,

    shall we ? a##ord"n& to the model:

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    +hy don$t we open the window?

    Let(sopen the windowshall )e *

    *. +hat about "oin" there one of these days? 2. +hy don$t we call the

    police? . !ow about postponin" our trip? #. +hy don$t we translate thewhole para"raph? %. I su""est we buy these dictionaries. &. !ow about

    invitin" her to our party ? '. +hy don$t we read this sentence a"ain? . I

    su""est we try to find them. . I think we should leave earlier today. */.

    !ow about spendin" this weekend at the seaside?

    IV. +se will to des#r"$e ,usual $eha-"our, "nstead o' the S"m!le


    *. +hen she is tired she often drinks tomato 0uice. 2. 1ur friends don$t

    always spend the evenin"s at home. . ane pays us a visit occasionally. #.

    3on$t worry4 such thin"s often happen here. %. 5ather often "oes fishin". &.

    6y sister watches T7 for hours every afternoon. '. 8ranny takes a walk

    every evenin". . The "irl drinks milk every mornin".

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    V. ranslate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es #onta"n"n& su!!os"t"on "nto


    *. This will be the place where the accident took place. 2. !er "uest will

    have arrived by now. . +ho will that pretty woman be? #. They will haveunderstood us I suppose. %. 1ur friends haven$t arrived yet4 they will still be

    workin". &. The bell is rin"in". That will be 9lbert.

    VI. ranslate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto Roman"an !a%"n& attent"on to

    the mean"n&s o' the -er$ will:

    *. +ill you come with me please? 2. :hildren will be children. . I wonder

    who that tall man will be. #. 6y dau"hter will be very happy if you will lend

    her this new dictionary. %. I don$t know whether they will succeed or not. &.

    6y car won$t start. '. This "irl will spend lon" hours listenin" to music. .

    +ill you kindly repeat the last sentence ?

    2.0. 1A/1O+LD

    I. 1omment on the 'ollo)"n& senten#es us"n& can or can't + Infinitive.

    Work on the model:

    ;ob has learnt the poem by heart.

    !e#an re#"teit.*.

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    her left hand. . n"lish son"s.

    II. urn the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto the 3uture:

    *. I can speak >n"lish. 2. +e can play the piano. . 6ary can understand

    him. #. You can carry this box. %. I can open that window. &. The children

    can help us. '. +e can translate the lesson. . I can count in 5rench. . You

    can draw nice flowers. */. +e can repair en"ines.

    III. Work on the model:

    I can$t swim very well but I ... swim when I was a child.

    I can$t swim very well but *#ouldswim when I was a child.

    *. erry can$t ride a bicycle but he ... ride it years a"o. 2. You can$t speak

    8erman now but you ... speak it when you were five years old. . +e can$t

    play football very well now but we ... play uite well when we were pupils.

    #. I can$t type very fast now but I ... type when I was a student. %. +e can$t

    reco"ni=e him now but we ... reco"ni=e him when he had a moustache. &.

    6y brothers can$t remember her name now but they ... remember it three

    days a"o. '. I can$t rin" her up at this time of ni"ht but I ... rin" her up at '

    o$clock in the evenin". . 8randfather can$t dance now but he ... dancevery well when he was youn"er. . 1ur friends can$t 0oin us on the trip

    today but they ... 0oin us last week. */. You can$t understand him now as

    he is speakin" very fast but you ... understand him when he spoke more


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    IV. 3"ll "n the $lanks )"th canor be able to.Somet"mes "t "s !oss"$le to

    use e"ther:

    *. Your sister ... play the violin very well. 2. 9lthou"h the problem is very

    difficult we ... do it. . +e have been lookin" for him for three hours but

    we ... not find him. #. I$m sure that you ... help her now. %. I wonder how she

    ... find such smart dresses. &. !e is in a hurry. !owever he ... explain to us

    how to reach the station. '. +henever he learns the lesson he ... "ive very

    "ood answers. . If you enter this room you ... see very interestin" thin"s.

    V. E!ress !erm"ss"on a##ord"n& to the model:

    You are visitin" your cousin. !e has bou"ht a new bicycle

    which you want to see. +hat will you say ?

    :an I see your new bicycle ?

    *. You are visitin" an old friend of yours. !e has 0ust cut some roses. You

    want to smell them. +hat will you say? 2. You are visitin" your desk mate.

    You want to make a telephone call. +hat will you say? . Your little sister

    has stopped in front of the door. @he is too short to unlock it. You want tohelp her. +hat will you say? #. You are at your friend$s birthday party. You

    want another piece of cake. +hat will you say? %. You are visitin" your

    nei"hbour. You want to see his newly decorated room. +hat will you say?

    &. 6other has 0ust finished a cake. You want to taste it. +hat will you say?

