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MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is a dual-output, pulse-width-modulated (PWM), step-down DC-DC regulator with tracking (coin- cident and ratiometric) and sequencing options. The device operates from 2.5V to 5.5V and each output can be adjusted from 0.6V to the input supply (V AVIN ). The MAX15021 delivers up to 4A (regulator 1) and 2A (reg- ulator 2) of output current. This device offers the ability to adjust the switching frequency from 500kHz to 4MHz and provides the capability of optimizing the design in terms of size and performance. The MAX15021 utilizes a voltage-mode control scheme with external compensation to provide good noise immunity and maximum flexibility in selecting inductor values and capacitor types. The dual switching regula- tors operate 180° out-of-phase, thereby reducing the RMS input ripple current and thus the size of the input bypass capacitor significantly. The MAX15021 offers the ability to track (coincident or ratiometric) or sequence during power-up and power- down operation. When sequencing, it powers up glitch- free into a prebiased output. Additional features include an internal undervoltage lockout with hysteresis and a digital soft-start/soft-stop for glitch-free power-up and power-down. Protection features include lossless cycle-by-cycle current limit, hiccup-mode output short-circuit protection, and ther- mal shutdown. The MAX15021 is available in a space-saving, 5mm x 5mm, 28-pin TQFN-EP package and is specified for operation from -40°C to +125°C temperature range. Applications RFID Reader Cards Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) IP Phones Automotive Multimedia Multivoltage Supplies Networking/Telecom Benefits and Features Integration Reduces Power-Supply Footprint for Space- Constrained Designs Dual-Output Synchronous Buck Regulators Integrated Switches for 4A and 2A Output Currents Programmable Switching Frequency from 500kHz to 4MHz 28-Pin TQFN Package (5mm x 5mm) 180° Out-Of-Phase Operation Reduces Input Ripple Current and Thus the Size of the Input Bypass Capacitors Sophisticated Tracking/Sequencing Functions Facilitate Reliable Processor Operation Digital Soft-Start and Soft-Stop for Tracking Applications Digital Soft-Start into a Prebiased Load for Sequencing Applications Sequencing or Coincident/Ratiometric Tracking Flexible Enough for Use in a Range of Designs 2.5V to 5.5V Input Voltage Range Output-Voltage Adjustable from 0.6V to V AVIN External Compensation for Maximum Flexibility 100% Maximum Duty Cycle Integrated Protection Features Save Space and Increase Reliability Lossless, Cycle-by-Cycle Current Sensing Thermal Shutdown and Hiccup-Mode Short-Circuit Protection 20µA Shutdown Current Extends Battery Life in Portable Applications MAX15021 TOP VIEW 26 27 25 24 10 9 11 PGND1 PVIN1 PVIN1 LX1 PGND1 12 SEL N.C. LX2 PGND2 N.C. DVDD2 N.C. 1 + 2 EN2 4 *EP *EP = EXPOSED PAD. 5 6 7 20 21 19 17 16 15 SGND AVIN COMP1 FB1 EN1 DVDD1 LX1 PVIN2 3 18 28 8 RT PGND1 FB2 23 13 N.C. COMP2 22 14 N.C. N.C. Pin Configuration Ordering Information PART TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE MAX15021ATI/V+ -40°C to +125°C 28 TQFN-EP* /V denotes an automotive qualified part. +Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package. *EP = Exposed pad. 19-4106; Rev 2; 4/15
24

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

Jul 03, 2018

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Page 1: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

General DescriptionThe MAX15021 is a dual-output, pulse-width-modulated(PWM), step-down DC-DC regulator with tracking (coin-cident and ratiometric) and sequencing options. Thedevice operates from 2.5V to 5.5V and each output canbe adjusted from 0.6V to the input supply (VAVIN). TheMAX15021 delivers up to 4A (regulator 1) and 2A (reg-ulator 2) of output current. This device offers the abilityto adjust the switching frequency from 500kHz to 4MHzand provides the capability of optimizing the design interms of size and performance.

