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Microstructure of Metal Materials

Jan 19, 2016

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eddywang

Microstructure of Metal Materials Data base

  • Metal specimen set

    Metallurgical Studyfor

    TIS MOTION & CONTROL PTE LTENO 63 UBI AVENUE 1, #03-01,PAYA UBI INDUSTRIAL PARK

    SINGAPORE 408934.Tel.: 741 5995 Fax: 741 6656

  • The microstructures can tell the properties, quality, and the characteristics of metals. Metals with different compositions and different heat treatment condition will be different in microstructures. These set ofspecimens contains various kinds of ferrous metal in various conditions. These specimens can be used as thereference in studying of Metallurgy, Foundry, Heat Treatment, and Manufacturing Processes, etc.

    There are 30 pieces of specimen in this set. Each specimen is prepared, etched, and coated withtransparency coating material to protect the specimen surface and to be able to be seen under microscope.without any cleaning process. The specimens were kept in three wooden boxes, 10 pieces each. The data andspecimen descriptions and micro-photographs are prepared and combined as a book and supplied together with the specimens.

    TIS MOTION & CONTROL PTE LTD

    Preface

  • 1. General background and Introduction . 1-72. Carbon steels 2.1 Low carbon steel 8-15 2.2 Medium carbon steel . 16-21 2.3 High carbon steel .. 22-293. Low alloy steels 3.1 AISI 4130 steel . 30-33 3.2 AISI 4340 steel . 34-354. Cast irons 4.1 Gray cast iron . 36-41 4.2 White cast iron . 42-43 4.3 Malleable iron .. 44-45 4.4 Nodular cast iron .. 46-49 4.5 Bainitic Ductile Iron ( BDI) . 50-51 4.6 Wear resistant cast iron(Alloy cast iron) . 52-535. Tool steels 5.1 High carbon high chromium tool steel ( AISI D2 ) .. 54-57 5.2 Mold tool steel (AISI P 20 ) . 58-61 5.3 High speed steel .... 62-636. Cast steel 6.1 High manganese steel . 64-67

    Contents

  • 1.General Background and Introduction

    1.1 General Engineering Materials:

    Engineering materials can be classified into two classes, Metal and Non-metal.

    A Metal: an element that has several metallic properties as the followings:1. Shiny appearance.2. Give sonorous tone when struck.3. Good conduction of heat and electricity.4. High malleablity(can be rolled or pressed into shape).5. High ductility(can be drawn into wire).6. With possible emission of electrons when heated(thermionic effect) or when the surface is struck by light(photoelectric effect).7. Hard and heavy.8. Not transparent.

    All metals have some of these properties. Some metals have every one of these properties.There are about 70 elements are classified as metals: e.g. Fe, Cr, Ni, Mg, Al, Cu etc.

    A Non-metal: an element with certain physical and chemical properties opposite to those of metalsNon-metals accept electron to form negatively charged ions.

    There are about 20 elements are classified as metals: e.g. S, P, C, Si and F etc.

    The metals can be devided into two classes: Non-ferrous metals and Ferrous metals which arealso devided into many sub-classes as shown in Fig.1.

    The Non-metals are Polymers and Ceramic are out of the scope of this book.

    All specimens mentioned in this book are Ferrous metals and picked up from Carbon steels, Lowalloy steels, Cast irons, Tool steels, and Cast steels.

    1.2. Steel Making

    Carbon steels, Low alloy steels, and Tool steels are made as shown in Fig.2. Cast irons and Caststeels are made as shown in Fig.3.

    1.3. Specimen Selection

    The specimen were cut from the specified round bars and flat bars of Carbon steels, Low alloy steels, and Tool steels and heat treated according to the specified processes.

    The specimen of Cast iron(gray cast iron, nodular iron, and Bainitic Ductile Iron)were casted by using induction furnace and sand mold, then heat treated according to the specified processes.

    Specimen No.29,30 are special alloy cast steel, also were casted in the induction furnace withhigh percentage of Mn addition and good quality control. No.29 is in as cast condition and No.30 is afterannealing.

    1.4. Specimen preparation

    Every specimen was prepared according to the processes shown in Fig.4.

    1.5. Heat treatment processes

    General heat treatment processes are shown in Fig.5 and the heat treatment processes applied foreach specimens is shown in each data sheet for each specimen.

    1

  • Steels

    Polymer Ceramic Cast steel Spec.#29,30

    Rubber General High-Mn Ceramic carbon

    Plastic Spec.#18 Carbon steel steelEnginnering

    Ceramic Spec.#20,21

    Malleable iron Low-C steel

    Spec.#19 0.05-0.30CSpec.#1 to 4Alloy steel

    Graphite Graphitefree bearing

    Pearlitic Martensitic High-Cr iron Acicular Spec. #12 to 14white iron white iron 11-28%Cr High strength

    Wear resistant Wear resistant Wear, corrosion, wear resistantand heat resistant

    Spec.#23 AusteniticTool steel

    18%NiNi-resist Carbon tool

    Heat and corrosion resistant Heat and corrosion resistant steel(W)

    Ferritic Spec.#24,25 Spec.#26,27 Spec.#28

    Austenitice.g.304,316

    Alloy structural steel

    heat resistant corrosion resistant

    Machineries steel

    Rephoshorized and Resulfurized carbon steel

    Structural Steel

    Spec.#8 to 11

    Stainless steel

    Carbon structural steel

    e.g. Spring steel, Silicon steel, Heat resisting steel, Magnetic steel, Corrosion resisting steel

    Austenitic Ductile Iron(ADI)

    Bainitic Ductile Iron(BDI)

    Spec.#22

    18% Ni, 5%SiNicrosilal

    High,15%, Si iron5% Si iron(Silal)

    Ferrous Metals

    General Enginnering Materials

    Non-Ferrous MetalsMetals e.g. Copper, Aluminum, and its alloys; Super-alloys etc.

