Formal controls - elements that could deliver clear outcomes, such as budget, quality, and procurement (especially when dealing with external parties) Informal controls - elements that related to people, such as human resources and communications. What about project set up (or project initiation) management, project time management and project risk assessment?
People determine the success and failure of organizations and projects Long Hours and Stereotypes of IT Work Hurt Recruiting The fact that many IT professionals work long hours and must constantly keep up with changes in the field Undesirable stereotypes that keep certain people away from the career field, like women The need to improve benefits, redefine work hours and incentives, and provide better human resource management
Project human resource management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project. Processes include Organizational planning Staff acquisition Team development IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 94
Organizational planning involves identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships Outputs and processes include project organizational charts work definition and assignment process responsibility assignment matrixes resource histograms IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 95
6 R = responsibility, only one R per task A = accountability C = consultation I = informed
Staffing plans and good hiring procedures are important in staff acquisition, as are incentives for recruiting and retention Some companies give their employees one dollar for every hour a new person they helped hire works Some organizations allow people to work from home as an incentive IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 97
Research shows that people leave their jobs because : they dont make a difference dont get proper recognition arent learning anything new dont like their coworkers want to earn more money
Resource loading refers to the amount of individual resources an existing project schedule requires during specific time periods Overallocation means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 99
Resource leveling is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks The main purpose of resource leveling is to create a smoother distribution of resource usage and reduce overallocation IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 910
It takes teamwork to successfully complete most projects Training can help people understand themselves, each other, and how to work better in teams Team building activities include physical challenges psychological preference indicator tools IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 911
Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 912
Focus on meeting project objectives and producing positive results Fix the problem instead of blaming people Establish regular, effective meetings Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other Acknowledge individual and group accomplishments IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 913
IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 914
IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 915
Project managers must Treat people with consideration and respect Understand what motivates them Communicate carefully with them Focus on your goal of enabling project team members to deliver their best work IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 916
Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work Important areas related to project management include motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) influence and power effectiveness IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 917
Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs to illustrate his theory that peoples behaviors are guided by a sequence of needs Maslow argued that humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 918
Frederick Herzberg wrote several famous books and articles about worker motivation. He distinguished between motivational factors: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, which produce job satisfaction hygiene factors: cause dissatisfaction if not present, but do not motivate workers to do more. Examples include larger salaries, more supervision, and a more attractive work environment IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 921
Authority: the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders Assignment: the project manager's perceived ability to influence a worker's later work assignments Budget: the project manager's perceived ability to authorize others' use of discretionary funds Promotion: the ability to improve a worker's position Money: the ability to increase a worker's pay and benefits IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 922
Penalty: the project manager's ability to cause punishment Work challenge: the ability to assign work that capitalizes on a worker's enjoyment of doing a particular task Expertise: the project manager's perceived special knowledge that others deem important Friendship: the ability to establish friendly personal relationships between the project manager and others
Projects are more likely to succeed when project managers influence with expertise work challenge Projects are more likely to fail when project managers rely too heavily on authority money penalty IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 924
Power is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not otherwise do 25 Power CoerciveLegitimate RewardExpertReferent
Involves using punishment, threats or other negative approaches to get people to do things they do not want to do. This type of power relates to using penalty and threat. Example: A project manager can threaten to fire workers or subcontractors to try to get them to change behavior. However, influencing using penalties is correlated to unsuccessful projects. Nevertheless, coercive power can be very effective in stopping negative behavior.
Getting people to do things based on a position of authority. This type of power is similar to the authority basis of influence. If top management gives project managers organizational authority, project managers can use legitimate power in several situations. They can make key decisions without involving the project tea, for example. Overemphasis of legitimate power or authority also correlates with project failure.
Involves using personal knowledge and expertise to get people to change their behavior. If people perceive that project managers are experts in certain situations, they will follow their suggestions. For example, if a project manager has expertise in working with a particular information technology supplier and their products, the project team will be more likely to follow the project managers suggestion on how to work with that vendor and its products.
Involves using incentives to induce people to do things. Rewards can include money, status, recognition, promotions, special work assignments, or other means of rewarding someone for desired behavior. Many motivation theorists suggest that only certain types of rewards, such as work challenge, achievement, and recognition, truly induce people to change their behavior or work hard.
This is based on individuals personal charisma. People hold someone with referent power in very high regard and will do what they say based on their regard for the person.
Good project managers are empathic listeners; they listen with the intent to understand Before you can communicate with others, you have to have rapport Mirroring is a technique to help establish rapport IT professionals often need to develop empathic listening and other people skills to improve relationships with users and other stakeholders IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 931
Some organizations require business people, not IT people, to take the lead in determining and justifying investments in new computer systems CIOs push their staff to recognize