The MAX15021 utilizes a voltage-mode control schemewith external compensation to provide good noiseimmunity and maximum flexibility in selecting inductorvalues and capacitor types. The dual switching regula-tors operate 180° out-of-phase, thereby reducing theRMS input ripple current and thus the size of the inputbypass capacitor significantly.

The MAX15021 offers the ability to track (coincident orratiometric) or sequence during power-up and power-down operation. When sequencing, it powers up glitch-free into a prebiased output.

Additional features include an internal undervoltagelockout with hysteresis and a digital soft-start/soft-stopfor glitch-free power-up and power-down. Protectionfeatures include lossless cycle-by-cycle current limit,hiccup-mode output short-circuit protection, and ther-mal shutdown.

The MAX15021 is available in a space-saving, 5mm x5mm, 28-pin TQFN-EP package and is specified foroperation from -40°C to +125°C temperature range.

Applications

RFID Reader Cards

Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) IP Phones

Automotive Multimedia

Multivoltage Supplies

Networking/Telecom

Benefits and Features• Integration Reduces Power-Supply Footprint for Space-

Constrained Designs

• Dual-Output Synchronous Buck Regulators

• Integrated Switches for 4A and 2A Output Currents

• Programmable Switching Frequency from 500kHz

to 4MHz

• 28-Pin TQFN Package (5mm x 5mm)

• 180° Out-Of-Phase Operation Reduces Input

Ripple Current and Thus the Size of the Input

Bypass Capacitors

• Sophisticated Tracking/Sequencing Functions

Facilitate Reliable Processor Operation

• Digital Soft-Start and Soft-Stop for Tracking

Applications

• Digital Soft-Start into a Prebiased Load for

Sequencing Applications

• Sequencing or Coincident/Ratiometric Tracking

• Flexible Enough for Use in a Range of Designs

• 2.5V to 5.5V Input Voltage Range

• Output-Voltage Adjustable from 0.6V to VAVIN

• External Compensation for Maximum Flexibility

• 100% Maximum Duty Cycle

• Integrated Protection Features Save Space and

Increase Reliability

• Lossless, Cycle-by-Cycle Current Sensing

• Thermal Shutdown and Hiccup-Mode Short-Circuit

Protection

• 20µA Shutdown Current Extends Battery Life in

Portable Applications

MAX15021

TOP VIEW

26

27

25

24

10

9

11

PGND

1

PVIN

1

PVIN

1

LX1

PGND

1

12

SEL

N.C.

LX2

PGND

2

N.C.

DVDD

2

N.C.

1

+

2

EN2

4

*EP

*EP = EXPOSED PAD.

5 6 7

2021 19 17 16 15

SGND

AVIN

COMP1

FB1

EN1

DVDD1

LX1

PVIN

2

3

18

28 8RT PGND1

FB2

23 13 N.C.COMP2

22 14 N.C.N.C.

Pin Configuration

Ordering Information

PART TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE

MAX15021ATI/V+ -40°C to +125°C 28 TQFN-EP*

/V denotes an automotive qualified part.+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.*EP = Exposed pad.

19-4106; Rev 2; 4/15

Page 2: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

Maxim Integrated | 2www.maximintegrated.com

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Electrical Characteristics(VAVIN = VPVIN_ = VDVDD_ = 3.3V, VPGND_ = VSGND_ = 0V, RT = 25kΩ, and TA = TJ = -40°C to +125°C, unless otherwise noted.Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 3)

Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functionaloperation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure toabsolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.

Note 1: LX_ has internal diodes to PGND_ and PVIN_. Applications that forward bias these diodes should take care not to exceedthe IC’s package power dissipation.

Note 2: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-layer board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations see www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-tutorial.