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    '. You meet some of your schoolmates in the park. You want to play with

    them. +hat will you say? . You have lost your pen. Your deskmate

    has "ot two pens. You want to borrow one of them. +hat will you say? .

    Your brother opened the window ten minutes a"o. You feel very cold so youwant to close it. +hat will you say? */. You want to sleep but your sister

    is still readin" in bed. You want to switch off the li"ht. +hat will you say?

    **. Your friend and you are listenin" to the radio. The radio is too loud and

    so you want to turn it down. +hat will you say?

    VI. Re)r"te these senten#es us"n& can/couldor can't/couldn't)"th -er$s

    o' !er#e!t"on4 a##ord"n& to the model:

    3oes she hear me well now ?

    :an she hear me well now?

    *. I smell somethin" stran"e in the room.

    2. +e saw a lot of people there.

    . +e don$t see her now.

    #. 3o you hear 9lice sin"in"?

    %. +e didn$t see the ea"le at that moment.

    &. You smell a fine scent in the air.

    '. @he sees the bear now.

    . The do" smelt the dru"s in the car.


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    VII. +se could + have + Past Participlea##ord"n& to the model:

    3id you see that film ?

    I could have seen it but I decided not to.

    *. 3id you write a letter to her? 2. 3id your mother "ive you a present? .

    3id the children buy sweets? #. 3id the boy draw a plane? %. 3id you sin"

    an >n"lish son"? &. 3id the "irl make a cake? '. 3id these people help you?

    . 3id the policeman fine you? . 3id you eat all the apples? */. 3id Tom

    translate the whole text?

    VIII. Work on the model:

    +here shall we spend this weekend ? ("o to the mountains)

    +ell we#ould &oto the mountains.

    *. +hat shall I tell your dau"hter now? (a short story) 2. +hen shall we pay

    him a visit? (next week) . +hat shall I put on? (the white blouse) #. +here

    shall I sleep toni"ht? (in our tent) %. +hen shall we visit this museum? (next

    5riday) &. +hat shall we be"in our pro"ramme with? (a @cottish dance) '.

    +here shall we put the flowers? (near the window) . +here shall I look for

    my spectacles? (in the "arden)

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    I6. +se can't7Present/Perfect Infinitiveto e!ress "m!oss"$"l"t%. Work

    on the models:

    ohn is at home now.

    !e#an(t $eat home now.ane missed the bus.

    @he#an(t ha-e m"ssedthe bus.

    *. ack broke another window. 2. I don$t think this boy speaks apanese. . I

    don$t think the pupils have finished all the exercises. #. It$s impossible for

    that man to have said that. %. @he knows our hidin" place. &. Aeter saw a

    hu"e fish. '. The "irls made many mistakes. . I don$t think the boys are in

    the "arden.

    2.8. MA9/MIH

    I. Re!hrase the 'ollo)"n& senten#es us"n& may + Present Infinitive to

    e!ress !oss"$"l"t%:

    *. Aerhaps our friend will catch the train. 2. 6aybe you remember her

    address.. Aerhaps the tourists don$t know the way to the museum. #.

    Aerhaps you will buy another house. %. 6aybe we$ll pay him a visit today. &.

    6aybe she doesn$t drink coffee in the mornin". '. Aerhaps the do"s will not

    hear us. . 6aybe we$ll find tickets for this play. . Aerhaps your sister will

    travel by plane. */. 6aybe the ;rowns are at home.

    II. +se may/might + ontinuous Infinitive toe!ress !resent !oss"$"l"t%.

    Work on the model:

    The boy (to play) football now.

    a) The boy ma% $e !la%"n&football now.

    b) The boy m"&ht $e !la%"n&football now.

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    *. The kids (to sleep) now. 2. Your brother (to drink) some milk now. . The

    do" (to bark) now. #. 8rannie (to knit) by the fireplace. %. The teacher (to

    correct) our papers. &. ohn (to read) a new novel now. '. 5ather (to repair)

    the "ate now. . The children (to watch) a cartoon. . That woman (to sell)white roses. */. The do" (to run) after the cat.

    III. Wr"te un#erta"n ans)ers to the 'ollo)"n& ;uest"ons a##ord"n& to the


    +here are the children ?

    Theyma%/m"&ht/#ould $ein their room.

    *. +here will you be tomorrow? 2. +hat time does mother come home?

    . +hat does 3oris buy at the "rocer$s? #. +hat time does the plane take

    off? %. +here will your friends "o on @unday ? &. +hat will your son

    choose for a pet? '. +hich of these houses is hers? . +here does this boy

    live? . +hat does your father read in the evenin"?

    IV. E!ress !ast !oss"$"l"t% $% us"n& may/might + Perfect Infinitive

    a##ord"n& to the models:

    3o you know if 9lex passed that exam ?

    I$m not sure hema% ha-e !assedit.

