Top Banner

Microbiome, gut function and immunity

Apr 05, 2017


Health & Medicine

Ella Allred
Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.
Page 1: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


IMMUNITYElla Allred Dip CNM Nutritional Therapist mBANT CNHC

Page 2: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• The microbiome can be put simply as the balance of bacteria, yeasts, virus’s, protozoa and parasites that live in your body.

• There are over 40,000 species identified to date. • The average human microbiome weights 2.2kg.• The amount of DNA owned by our microbiome is 200 times our own DNA.• Therefore, we should not be referring to ourselves as ‘me’, rather ‘us’ would be a

better description!• When you have a bowel movement, most of the weight of the faecal matter is

microbiome, rather than anything else

Page 3: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


Page 4: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Previously, we thought that babies were sterile in their mother’s womb, and they were first exposed to microbiome in the birth canal.

• However, we now know that the placenta has its own microbiome, and that our life long microbiome balance is started at the moment of conception.

• The placenta microbiome is based on our mothers. This is why it is really important to plan pregnancy, and to ensure that the mother is in a good state of health.

Page 5: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• The next stage of microbiome conditioning is birth. • As the baby passes down the birth canal, its face, eyes, ears and mouth are

covered in secretions from the birth canal, which give the baby a heavy dose of his life long microbiome.

• 3 weeks before the birth, (if the birth is at the expected time) the mothers body will populate the birth canal with billions of beneficial bacteria and yeasts, in preparation for the baby to swallow and set the standard for health.

Page 6: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Problems occur when:

• The baby is premature and the appropriate microbiome has not been place in the birth canal

• The mother is on antibiotic before or during the birth• The baby is born by caesarean

Page 7: Microbiome, gut function and immunity

WHERE DOES IT ALL START? • Studies show that babies who are born via caesarean, have a microbiome

that is similar to that of the surgeons hands. Even as adults, people born via caesarean show distantly different gut microbiome to those who were born via vaginal birth.

• C section babies are colonised by staphlococcus and other hospital bacteria and have much higher rates of eczema, asthma and other immune conditions.

James J. Goedert et al. Diversity and composition of the adult microbiome associated with a history of caesarean birth or appendectomy: analysis of the American gut project. EBioMedicine 2014

Page 8: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• The third stage of microbiome transmission is skin to skin contact.• Skin to skin transfers the microbiome of the skin from the mother to the

babies skin. • This is why imitate skin to skin contact is so important. • If we miss out this vital stage, then the baby will pick up the microbiome from

the environment around him. This can be a problem if it is a hospital birth or if the mother is too unwell to care for her child.

Page 9: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• The forth stage of microbiome transmission is through breastmilk.• Breastmilk is a power house of bacteria! The bacteria line the digestive tract

of the baby and prepare the baby’s gut for foods later on.

Page 10: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Breast milk changes in composition according to the babies needs. The babies saliva enters the mother nipples through a vacuum that is produced by the sucking action of the baby.

• If the baby has an infection, the mothers body will respond to this by creating antibodies for that infection, and within half an hour, these antibodies are showing up in breast milk.

• Breastmilk also contains sugars that the baby cannot break down, and therefore their only purpose is to provide a food source for the microbiome.

• Amazing!

Page 11: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• All health starts in the gut. • The list of conditions gets longer and longer as what is related to the microbiome.

Currently we know that autoimmune conditions, allergic conditions, respiratory conditions, colon cancer, diabetes and even obesity is triggered by a poor microbiome.

• Different bacteria activate different genes in the body, therefore, microbiome has more of an impact on the expressions of genetic related conditions, than genes do.

• They produce short chain fatty acids which are needed as fuel for the gut cells.• They excrete vitamins k2 (more than we get from diet) B12 and vitamin C.

Page 12: Microbiome, gut function and immunity

• 70% of your immune system comes from you gut microbiome.• They have a huge impact on the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue and the

regulation of immune cells. • They alter the PH of the gut. Beneficial bacteria produce lactic acid, which is

helpful for protection against pathogens and needed for good digestion.• The gut is where you digest and absorb foods and provide your whole body

with nutrition. Humans naturally produce 22 digestive enzymes to break down foods, however, your microbiome excrete over 200 digestive enzymes! They are as important for digestion as your bodies natural function!

Page 13: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Gas, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation and the typical symptoms of IBS are often due to a lack of beneficial bacteria in the gut.

• Fermentable fibres are not being broken down and metabolised in the small intestine by beneficial bacteria and their enzymes, and therefore reach the large intestine where they are they metabolised by other bacteria and produce gas and bloating.

Page 14: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Beneficial microbiome can be beneficial in 2 ways. In IBS;• Fibre does not get broken down by the beneficial microbiome in the small

intestine. Instead, it reaches the colon undigested. The bacteria in the large intestine then fermented it, causing gas and irritation leading to diarrhoea.

• There is a lack of beneficial bacteria in the gut, and therefore, not enough small chain fatty acids are produced i.e butyric acid. Short chain fatty acids fuel the gut cells and allow for effective peristalsis. A lack of peristalsis means that faecal matter is in the gut longer, more water is absorbed by the colon and the faeces is likely to become dry and hard to pass.