AVIN, PVIN_, DVDD_, EN_, FB_, RT, SEL to SGND.........................................................-0.3V to +6V

COMP_ to SGND .....................................-0.3V to (VAVIN + 0.3V)PGND_ to SGND ...................................................-0.3V to +0.3VLX_ Current (Note 1)Regulator 1...............................................................................6ARegulator 2...............................................................................3ACurrent into Any Pin other than PVIN_,

LX_, and PGND_..............................................................50mA

Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)28-Pin TQFN (derate 34.5mW/°C above +70°C) .....2758.6mW

Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (θJC)(Note 2) .........2°C/WJunction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (θJA)(Note 2) ..29°C/WOperating Temperature Range .........................-40°C to +125°CMaximum Junction Temperature .....................................+150°CStorage Temperature Range .............................-60°C to +150°CLead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C

PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS

SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

Input-Voltage RangeVAVIN = VPVIN1 = VPVIN2 = VDVDD1 =VDVDD2

2.5 5.5 V

Undervoltage Lockout Threshold AVIN rising 2.1 2.2 2.3 V

Undervoltage Lockout Hysteresis 0.12 V

Operating Supply Current VEN_= 1.3V, VFB_ = 0.8V 3.5 6 mA

Shutdown Supply Current VEN_ = 0V 20 65 µA

PWM DIGITAL SOFT-START/SOFT-STOP

Soft-Start/Soft-Stop Duration 4096ClockCycles

Reference Voltage Steps 64 Steps

PWM ERROR AMPLIFIERS

FB1, FB2 Input Bias Current -1 +1 µA

FB1, FB2 Voltage Set-Point 0.593 0.599 0.605 V

COMP1, COMP2 Voltage Range ICOMP_ = -250µA to +250µA 0.3 VAVIN - 0.5 V

Error-Amplifier Open-Loop Gain 80 dB

Error-Amplifier Unity-Gain 12 MHz

POWER MOSFETsRegulator 1 p-Channel MOSFET VDVDD1 = 5V 50 90 mΩRegulator 1 n-Channel MOSFET VDVDD1 = 5V 30 50 mΩRegulator 1 Gate Charge VDVDD1 = 5V 8 nC

Maximum LX1 RMS Current 4 ARegulator 2 p-Channel MOSFET VDVDD2 = 5V 100 180 mΩRegulator 2 n-Channel MOSFET VDVDD2 = 5V 60 100 mΩRegulator 2 Gate Charge VDVDD2 = 5V 4 nC

Maximum LX2 RMS Current 2 A

Page 3: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

Maxim Integrated | 3www.maximintegrated.com

Electrical Characteristics (continued)(VAVIN = VPVIN_ = VDVDD_ = 3.3V, VPGND_ = VSGND_ = 0V, RT = 25kΩ, and TA = TJ = -40°C to +125°C, unless otherwise noted.Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 3)

Note 3: Specifications are 100% production tested at TA = +25°C and TA = +125°C. Maximum and minimum specifications overtemperature are guaranteed by design.

Note 4: When operating with VAVIN = 2.5V, the maximum switching frequency should be derated to 3MHz.

PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS

PWM CURRENT LIMIT AND HICCUP MODE

VAVIN = 3.3V 4.5 4.9 5.3Regulator 1 Peak Current Limit

VAVIN = 2.5V 3.4 3.65 3.95A

VAVIN = 3.3V 4.0 4.9 5.65Regulator 1 Valley Current Limit

VAVIN = 2.5V 3.0 3.7 4.25A

VAVIN = 3.3V 2.25 2.45 2.65Regulator 2 Peak Current Limit

VAVIN = 2.5V 1.70 1.85 1.98A

VAVIN = 3.3V 2.0 2.5 2.83Regulator 2 Valley Current Limit

VAVIN = 2.5V 1.5 1.85 2.13A

Number of Cumulative Current-Limit Events to Hiccup

NCL 4ClockCycles

Number of Consecutive NoncurrentLimit Cycles to Clear NCL

NCLR 3ClockCycles

Hiccup Timeout NHT 8192ClockCycles

ENABLE/SEL

EN_ Threshold VEN_ rising 1.207 1.225 1.243 V

EN_ Hysteresis 0.12 V

EN_ Input Current -2.5 +2.5 µA

SEL High Threshold 0.85 x VAVIN V

SEL Low Threshold 0.2 x VAVIN V

SEL Input Bias Current Present only during startup -100 +100 µA

OSCILLATOR

Switching Frequency Range fSWfSW = 3MHz x [VRT(V)/1.067(V)](Note 4)

500 4000 kHz

fSW ≤ 1500kHz -6 +6Oscillator Accuracy

fSW > 1500kHz -10 +10%

Phase Shift Between Regulators 180 Degrees

RT Current 0 < VRT < 1.067V 31.30 32 32.58 µA

RT Voltage Range VRT 0.13 1.067 V

Minimum Controllable On-Time 60 ns

Minimum Controllable Off-Time 60 ns

PWM Ramp Amplitude VAVIN/4 V

PWM Ramp Valley 0.3 V

THERMAL SHUTDOWN

Thermal Shutdown Temperature Temperature rising +160 °C

Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis 15 °C

Page 4: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

Maxim Integrated | 4www.maximintegrated.com

CHANNEL 1 EFFICIENCYvs. LOAD CURRENT

MAX

1502

1to

c01

LOAD CURRENT (mA)

EFFI

CIEN

CY (%

)

1000

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0100 5000

VPVIN1 = 3.3V

VPVIN1 = 5V

VOUT1 = 1.8VfSW = 2MHzEN2 = 0V

CHANNEL 1 EFFICIENCYvs. LOAD CURRENT

MAX

1502

1 to

c02

LOAD CURRENT (mA)

EFFI

CIEN

CY (%

)

1000

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0100 5000

VOUT1 = 3.3V

VOUT1 = 1.8V

VOUT1 = 1.0V

VPVIN1 = 5VfSW = 2MHzEN2 = 0V

CHANNEL 2 EFFICIENCYvs. LOAD CURRENT

MAX

1502

1 to

c03

LOAD CURRENT (mA)

EFFI

CIEN

CY (%

)

1000

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0100 3000

PVIN2 = 5V

PVIN2 = 3.3V

VOUT2 = 1.5VfSW = 2MHzEN1 = 0V

CHANNEL 2 EFFICIENCYvs. LOAD CURRENT

MAX

1502

1 to

c04

LOAD CURRENT (mA)

EFFI

CIEN

CY (%

)

1000

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0100 3000

VOUT2 = 1.0V

VOUT2 = 1.5V

VOUT2 = 2.5V

VPVIN2 = 5VfSW = 2MHzEN1 = 0V

CHANNEL 1 LOAD REGULATION

MAX

1502

1 to

c05

LOAD CURRENT (A)

V OUT

1 (V)

2.52.01.51.00.5

3.302

3.304

3.306

3.308

3.310

3.312

3.314

3.316

3.318

3.320

3.3000 3.0

VPVIN1 = 5VfSW = 2MHz

CHANNEL 2 LOAD REGULATION

MAX

1502

1 to

c06

LOAD CURRENT (A)

V OUT

2 (V)

1.251.000.750.500.25

1.5025

1.5030

1.5035

1.5040

1.5045

1.5050

1.5055

1.5060

1.5065

1.5070

1.50200 1.50

fSW = 2MHz

VPVIN2 = 5V

VPVIN2 = 3.3V

SWITCHING FREQUENCYvs. RT RESISTANCE

MAX

1502

1 to

c07

RT RESISTANCE (kΩ)

SWIT

CHIN

G FR

EQUE

NCY

(MHz

)