    3o you know if the policeman reco"ni=ed you ?

    I$m not sure hem"&ht ha-e re#o&n"

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    V. urn the 'ollo)"n& ,#erta"n, statements "nto ,!oss"$le,/,less

    #erta"n, statements a##ord"n& to the model:

    @he is in the "arden now.+ell shema%/m"&ht/#ould $ethere.

    *. They will arrive at & o$clock. 2. This woman speaks five forei"n

    lan"ua"es. . Your sister is sleepin" now. #. !er aunt will be at home at

    that time. %. The boys will play tennis tomorrow. &. 8eor"e works in a new

    factory. '. The teacher hears us now. . @he will borrow this dictionary from


    VI. 1omment on the 'ollo)"n& senten#es us"n& may/mightor can't:

    *. Aerhaps you$ll find her there. 2. Aerhaps she sold her car. . I think she

    knows him. #. I don$t believe they found out the truth. %. I am sure the

    teacher has corrected our papers. &. Aerhaps your nei"hbour was not at

    home. '. 6aybe ack is ill. . Aerhaps the hunter shot that wolf. . 6aybe

    ack knows the poem by heart. */. I am sure that this "irl doesn$t live in this


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    I6. 1omment on the 'ollo)"n& senten#es us"n& might + Present/Perfect

    Infinitive to e!ress re!roa#h. Work on the models:

    You don$t listen to me when I$m speakin" to you.Youm"&ht l"stento me when I$m speakin" to you.

    You didn$t thank her for the book.

    Youm"&ht ha-e thankedher for the book.

    *. @he doesn$t "et up early. 2. You didn$t learn the lesson. . The boy didn$t

    "reet the old woman. #. 6ary doesn$t work hard. %. You were not attentive.

    &. You don$t hurry. '. 5ather doesn$t "ive up smokin". . You didn$t brin"

    me my coat. . The sick man didn$t take that medicine. */. 6y sister doesn$t

    lock the door.

    2.=. M+S

    I. Ans)er the 'ollo)"n& ;uest"ons. +se must toe!ress an o$l"&at"on.

    Work on the model:

    :an$t she come later?

    Bo shemust #omenow.

    *. :an$t Aeter finish his homework tomorrow? 2. :an$t you repair your car in

    the afternoon? . :an$t we discuss this matter some other time? #. :an$t your

    sister "o shoppin" after lunch? %. :an$t her brother "o there next week? &.

    :an$t the boys postpone the match? '. :an$t she shut the windows later on?. :an$t you buy this book next month?

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    II. urn the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto the ast ense:

    *. +e must answer the teacher$s uestions. 2. 6other must "ive the baby

    some milk. . You must wake your father at six o$clock. #. +e must pack

    everythin" by lunchtime. %. You must lock the door before leavin". &. @hemust brush her teeth every mornin". '. The boys must comb their hair. . !e

    must pick some flowers. . I must li"ht the fire at ' o$clock. */. @he must tell

    me the truth.

    III. urn the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto the 3uture:

    *. I must "o to the market. 2. You must write this exercise. . @he must clean

    the table. #. The children must not cross the street here. %. The patient must

    take this medicine. &. I must hurry in the mornin". '. +e must listen to

    the lecturer. . The do" must not enter the house. . The children

    must help their parents. */. You must dust the furniture.

    IV. 3"ll "n the $lanks )"th mustor have to.Somet"mes "t "s !oss"$le to

    use e"ther:

    *. The pupils in our primary school ... wear uniforms. 2. If you want to "et a

    "ood mark you ... work hard. . !e couldn$t come here yesterday because he

    ... repair his bicycle. #. In Comania traffic ... keep to the ri"ht while in

    >n"land it... keep to the left. %. I am sure Tim will be punctual because he ...

    to catch the early train. &. This "irl ... earn her livin" since she was fifteen. '.

    If you didn$t want to write your homework yesterday you ... write it today.

    . I don$t think we can play tennis tomorrow. +e ... "o shoppin". . I knowthat he doesn$t like "oin" to school but he ... */. 9s the mana"er was ill

    we ... postpone our meetin".

    V. Make u! ;uest"ons )"th have toa##ord"n& to the model:

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    D9ndrew had to "o to the "rocer$s.$


    D+hy did he have to "o there ?$

    *. Dack had to "ive examples of ad0ectives.D

    D!ow many... ?D

    2. D+e had to leave early.D

    D+hat time... ? D

    . DThe children had to ask uestions.D

    D!ow many... ?D

    #. D5ather had to pay a fine.D

    D!ow much... ?D

    %. D@he has to "ive him some money.D


    &. DYou have to put on another shirt.D


    '. D+e have to buy a lot of thin"s today.D

    D+hat exactly...?D

    . D@he had to return the book to the library.D


    . D8eor"e had to "o back home.D

    D+hy...?D*/. DThey have to choose some proverbs.D

    D!ow many... ?D

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    VI. 3"ll "n the $lanks )"th mustn'tor don't/doesn't have to:

