1. Eric LAMPERTZ Anita SOLOMON Noor AL SHOALA Romina RODRIGUEZ POSE Mariana INFANTE Shahana DASTIDAR
2. structure Mission scope Definition of Poverty Research Topics Methodology Introduction to Fieldwork Pre-trip expectations that matched reality Key Findings from Fieldwork Recommendations - Areas for future research and institutional adjustment
3. mission scope urban / rural context in Mbarara poverty reduction and reversal thereof recommendations for making adjustments in these areas to achieve a positive contribution to sustained poverty reduction (Fieldtrip TOR)
4. definition of poverty A lack of the means to satisfy basic material and social needs, as well as a feeling of powerlessness (MFPED, 2000 & 2002 as cited in CPRC report, 2005: 16) Powerlessness in the sense of insecurity, helplessness against corruption in public service delivery, general exploitation by service providers, vulnerability to natural and economic shocks, and isolation from the larger society. (Okidi and Kempaka as cited in CPRC report, 2005: 16)
5. mission approach poverty as defined by the poor themselves
6. research topics Q1: What do the poor in Mbarara perceive as poverty? What do they consider as factors that drive them into poverty, or carriers that keep them in poverty? Q2: What is the direct impact of policy initiatives like decentralisation and good governance on the poor in Mbarara? Q3: Do statistics reflect reality?
7. framework of analysis
8. framework for research What do the poor in Mbarara perceive as poverty? What do they consider as factors that can drive them into poverty, or carriers that keep them in poverty? What are the direct impacts of policy initiatives like decentralisation and good governance on the poor in Mbarara? Do statistics reflect reality? Broad research topics SL Component Livelihood assets, Livelihood strategies, Vulnerability Transforming structures and processes Livelihood assets, Livelihood outcomes T 1 3 2
10. sites visited
11. kashanyarazi (urban cell) Focus Group Discussion in Local Church Interviews with two families
12. rwanyamahembe (rural) Interview with Local Leaders Group Discussion in village (landless farm worker families) Interview in village (land-owning farmer family)
13. bwizibwera (rural) Focus group discussion in Primary Health Centre Interview with Fabric- seller, Vegetable-seller & Traditional Healer at Weekly Market
14. research questions topics discussed/ questions asked during group discussions and interviews
15. expectation ~ ground reality physical capital condition of services (roads, schools, hospitals) under-developed electricity distribution - reliance on fuel wood for cooking etc. lack of water and sanitation infrastructure
16. social capital high prevalence of social networks and informal safety nets (e.g. family, neighbourhood) expectation ~ ground reality
17. natural capital fertile soils favourable but unstable weather conditions high reliance on subsistence farming expectation ~ ground reality
18. financial capital existence of microfinance sector low usage of financial services strong tendency for self-help (e.g. revolving savings funds) expectation ~ ground reality
19. Transforming structures & processes general reduction in poverty prevalence of corruption traditionally large families strong gender bias alcoholism expectation ~ ground reality
20. key findings The PEAP is part of policies within the SL framework. As the main policy for poverty eradication, our findings show that: PEAP Positive Macroeconomic Indicators Low inflation Economic growth Low fiscal deficit Declining poverty rate, except for 2002 figures Blip due to statistical error/ coffee prices Statistics vs. Reality? Effect of PEAP or Increased Stability and Security in the region
21. key findings Decentralization Access to services Education Participation Decentralization of corruption? Faith in local leaders Governance
22. key findings Large Families Povertywhat is leading to ..? how to get out ..? Education Burden of many children Cost of Education Division of Assets High Value Acknowledgement of Family Planning Methods Religious Cultural Implementation problems ?
23. key findings Micro- credit Povertywhat is leading to ..? how to get out ..? Initial Capital More Problems than Benefits Terms unfavourable Loss of Assets Broken Family Bonds Evictions Prison New loan to repay the previous one Micro-credit as answer to poverty Lack of understanding Used to pay non- recoverable expenses (school cost, medical bills, weddings, etc) Creditors: Banks, MFI, Individual money- lenders ? High expectations from income- generating activities Sustainable?
24. key findings Savings & Credit
25. key findings Advantages: Food security, access to land and property, majority of Ugandans live in rural areas Problems: agriculture depends on climate conditions (vulnerability), large families means great division of the land, soil is being depleted, no technological advance in agriculture to increase yields. Livelihood Strategies Agriculture
26. key findings Creation of Small Enterprises: generation of a stable income and reduction of agriculture- dependence vulnerability Problems: licenses (corruption), still dependant on the agricultural economy, common goal means more competition Livelihood Strategies Small Enterprises
27. poverty in mbarara insecurity & impermanence
28. future research institutional adjustment vulnerability & support systems poverty reduction - PEAP vs. stability/ security statistics vs. reality decentralisation (participation vs. corruption) cultural values education & family planning credit (disease or cure) agriculture (subsistence/primary good/value-addition) small enterprises (sustainability)
29. Special Acknowledgements Ms. Immaculate Tumuhumbise (Mbarara University of Science & Technology) Ms. Sarah N. Ssenwanyana (Economic Policy Research Centre, Makarere University) Ms. Julie Crespin (ACTOGETHER UGANDA, Kampala)
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