353020 2510 155

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

00

SWITCHING FREQUENCYvs. TEMPERATURE

MAX

1502

1 to

c08

TEMPERATURE (°C)

CHAN

GE IN

SW

ITCH

ING

FREQ

UENC

Y (%

)

1109565 80-10 5 20 35 50-25

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-0.5-40 125

fSW = 2MHz

Typical Operating Characteristics(VAVIN = VDVDD1 = VDVDD2 = VPVIN1 = VPVIN2 = 5V, VOUT1 = 3.3V, VOUT2 = 1.5V, VPGND_ = 0V, RT = 16.5kΩ. TA = +25°C, unlessotherwise noted.)

Page 5: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

Maxim Integrated | 5www.maximintegrated.com

QUIESCENT CURRENTvs. TEMPERATURE

MAX

1502

1 to

c09

TEMPERATURE (°C)

QUIE

SCEN

T CU

RREN

T (m

A)

1109565 80-10 5 20 35 50-25

2.75

3.00

3.25

3.50

3.75

4.00

4.25

4.50

4.75

5.00

2.50-40 125

NO SWITCHING

SWITCHING CURRENTvs. TEMPERATURE

MAX

1502

1 to

c10

TEMPERATURE (°C)SW

ITCH

ING

CURR

ENT

(mA)

1109565 80-10 5 20 35 50-25

1413

15161718192021222324252627

12-40 125

REGULATOR 1 ENABLEDVOUT1 = 3.3V

REGULATOR 2 ENABLEDVOUT2 = 1.5V

NORMALIZED UNDERVOLTAGE LOCKOUTTHRESHOLD vs. TEMPERATURE

MAX

1502

1 to

c11

TEMPERATURE (°C)

NORM

ALIZ

ED U

VLO

THRE

SHOL

D (V

)

1109565 80-10 5 20 35 50-25

0.9750.9800.9850.9900.9951.0001.0051.0101.0151.0201.0251.030

0.970-40 125

VUVLO (NOM) = 2.2V

COINCIDENT TRACKING SOFT-STARTMAX15021 toc13

VAVIN5V/div

VOUT11V/div

VOUT21V/div

0V

0V

1ms/div

COINCIDENT TRACKING SOFT-STOPMAX15021 toc14

VAVIN5V/div

1V/div

0V

0V

400μs/div

VOUT2

EN1

VOUT1

EN_ THRESHOLDvs. TEMPERATURE

MAX

1502

1 to

c12

TEMPERATURE (°C)

EN_

THRE

SHOL

D (V

)

11095-25 -10 5 35 50 6520 80-40 125

1.215

1.220

1.225

1.230

1.235

1.240

1.245

1.250

1.255

1.260

1.210

Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)(VAVIN = VDVDD1 = VDVDD2 = VPVIN1 = VPVIN2 = 5V, VOUT1 = 3.3V, VOUT2 = 1.5V, VPGND_ = 0V, RT = 16.5kΩ. TA = +25°C, unlessotherwise noted.)