    *. I tell you this secret but you ... tell anybody about it. 2. +e still have

    plenty of time so we ... hurry. . You ... cross the street till the traffic li"ht is

    "reen. #. I think your le" is broken. You ... move it. %. +e have enou"hbread so you ... "o to buy any. &. I may "et up later on because I ... "o to

    school today. '. 8ranny is sleepin" so we ... make any noise. . It isn$t

    rainin" any lon"er so you ... take your umbrella. . Tom you ... be late for

    school a"ain, */. The weather is fine today so we ... put on our warm


    VII. Ans)er the 'ollo)"n& ;uest"ons $% us"n& mustor can't toe!ress

    !ro$a$"l"t% or "m!oss"$"l"t%4 res!e#t"-el%. Work on the models:

    DIs ane at home? D (Yes)

    DYes she must be at home.D

    D3id she miss the train? D (Bo)

    DBo she can$t have missed it.D

    *. D9re they friends? D (Yes) 2. D3o they understand her? D (Bo) . D3id

    ack make so many mistakes? D (Bo) #. D3o these "irls have many toys? D

    (Bo) %. DIs it late? D (Yes) &. D9re your friends here? D (Yes) '. D3id they "etlost? D (Bo) . D3o your sisters know me?D (Bo) . D3oes 6ary speak

    >n"lish well?D (Yes) */. D3id your cousins move to a new house? D (Bo)

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    VIII. E!ress !ast !ro$a$"l"t% $% us"n& must7 have + Past Participle

    a##ord"n& to the model:

    Aeter is very tired (to work hard)

    !emust ha-e )orkedhard.

    *. 9lbert didn$t want to "o to the cinema. (to see the film) 2. 1ur friends

    haven$t arrived yet. (to miss the train) . The little "irl didn$t find her key. (to

    lose it) #. The do" raised its head. (to hear us) %. ack didn$t buy that car.

    (to be too expensive) &. 6ar"aret didn$t brin" me the book. (to for"et it) '.

    The old woman was very sad. (to hear the bad news) . !is nei"hbour had a

    terrible accident. (to fall asleep while drivin" his car) . The ball is no lon"er

    under the tree. (somebodyEto take it) */. The cake is not on the table. (the

    boyEto eat it)

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    I6. ranslate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto En&l"sh us"n& mustto e!ress

    o$l"&at"on or dedu#t"on:

    *. Bu te neliniFti. Trebuie sG fie HncG devreme. 2. 7ine ploaia aFa cG trebuie

    sG ne "rGbim. . 7Gd cG ohn nu a a0uns HncG4 trebuie cG a pierdut autobu=ul.#. ;ate cineva la uFG4 trebuie sG fie fiul vecinului. %. 5rGiorul tGu se

    odihneFte aFa cG nu trebuie sG facei "GlG"ie. &. @e uita fix la mine 4 trebuie

    sG mG fi vG=ut undeva. '. Bu trebuie sG mai facei asemenea "reFeli. .

    ;unicul nu-Fi "GseFte ochelarii4 trebuie sG-i fi uitat din nou Hn parc. . Bu

    trebuie sG vorbeFti tare Hn bisericG. */. :ei doi bGiei trebuie sG stea iar de

    vorbG pe banca din "radinG.

    2.>. EED

    I. +se needn'ta##ord"n& to the model:

    @hall I do this exercise now ? (later on)

    Bo youneedn(t.You can do it later on.

    *. @hall we "o shoppin" now? (in the afternoon) 2. @hall I call her up today?

    (tomorrow) . @hall I do all the problems? (only the first three) #. @hall we

    write to 8ranny today? (on Tuesday) %. @hall I read the newspaper now? (in

    the evenin") &. @hall we sweep the floor now? (later on) '. @hall I wash the

    dishes now? (in the afternoon) . @hall we visit the patient today?

    (tomorrow) . @hall we "ive her the present now? (later on) */. @hall I read

    the sentence a"ain? (+e have already understood it)

    II. 3"ll "n the $lanks )"th must or needa##ord"n& to the mean"n&:

    *. ... we buy any bread today? 2. +hen ... the film be"in? . ... you return the

    book in a fortni"ht ? #. ... we write exercise five too ? %. +here ... he wait

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    for us? &. ... they leave earlier than usual? '. ... they answer in 5rench? . ...

    we salute all the officers? . D... I take my rain-coat?D DBo it has cleared

    up.D */. +hat ... we write on these sheets of paper ?

    III. 3"ll "n the $lanks )"th mustn'tor needn'ta##ord"n& to the mean"n&:

    *. Aeople ... walk on the "rass. 2. +e ... take our umbrellas4 the rain has

    stopped. . If he hasn$t finished the book yet he ... return it this week. #.