Page 15: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• The gut microbiome shapes the intestinal immune response, and is directly indicated in Irritable bowel diseases such Crohn’s, Colitis and ulcerative Colitis.

• The use of microbiome therapy for IBD remission has so far been impressive. Therapies such as the use of probiotics – particularly E.coli Nissel, and faecal rectal infusion are showing great results. • What does this mean for the current use of immunosuppressants and steroids for


June L Round , et al. The gut microbiotica shapes intestinal immune response during health and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology 2009

Page 16: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Pathogens have the ability to affect the behaviour of the host. Studies show that patients with IBS and altered microbial diversity have demonstrated poorer emotional functions such as anxiety and depression. Pathogenic bacteria release a substance called lipopolysaccharides. These are able to pass the blood brain barrier where they can effect emotions. Consider the microbiome affect on:• Suicide rates• Anti depressant use• Other mental illnesses

Blanchard EB, et al. The role of anxiety and depression in irritable bowel syndrome. Behav Res Ther 1990.

Page 17: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Beneficial bacteria stimulate the enzyme production of the liver needed for certain detox pathways.

• Consider the implications of microbiome and liver detox pathways:• Drug metabolism• Nutrient metabolism• Skin health• Immune health• Moods and mental health

Claus SP, et al. Colonization-induced host-gut microbial metabolic interaction. Mbio 2011

Page 18: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Some bacteria are efficient at reducing cholesterol levels. There are certain microbes called bile salt hydrolase active (BSH active) bacteria

• They metabolise and break down some of your bile. Bile is made from cholesterol, so your body has to call on its reserves to make more, decreasing blood cholesterol levels.

• Consider the implication for reduced cholesterol on rates of:• Atherosclerosis and heart blockages / ischemic stroke• Coronary artery disease and poor blood flow

Mitchell L Jones et al. cholesterol lowering with bile salt hydrolase active probiotic bacteria, mechanism of action, clinical evidence, and future direction for heart health applications. Expert opinion on biological Therapy 2013

Page 19: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Our mothers health at the time of conception and birth• The way in which we were born, and weather or not we undergo vaginal

seeding• Weather we were breast fed or formula fed• Antibiotic use – it is estimated that over 50% of antibiotics are

inappropriately prescribed• The use of Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory (NSAID’s). They case irritation in

the gut which stops the adherence of the microbiome to the gut wall. • Stress can have a profound detrimental affect on microbiomeBaily MT et al. Exposure to social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation. Brain behave immune 2011

Page 20: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Your microbiome changes within just one day of you changing your diet. This means that we have a very powerful tool at our finger tips.

• Exclude sugar and refined carbohydrates, which reduces inflammation in the gut and has a negative affect on the gut microbiome.

• In the words of Michael pollan “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants”

Page 21: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• The diet impacts microbiome, and microbiome impacts your diet. Your microbiome released chemicals into your brain, giving you cravings for food that supports their growth. Since we know that sugar is detrimental to the microbiome and sugar cravings come from negative microbiome such as candida species.

• What we need for a good gut garden is the same as how we would grow a real garden:

• less chemicals• more nutrition• And a bit of dirt

Page 22: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Eat fermented foods. Fermented foods contain billions of organisms and a huge variety of species and strains.

• Sauerkraut contains Bacillus clausii, also found in healthy soil and plants. Bacillus Clausii is particularly beneficial for the upper respiratory tract. It is also antibiotic resistant!

• Nato contains Bacillus Subtillus which break down hydrocarbons in the gut. They colonise mostly in the small intestine.

• Saccharomyces boulardii is a beneficial yeast and is related to bakers yeast. It produces lactic acid and supports GALT, modulates immunoglobulins. Good to take with antibiotics to help decrease the risk of a candida overgrowth.

Page 23: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Kefir drinks contain many different organisms and ideally should be consumed daily.

• These include :

Page 24: Microbiome, gut function and immunity

KEFIR DRINK CONTAINS…• Lactobacillus acidophilus

• Lactobacillus brevis

• Lactobacillus casei

• Lactobacillus delbrueckii- bulgaricus

• Lactobacillus delbrueckii- delbrueckii

• Lactobacillus delbruckii- lactis

• Lactobacillus helveticus

• Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens- kefiranofaciens

• Lactobacillus kefiri

• Lactobacillus paracassi- paracasi

• Lactobacillus plantarum

• Lactobacillus rhamnosus

• Lactobacillus sake

• Lactococcus lactis- cremoris

• Lactococcus lactis- lactis

• Lactococcus lactis

• Leuconostoc mesenteroides- cremoris

• Leuconostoc mesenteroides- dextranicum

• Leuconostoc mesenteroides- mesenteroides

• Pseudomonas fluorescens

• Pseudomonas putida

• Streptococcus thermophiles

• Candida humilis

• Kazachstania unispora

• Kazachstania exigua

• Kluyveromyces siamensis

• Kluyveromyces lactis

• Kluyveromyces marxianus

• Saccharomyces cerevisiae

• Saccharomyces martiniae

• Saccharomyce unisporus

Page 25: Microbiome, gut function and immunity


• Consume fibre to provide a food source for the beneficial microbiome• Ensure that HCL levels are normal• Avoid constipation.• De-stress• Get back to nature • Take a probiotic supplement• Ensure you are consuming enough omega 3• Eliminate and food intolerance