Page 6: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

CHANNEL 2 LOAD STEP RESPONSEMAX15021 toc17

VPVIN25V/div

VOUT21.5V, AC-COUPLED100mV/div

IOUT21A/div

0V

0A

20μs/div

EN1 = 0V

180° OUT-OF-PHASE OPERATIONMAX15021 toc19

PVIN1 = PVIN25V/div

VLX15V/div

VLX25V/div

0V

0V

0V

200ns/div

IOUT1 = 3AIOUT2 = 1.5A

CHANNEL 2 LOAD STEP RESPONSEMAX15021 toc18

VPVIN25V/div

VOUT21.5V, AC-COUPLED100mV/div

IOUT21A/div

0V

0A

20μs/div

EN1 = 0V

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

Maxim Integrated | 6www.maximintegrated.com

CHANNEL 1 LOAD STEP RESPONSEMAX15021 toc15

VPVIN15V/div

VOUT13.3V, AC-COUPLED100mV/div

IOUT12A/div

0V

0A

20μs/div

EN2 = 0V

CHANNEL 1 LOAD STEP RESPONSEMAX15021 toc16

VPVIN15V/div

VOUT13.3V, AC-COUPLED100mV/div

IOUT12A/div

0V

0A

20μs/div

EN2 = 0V

Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)(VAVIN = VDVDD1 = VDVDD2 = VPVIN1 = VPVIN2 = 5V, VOUT1 = 3.3V, VOUT2 = 1.5V, VPGND_ = 0V, RT = 16.5kΩ. TA = +25°C, unlessotherwise noted.)

Page 7: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

Pin Description

PIN NAME FUNCTION

1 SEL

Track/Sequence Select Input. Connect SEL to ground to configure the device as a sequencer. ConnectSEL to AVIN for tracking with output 1 as the master. Leave SEL unconnected for tracking with output 2as the master. Use the output with the higher voltage as the master and the output with the lower voltageas the slave.

2, 7, 8 PGND1Power Ground Connection for Regulator 1. Connect the negative terminals of the input and output filtercapacitor to PGND1. Connect PGND1 externally to SGND at a single point, typically at the negativeterminal of the input capacitor.

3, 6 LX1Inductor Connection for Regulator 1. LX1 is the drain connection of the internal high-side p-channelMOSFET and the drain connection of the internal synchronous n-channel MOSFET for regulator 1.

4, 5 PVIN1Input Supply Voltage for Regulator 1. Connect to an external voltage source from 2.5V to 5.5V. BypassPVIN1 to PGND1 with a 1µF (min) ceramic capacitor.

9 DVDD1 Switch Driver Supply for Regulator 1. Connect externally to PVIN1.

10 EN1Enable Input for Regulator 1. When configured as a sequencer, EN1 must exceed 1.225V (typ) for thePWM controller to begin regulating output 1. When configured as a tracker, connect EN1 to the centertap of a resistive divider from the regulator 2 output.

11 FB1Feedback Regulation Point for Regulator 1. Connect FB1 to the center tap of a resistive divider from theregulator 1 output to SGND to set the output voltage. The FB1 voltage regulates to 0.6V (typ).

12 COMP1 Error-Amplifier Output for Regulator 1. Connect COMP1 to the compensation feedback network.

13, 14, 15,20, 21, 22

N.C. No Connection. Do not connect.

16 DVDD2 Switch Driver Supply for Regulator 2. Connect externally to PVIN2.

17 PGND2Power Ground Connection for Regulator 2. Connect the negative terminals of the input and output filtercapacitors to PGND2. Connect PGND2 externally to SGND at a single point, typically at the negativeterminal of the input capacitor.

18 LX2Inductor Connection for Regulator 2. LX2 is the drain connection of the internal high-side p-channelMOSFET and the drain connection of the internal synchronous n-channel MOSFET for regulator 2.

19 PVIN2Input Supply Voltage for Regulator 2. Connect to an external voltage source from 2.5V to 5.5V. BypassPVIN2 to PGND2 with a 1µF (min) ceramic capacitor.

23 COMP2 Error-Amplifier Output for Regulator 2. Connect COMP2 to the compensation feedback network.

24 FB2Feedback Regulation Point for Regulator 2. Connect to the center tap of a resistive divider from theregulator 2 output to SGND to set the output voltage. The FB2 voltage regulates to 0.6V (typ).

25 EN2Enable Input for Regulator 2. When configured as a sequencer, EN2 must exceed 1.225V (typ) for thePWM controller to begin regulating output 2. When configured as a tracker, connect EN2 to the centertap of a resistive divider from the regulator 1 output.

26 SGNDSignal Ground. Connect SGND to PGND_ at a single point, typically near negative terminal of the inputbypass capacitor.