    +e ... talk in a library. %. @he ... "et up so early. It doesn$t take her lon"er

    than ten minutes to "et to the station. &. The president of a country ... openly

    at least take sides in politics. '. :hildren ... run in the street. . Think it

    over. You ... decide ri"ht now. . You ... help me with this exercise. I can do

    it myself. */. +e ... feed animals in a =oo.

    IV. 3"ll "n the $lanks )"th mustn!t /needn't/don't have to/haven't got to

    a##ord"n& to the mean"n&:

    *. You ... stop your car on the =ebra crossin". 2. You ... all the sandwiches if

    you are not hun"ry. . @he ... worry about the train. It will arrive on time. #.

    D9re you "oin" to read that letter? D DBo I ... It$s not mine.D %. +e ... "et up

    so early. The taxi will come at o$clock. &. @he ... enter this buildin" without

    permission. '. You ... "o to the theatre if you don$t want to. . Aupils ... sleep

    durin" the classes.

    V. Make u! ;uest"ons )"th"eed #I$ ... ? or %o #I$ need to ... ?a##ord"n&

    to the mean"n&:

    *. ... we (to wait) for you every mornin"? 2. ... she (to finish) her

    composition today? . ... I (to hurry) now? #. ... you (to brush) your teeth

    every mornin"? %. ... the boys ?towash) their hands now? &. ... mother (to

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    wake) him up every mornin"? '. ... I (to carry) her suitcase too today? . ...

    she (to show) you her driver$s licence now? . ... the children (to rehearse)

    the play every afternoon? */. ... the pupil on duty (to clean) the blackboard

    every mornin"?

    VI.+se needn't have + Past Participlea##ord"n& to the model:

    I don$t know why you said that.

    Youneedn(t ha-e sa"dthat.

    *. I don$t know why she made such a mistake. 2. I don$t know why they

    came so early. . I don$t know why 6atthew ate all the cakes. #. I don$t

    know why you travel by train. %. I don$t know why she spent so much

    money. &. I don$t know why father waited for us in the park. '. I don$t know

    why ane san" that son" twice. . I don$t know why the boys played football

    in the evenin". . I don$t know why our friends made so much noise. */. I

    don$t know why you told her such a terrible story.

    VII.3"ll "n the $lanks )"th didn!t need to/needn!t have + Past Participle

    a##ord"n& to the mean"n&:

    *. You ... (to tell) her that4 you see she is cryin" now. 2. I ... (to knock) on

    the door because it was already open. . @he ... (to take) a taxi because she

    still head a lot of time to "et there. #. +e ... (to stop) here4 the policeman has

    seen us. %. I ... (to wait) lon" because they came back home very uickly. &.

    You ... (to pay) him so much money4 it couldn$t be more than five dollars. '.+e ... (to water) the flowers because it had rained an hour before. . @he ...

    (to stay) up so late4 now she is very tired. . You ... (to mention) anythin"

    about the child. Bow she understands that we have discussed about him. */.

    I ... (to show) my identity card because he had reco"ni=ed me.

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    2.@. SHO+LD

    I. "-e ad-"#e us"n& should/shouldn'ta##ord"n& to the


    It is rather late. 9dvise your sister to hurry.

    9ou should hurr%.

    *. Your brother speaks too loud. 9dvise him not to speak so loud. 2. 6ike is

    often late for school. 9dvise him to "et up earlier. . There is a "ood film on

    this week. 9dvise 9lice to see it. #. Your cousins are "oin" to

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    train should arrive at % o$clock. . Aeter should work as hard as he can. .

    Your sister should not be late for school. */. uliet should see a doctor.

    III. Re!la#e the&ccusative7Infinitive$% that + should + Infinitive:

    *. It is better to "o there yourself. 2. It was essential for them to understand

    this thin" well. . It is advisable for her to try to find them. #. It was natural

    for you to act in this way. %. It is important for her to "et the money in the

    mornin". &. It was necessary for them to catch the % o$clock train. '. It is fair

    for him to tell the truth from the very be"innin". . It was ri"ht for 6ichael

    to think about that.

    IV. Re!la#e theverb + noun/pronoun #&ccusative$ + ong Infinitive

    #onstru#t"on $%that + should + (hort Infinitive:

    *. I advised them to hurry. 2. @he su""ested to him to buy that horse. . The

    teacher demanded from his pupils to write that exercise a"ain. #. !e advised

    you to be punctual. %. !e su""ests to his sister to open the window. &. The

    doctor demands from the patient to take that medicine.

    V. Re!la#e the if7 happened#onstru#t"on $% should + Present Infinitive

    a##ord"n& to the model:

    If mother happened to hear us speakin" like that she would "et an"ry

    with us.