    Gray cast iron

    Cast Iron

    Wrought steel

    Spec.#5 to 7

    Spec.#15 to 17Mottled cast iron

    White cast iron

    Ductile cast iron

    Alloy cast iron

    CompositMaterial

    Non-resulfurizedcarbon steel

    Resulfurizedcarbon steel

    Ultra-high-Csteel,1-2%C

    Med. C steel0.30-0.60C

    High-C steel0.60-1.00C

    Low and mediumalloy steel

    High alloysteel

    Ultra-highstrength

    steel

    High StrengthLow Alloy

    Steel(HSLA)

    Other alloysteel

    e.g.Mara-ging steel

    Shock re-sisting toolsteel (S)

    High speedsteel(T,M)

    Cold Worktool steel(A,O,D)

    Mould toolsteel (P)

    Hot Worktool steel

    (H)

    Specialpurposetool steel

    (L)

    Martensitice.g.410,440

    Ferritic e.g.430, 439

    Precipitationhardening, PH

    Fig. 1: Classification ofgeneral engineering

    materials. Other steels

    Non-Resulfurizedcarbon steel

    Resulfurizedcarbon steel

    Rephosphurized andresulfurized carbon steel

    High -manganesecarbon steel

    2

  • ORES

    DIRECTREDUCTION

    PELLETSELECTRICFURNACE

    LIME STONESINTER LADLE METALLURGY

    Note: Ladle Metallurgy isused to control condition within the ladle to improveproductivity in precedingand subsequench pro-cessing steps and thequality of the final productThese conditions can

    CRUSHED include temperature, pressure, chemistry, and

    COAL OXYGEN momentum through stirring

    SLAG

    Note: A modification of the BOP is the Q-BOPwhich the oxygen and other gas are

    From iron ores, lime stones, and coal blown in from the bottom rather thanin the Earth's crust to space-age steel the top as shown.this flowline shows the major steps MERCHANTin an steel making processes. PIG IRON CASTING

    BLAST FURNACEMOLTEN IRONCOKE OVENS

    FURNACEOPEN HEARTH

    DIRECTREDUCTION

    MERCHANTPIG IRON CASTING

    FLUX

    SCRAP

    BASIC OXYGEN FURNACEOR Q-BOF

    Fig.2 Steel making processesFig.2 Steel making processes

    3

  • Molten steel must solidify SKELPbefore it can be made intofinished products in aninfinite variety, consideringchemistry, properties, and sizes. PLATE Flat rolled products

    are rolled from slabs by using sets of cylin- drical rolls.

    TEMPERGrooved rolle squeeze billets ROLLING

    into different cross-sections(round,angles, etc.) in a sequench of operations.

    RODS WIRE

    TUBE ROUNDPiercing is the process used to make seam-less pipe and tube.

    Note:A smal but significant percentage ofheated ingot steel is squeezed in Set of grooved rolls are used to forging presses to make large shaft to roll brooms into heavy beamfor power plants, nuclear plants, for construction or for rails.nuclear plant components, and otherproducts.

    HOT FORGING

    CONTINUOUS CASTING

    STEEL PLATES

    COLD STRIP

    BLOOM

    BILLET

    SLAB

    SEAMLESS PIPE

    COLD DRAWN BARS

    GALVANIZED AND OTHER COATEDFLAT ROLLED

    PRODUCTS

    CONVENTIONAL INGOTTEEMING

    INGOT BREAKDOWNMILL

    SLAB

    BILLET

    HOT STRIP

    PLATE

    HOT ROLLED BAR

    TUBE ROUND

    RAILS

    STRUCTURALSHAPES

    WELDED PIPE

    COLD STRIP

    Fig.2 Steel making processes, cont.

    4

  • Pig iron

    Flux

    ScrapsMELTING IN INDUCTIONFURNACE

    CASTING

    RAW MATERIALS

    PATTERN MAKING

    POURING MOLTEN

    MOLTEN METAL IS POUREDINTO THE LADLE

    TO MOLD

    MOLDING SAND PREPARATION

    MOLD MAKINGMETAL FROM LADLE

    HEAT TREATMENT

    DESGN & DRAWING Fig. 3 Casting processes

    5

  • 1.Cutting 2.Mounting 3.Grinding 4.Polishing 5.Etching 6.Examination 7.Micro-photographycoolant coolant sand paper coolant polishing medium(Al2O3 suspension) ccd camera

    specimen specimen etchant specimen specimencutting wheel

    specimen grinding polishing polishing wheel cloth wheel metallurgical microscope

    fixed piston

    cut specimen movingpiston bekalite

    specimen1.Equipment: 1.Equipment: 1.Equipment: 1.Equipment: 1.Equipment: 1.Equipment: 1.Equipment: Lab cut-off machine Hot mounting machine G