Click here to load reader
Click here to load reader
Dec 05, 2015
Unit I Why Studying English Language? What does suppose an effective teacher of EFL?
Content: -The main aim of studying a FL -General purposes of studying a FL -Teaching English as FL -Qualities of an effective teacher of EFL
Key words: purpose, process, communicative competence, effective qualities, linguistic, sociolinguistic, personality, flexibility, achievement. The main task of everybody is to establish why is going to study a foreign language. If somebody becomes aware of the goal of learning and knows how to answer at the question Why do need to learn? the methodological task is half solved. The identification of learning goal by subjects involved in the process of teaching-learning a foreign language is a very important methodological aspect. Which are the social requirements related to foreign languages studying? Having no possibility to mention entire spectrum of foreign language possible application nowadays, we`ll give only some examples: -EGP (English for General Purposes);-ESP (English for Specific Purposes);-EAP (English for Academic Purposes);English for General Purposes (EGP) covers the teaching of the fundamentals of grammar, of expression as well as of phonetics and provides a stronger or weaker basis for possible later language studies. The subjects of teaching ensure that learners are able to communicate with ease on a variety of topics; from getting directions to buying clothes and even ordering food in a restaurant. Learning activities are all contextual and during them students practice different verbal scenarios.Model: I am looking for a pairs of trousers, sport shoes, a DVD Do you have any? Do you have these in a size smaller/bigger? Could you tell me whereis/are? Where can I find?English for Specific Purposes (ESP) refers to teaching language for specific purposes that are determined by different professional/occupational, social and other needs of the learner. English for specific purposes includes specialized programmes which are designed to develop the communicative use of English in a specialized field of science, work or technology. To be able to speak on a professional subject is not enough to know general vocabulary. However, a great part of professional vocabulary consists of general words, which either have a shift of meaning or make a new unit.Model: The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine (ICE) the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. English for Academic Purposes (EAP) covers the teaching of language used by the educated and needed to succeed financially in society. Learners, usually in a higher education setting, are trained to use foreign language appropriately for study. Academic language includes cognitive, linguistic, and social/psychological components. Some aspects of those components can be taught; others are less useful, while still others may be counterproductive to teach. Cognition is also an important part of academic English. It includes knowledge, higher order thinking (critical literacy), cognitive, and metalinguistic strategies. Future teachers of foreign language will study English having another approach regarding the social need of the language. For students from Pedagogy Field learning English will rely on how to teach English as a Foreign Language. Teaching English as a Foreign Language involves the didactic planned actions that enables pupils whose primary language, or native language is other than English to develop their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills to a required level. During this process teacher has to form up cognition and competences. Cognition-refers to mental processes.These processes include attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems and making decisions; Competence-is a combination of knowledge, skill, behaviour and abilities. The main goal of English Language teaching as a foreign language is to develop pupil`s communicative competence. Communicative competence is a concept introduced by Dell Hymes and discussed and redefined by many authors. Hymes`s original idea was that speakers of a language have to have more than grammatical competence in order to be able to communicate effectively in a language, they also need to know how language is used by members of a speech community to accomplish their purposes. From here can be stated that communicative competence is a broad term that involves not only the structural features of language, but also its social, pragmatic and contextual characteristics.Communicative competence is made up of four competence areas: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic. Linguistic competence is related to the use of the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of a language. Linguistic competence asks: What words do I use? How do I put them into phrases and sentences? Sociolinguistic competence refers to knowing how to use and respond to language appropriately, given the setting, the topic, and the relationships among the people communicating. Sociolinguistic competence asks: Which words and phrases fit this setting and this topic? How can I express a specific attitude (courtesy, authority, friendliness, respect) when I need to? How do I know what attitude another person is expressing? Discourse competence refers to knowing how to interpret the larger context and how to construct longer stretches of language so that the parts make up a coherent whole. Discourse competence asks: How are words, phrases and sentences put together to create conversations, speeches, email messages, newspaper articles?Strategic competence refers to knowing how to recognize and repair communication breakdowns, how to work around gaps in ones knowledge of the language, and how to learn more about the language and in the context. Strategic competence asks: How do I know when Ive misunderstood or when someone has misunderstood me? What do I say then? How can I express my ideas if I dont know the name of something or the right verb form to use?In order to form the communicative competence at students a teacher of English language must possess it.
Figure 1. Components of the Communicative Competence.
English teacher`s qualitiesTeachers are those who convey the truth, pass on the knowledge, andclarify the doubts, said Confucius.
How must be an english teacher? Agood is meant effective teacher of english must have high language knowledge, teaching, verbal and socio-cultural skills and dedication to teaching. The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires (as cited in Think Exist, 2009,William Arthur Ward Quotes). A good teacher must be helpful for students` learning and sure must hold many personal traits. Analyzing different students` perception on teacher qualities were selected eight most important qualities. So an effective teacher is creative and interesting, encouraging and caring, enthusiastic, flexible and open-minded, knowledgeable, fair, respectful and holding realistic expectations. All these qualities were grouped into four basic elements that are leading to the existence of an ideal English teacher. These basic elements are:-English communicative competence-Instructional competence-Personality-Teacher-pupil relationshipAn effective teacher has to hold instructional competence through this is meant the ability of providing a student-centered instruction, having adequate didactic knowledge (learning styles and theory) about the subject and being professional (having planning, organizational, presentation skills and ICT literacy). Broadhead (1987) proposed a blue print for effective teachers and stated that personality is the essential characteristic for an effective teacher. Some researchers of pupils` perception reported that such qualities as being patient, kind, friendly, honest, tolerant, helpful, and seldom shows nervousness and anger shape an effective modern english teacher. Murphy (2004) described in a qualitative study exploring characteristics for Effective EFL Teachers as being caring, patient, polite, and amiable, not being boring, shy or strict. Teachers personality is highly associated with establishing teacher-student relationship. Davis (2001) emphasized on the relationship between students and teachers and claimed that this kind of social motivation can promote students learning and achievement. Effective teachers are that who often adopt communicative theories of foreign language teaching, assign small group work for negotiation of meaning, and instruct selected strategies for foreign language learning. In fact, Brown (2000) also proposed that social factors may affect foreign language learning. Cooperation between students and teachers, such as asking question for clarification, providing feedbacks, requesting for teachers to paraphrase, explain and repeat, is very important for language learning. Socio-affective strategies, in this case, facilitate the social-mediating activity and help with teacher-students interaction.
Figure2. Effective English Teacher`s QualitiesTasks for students:1. Think and explain the differences between teaching English as a foreign language and English for specific and academic purpose. 1. Think and outline qualities of an effective teacher of English language according to the four basic elements that are mentioned up in the script. (see fig. 1). (to be performed in not less than ten lines).
Useful words:Purpose-\pr-ps\-the reason why something is done or used, the aim (goal) or intention of something. Process-\pr-ss\-a series of actions that produce something or that lea