    If mothershould hearus speakin" like that she would "et an"ry withus.

    *. If you happened to see her remind her of the trip. 2. If it happened to

    snow a"ain we couldn$t "et to the chalet today. . +hat would a little boy

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    do if he happened to meet a do" in the street? #. I think he would sleep in

    this hotel toni"ht too if he happened to miss the train. %. +hat would they

    do if they happened to find a passport in the street? &. If you happened to

    hear this man speakin" you would immediately reco"ni=e him. '. If youhappened to win a lar"e sum of money what would you do with it?

    VI. Om"t if"n the 'ollo)"n& #ond"t"onal senten#es a##ord"n& to the


    5red wouldn$t fail the test if he worked harder.

    @hould 5red work harder he wouldn$t fail the test.

    *. !e would chan"e the present economic policy if he became the Aresident

    of the country. 2. 6ary would lend me a pen if she had one. . They would

    "o swimmin" today if it weren$t rainin". #. @he would write to him if she

    knew his address. %. The "irl would be happy if she found her ba". &. 6y

    dau"hter would like this film if she saw it.

    VII. ranslate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto Roman"an !a%"n& attent"on

    to the -er$ should

    *. +hy should they "o there? 2. It is necessary that your brother should learn

    all the new words. . I remember that you ur"ed that he should tell his

    mother the truth. #. I think that under the circumstances you should write to

    them as soon as possible. %. @hould your mother see your dirty clothes she

    would be very an"ry. &. I didn$t switch the li"ht on lest my little son shouldwake up. '. +hat would you say if your friend should rin" you up at

    midni"ht? . You shouldn$t have "ot up so early. Bow you$ll have to wait

    till the others come. . You look pale. You shouldn$t stay up so late. */. That

    they should have behaved like that was very surprisin". **. I don$t know

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    why she should speak like that. *2. I feel sorry that such a thin" should have

    happened to him. *. I think she should have written the exercise before

    comin" to school. *#. I explained to them that I should leave for ve ou"ht to speak to her mother about that matter. &. !e ou"ht to ur"e all

    his friends to attend that meetin". '. I ou"ht to try to find a better 0ob. . ack

    ou"ht to lock the front door. . +e ou"ht to be a little more careful aboutsuch matters. */. @he ou"ht to write a letter to her friends.

    III. urn "nto the ne&at"-e:

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    *. You ou"ht to tell them about it. 2. !e ou"ht to let 6a""ie know what

    happened there. . I ou"ht to send her a lot of money. #. The students ou"ht

    to read all these books. %. +e ou"ht to ob0ect to !arry$s su""estion. &. @he

    ou"ht to have spoken to him first. '. You ou"ht to "ive that messa"e tosomeone else. . They ou"ht to leave at & o$clock. . +illiam ou"ht to

    persuade @ue to "o there. */. You ou"ht to ask for his advice.

    IV. Work on the model:

    1ur lesson started at ./.

    ;ut itou&ht to ha-e startedat .

    *. I was paid very little for my work. 2. The train arrived at */ o$clock. .

    6artin bou"ht five loaves of bread. #. Irene put the flowers in the kitchen. %.

    You have used white chalk. &. They went there on foot. '. Belly saw only

    the first part of the film. . The old man drank six "lasses of water. . >mma

    answered only one uestion. */. :ressida didn$t cross the street at the =ebra


    V. ranslate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es e!ress"n& e!e#tat"on "nto


    *. 9ccordin" to the weather forecast it ou"ht not to rain tomorrow. 2. This

    tele"ram ou"ht to "et there in a few hours. . They ou"ht to find this

    exercise easier than the other ones. #. This book ou"ht not to cost more thanten dollars. %. These tools ou"ht to be useful durin" our expedition. &.

    9t this time she ou"ht to be at home. '. If you have read this poem so many

    times you ou"ht to know it by heart. . This man worked here a few years

    a"o so you ou"ht to remember him.

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    VI. ranslate the 'ollo)"n& re#ommendat"ons "nto En&l"sh us"n& ought


    *. 5ratele tGu ar trebui sG fie mai "ri0uliu. 2. :opiii ei nu ar trebui sG

    mGnJnce atJtea dulciuri. . @-ar cuveni sG-i trimit un cadou de :rGciun. #. 9r

    trebui sG-i anuni pe pGrinii ei de acest lucru. %. B-ar trebui sG folosii

    lumina electricG Hn timpul =ilei. &. >i ar trebui sG-Fi vi=ite=e bunicii mai des.

    '. B-ar mai trebui sG HntJr=iai la aceste ore de clasG. . 3acG tot se simte rGu

    ar trebui sG consulte un medic. . 9r trebui sG mG las de fumat4 am Hnceput sG

    am probleme cu plGmJnii. */. 9r trebui sG-i spunei adevGrul4 nu vedei cum

    se frGmJntG?

    VII. Relate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es to the ast a##ord"n& to the model:

    You ou"ht to lend her your bike.

    Youou&ht to ha-e lenther your bike.

    *. 6ary ou"ht to "et there in the mornin". 2. You ou"ht to know this. . I

    ou"ht to rin" up my "randparents. #. The boy ou"ht not to eat so many

    cakes. %. 9ccordin" to the time-table the train ou"ht to arrive at & o$clock. &.

    You ou"ht to work harder for this exam. '. The pupil on duty ou"ht to clean

    the blackboard. . !e ou"ht to have his hair cut.

    2.C. WO+LD

    I. Re!la#e the ast Su$un#t"-e used a'ter the -er$ wish$% would7

    Present Infinitive:

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    *. I wish he were not so la=y. 2. I wish you helped her. . You wish she

    knew the answer to this uestion. #. They wish I were not so busy. %. I wish

    you understood her. &. You wish he wrote to his mother more often.

    II. Re!la#e want"n the 'ollo)"n& senten#es $% would li)e to:

    *. 6y brother wants to become an en"ineer. 2. I want to buy a new car. .

    You want to find her there. #. The boys want to win the match. %. 6ary

    wants to learn a forei"n lan"ua"e. &. You want to "o to the seaside. '. I want

    to explain to you what has happened. . The old man wants to buy some

    medicine. . You want to help the old woman. */. I want to see that film.

    III. urn "nto the Ind"re#t S!ee#h:

    *. DI will write to her soonD said the boy. 2. D6other will make a "ood cake

    for my birthdayD Cuth said. . D+hen will the children come?D the woman

    wanted to know. #. DBobody will find us hereD Tom told me. %. D+ill your

    sister buy that book? D Tim asked Kate. &. D6y friends will travel by trainD

    6artin explained. '. D1ur plane will take off at ** o$clockD ;ob let us

    know. . DThe do" will reco"ni=e meD Aeter hoped. . D6y brother will not

    be lateD she assured me. */. DYou will understand these thin"s later onD the

    woman told her dau"hter.

    IV. Re!la#e the used to#onstru#t"on $% would + Infinitive:

    *. 6y father used to work in the mornin" but now he works in the

    afternoon. 2. You used to walk to your office but now you "o there by bus.

    . 6other used to drink much coffee but now she doesn$t any more. #.

    +hen my dau"hter was a child she used to read storybooks. %. ;ill did not

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    used to en0oy classical music but now he listens to it re"ularly. &. You used

    to "et to work in time but you don$t any more. '. 8randfather used to smoke

    ci"ars but he doesn$t any lon"er. . You used to play the piano but you

    haven$t touched it for years now.

    V. Make u! !ol"te re;uests a##ord"n& to the model:

    :ome this way,

    +ould you come this way ?

    +ould you be so kind as to come this way ?

    +ould you please come this way ?

    *. 1pen the door, 2. @in" a son", . Tell me the truth, #. @peak >n"lish to


    %. @how me the way, &. :lean the blackboard, '. 8ive me a piece of chalk,

    . Cead this article a"ain, . >xplain that rule to them, */. :orrect this


    VI. Re!la#e was/were unwilling to or refused to$% wouldn't:

    *. I asked her to help me but she refused to do it. 2. The boy was unwillin"

    to take part in the debates. . You refused to show her how to do that

    problem. #. I was unwillin" to "o to the theatre. %. @he invited him to come

    in but he refused. &. The child was unwillin" to drink that medicine.

    VII. ranslate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto Roman"an !a%"n& attent"on

    to the -er$ would:

    *. I wish you would be here in the mornin". 2. +ould you be so kind as to

    help me with this difficult problem? . I remember that when my son was

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    on holiday he would spend lon" hours playin" with other kids in the park. #.

    1ur teacher of >n"lish would rather we didn$t make so many mistakes any

    lon"er. %. +ould she like to come with us to the country? &. The little child

    said that he would fly his new kite that afternoon. '. I wonder what his namewould be. . +ould your brother care to buy tickets for that show? . If I

    helped her she would be "rateful to me. */. +ould you like to show us

    those pictures a"ain? **. +ould you mind openin" the window? *2. +ould

    you please speak louder? *. @he could help me if she would. *#. +ould

    you lend me your bike please?

    2.F. +SED O

    I. Work on the model:

    +hat timeEto "o to bedEat */Emuch later

    +hat time did you use to "o to bed ?

    I used to "o to bed at */ o$clock but now I "o to bed much


    *. +hereEto spend a winter holidayEat homeEin the mountains4 2. +hatEto

    readEadventure booksEhistory books4 . +hereEto liveEin a villa"eEin a town4

    #. +hat timeEto "o to schoolEat './Eat *2.//4 %. +hereEto playEin the

    "ardenEin the house4 &. +hereEto have lunchEat the restaurantEat home4 '.

    +hat timeEto come from workEat p.m.Eat & p.m.4 . +hatEto

    paintElandscapesEportraits4 . +hereEto meet this boyEin the parkEatschool4 */. +hatEto smokeE ci"arsE ci"arettes.

    II. Re!la#e the underl"ned -er$s "n the ast ense S"m!le $% the used to


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    *. In her earlier life she imaginedthat she would be rich one day. 2. In the

    past people believedthat a mad person was possessed by a devil. . 9t one

    time she wasan actress but now she is a sin"er. #. 1ur house wasformerly

    an orphana"e. %. There wasonce a pub at the corner of our street. &. 9 lon"time a"o my dau"hter thoughtthere were lands where "iants existed. '. In

    those years a famous person livedin this house. . 9bout fifty years a"o the

    climate was much warmer than it is now. . +here they lived, in his

    childhood they never had snow in winter. */. There wasa brid"e across the

    river in front of our house.

    III. Re!la#e would + (hort Infinitive$% the used toG#onstru#t"on :

    *. +e would spend lon" hours admirin" the landscape. 2. You would pay

    him a visit every @aturday afternoon. . +hen Cebecca tau"ht in our school

    our pupils would speak >n"lish every day. #. The little boy would play with

    the do" in the "arden when his parents were not at home. %. These pupils

    would ask a lot of interestin" uestions. &. 3urin" the sprin" holiday I would

    work in the "arden every day. '. Bick would swim every mornin" last

    summer. . 1ur friends would "o fishin" every @unday. . You would play

    football when you were youn"er. */. 6ar"aret would make "ood cakes on

    her son$s birthday.

    IV. Re!la#eto be accustomed to/to be in the habit of + *ing$% used to:

    *. In his childhood he was accustomed to drinkin" fresh milk everymornin". 2. Years a"o my sister was in the habit of writin" letters every

    day. . 8randfather was accustomed to "ettin" up early. #.

    :hristine was in the habit of smokin" about twenty ci"arettes a day. %. They

    were accustomed to workin" from early mornin" till late in the evenin". &.

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    3oes 6ike dare to drink this? . !ow do these people dare to ask me such


    II. Work on the model:

    ;obEto take my car.

    ;ob how dare you take my car?

    *. AeterEto walk on the "rass4 2. :hildrenE to pick flowers in the park4 .

    ;oyEto come into my "arden4 #.

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    ack will understand us I suppose. &. 6y friend will buy a new car I "uess.

    '. These children will help their parents I expect. . Bobody will disturb us

    I expect. . I suppose the postman will brin" me a letter tomorrow. */. The

    tourists will find the path I expect.

    V. Re!la#e challenge + noun/pronoun #&ccusative$7Infinitive$% dare7

    noun/pronoun #&ccusative$ + Infinitive"n the 'ollo)"n& senten#es :

    *. I challen"ed Tom to run a race. 2. I challen"ed them to speak about the

    incident. . @he challen"ed Aeter to break 6r. ;rown$s window. #. 3id they

    challen"e him to repeat those words? %. +e challen"ed her to swim in the

    river. &. @he challen"ed me to ask him such a uestion. '. I challen"ed him

    to write her a"ain. . 3id they challen"e the "irl to lie to me?

    2.2. EERAL E6ER1ISE

    ranslate the 'ollo)"n& senten#es "nto En&l"sh us"n& modal -er$s:

    *. @e poate ca sora ta sG nu Ftie ce s-a HntJmplat acolo. 2. 9r trebui sG

    cumperi casa4 s-ar putea ca preurile sG urce. . 3acG ai fi amabil sG-mi

    spunei numele dumneavoastrG aF Fti pe cine sG anun. #. 1ricJt de mult i-ai

    iubi copiii nu trebuie sG le treci cu vederea "reFelile. %. 3octorul a insistat ca

    pacientul sG ia medicamentele re"ulat. &. 9F dori ca 6oF :rGciun sG-mi

    aducG o bicicletG anul acesta. '. Bu se poate ca ei sG ne fi recunoscut Hnmi0locul unei asemenea mulimi. . Aot sG-i citesc un para"raf interesant? .

    B-am putut mer"e la cinema ieri fiindcG a trebuit sG-l a0ut pe tata. */.

    9semenea lucruri se HntJmplG frecvent la meciurile de fotbal. **. 7G

    deran0ea=G dacG deschidei toate ferestrele? *2. 3eFi eram foarte obosii

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    am putut re=olva pJnG la urmG toate exerciiile. *. Mtiu cG au plecat de la

    teatru la ora */./ aFa cG ar trebui sG fie acasG acum. *#. :um HndrG=neFte

    ea sG ne punG astfel de HntrebGri? *%. 6G Hntreb de ce n-a venit

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