27 AVIN Input Voltage. Bypass AVIN to SGND with a 100nF (min) ceramic capacitor.

28 RTOscillator Timing Resistor Connection. Connect a 4.2kΩ to 33kΩ resistor from RT to SGND to programthe switching frequency from 500kHz to 4MHz.

— EPExposed Pad. Connect EP to a large copper plane at SGND potential to improve thermal dissipation. Donot use as the main SGND connection.

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

Maxim Integrated | 7www.maximintegrated.com

Page 8: MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC … · MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-Down DC-DC Regulator withTracking/ Sequencing Capability General Description The MAX15021 is …

MAX15021 Dual, 4A/2A, 4MHz, Step-DownDC-DC Regulator withTracking/

Sequencing Capability

Maxim Integrated | 8www.maximintegrated.com

Functional Diagrams

MAX15021

RES

AVIN SEL SGND

PWM CONTROLLER 1

CLK1

RT

COMP1

FB1

VREF

1.225V1.1V

SEQ1

ON1 ON2

SEQ1

SHDN

SEQ2 ON1

SEQ1

SEQ1

CLK1

CLK2

LEVELSHIFT

SEQ2

OVL1

ILIM1

OVL1

PGND1

LX1

OVL2

SHDN

CLK1 CLK2

DOWN1

E/A

CPWM

VR1

EN1

0.6VREF

VREF

RAMPENOSC

THERMALSHDN

OVLCONFIG

EN CONFIG SEL DECODE

OVERLOADMANAGEMENT

DIGITALSOFT-START

AND SOFT-STOP

1.225V1.1V

D

D0

BREAK-BEFORE-

MAKEQ

AVIN

HIGH-SIDECURRENT

SENSE

LOW-SIDECURRENT

SENSECLK

DVDD1

EN1

PVIN1

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Functional Diagrams (continued)

MAX15021

RES

PWM CONTROLLER 2

CLK2

SEQ2

ON2

EN2

COMP2

FB2

VREF

1.225V1.1V

SEQ1

ON1 ON2

SEQ1 SEQ2

SEQ1

CLK2

LEVELSHIFT

SEQ2

OVL2

ILIM2

OVL1

PGND2

LX2

OVL2

SHDN

CLK1 CLK2

DOWN2

E/A

CPWM

VR2

EN2

VREF

RAMP

OVLCONFIG

EN CONFIG

OVERLOADMANAGEMENT

DIGITALSOFT-START

AND SOFT-STOP

D

D0

BREAK-BEFORE-

MAKEQ

AVIN

HIGH-SIDECURRENT

SENSE

LOW-SIDECURRENT

SENSECLK

DVDD2

PVIN2

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Detailed DescriptionThe MAX15021 incorporates dual-output, PWM, step-down, DC-DC regulators with tracking and sequencingoptions. The device operates over the input-voltagerange of 2.5V to 5.5V. Each PWM regulator provides anadjustable output down to 0.6V and delivers up to 4A(regulator 1) and 2A (regulator 2) of load current. Thehigh switching frequency (up to 4MHz) and integratedpower switches optimize the MAX15021 for high-perfor-mance and small-size power management solutions.

Each of the MAX15021 PWM regulator sections utilizesa voltage-mode control scheme for good noise immuni-ty and offers external compensation allowing for maxi-mum flexibility with a wide selection of inductor valuesand capacitor types. The device operates at a fixedswitching frequency that is programmable from 500kHzto 4MHz with a single resistor. Operating the regulatorswith 180° out-of-phase clocking, and at frequencies upto 4MHz, significantly reduces the RMS input ripplecurrent. The resulting peak input current reduction (andincrease in the ripple frequency) significantly reducesthe required amount of input bypass capacitance.

The MAX15021 provides coincident tracking, ratiomet-ric tracking, or sequencing to allow tailoring of power-up/power-down sequence depending on the systemrequirements. When sequencing, it powers up glitch-free into a prebiased output.

The MAX15021 includes internal undervoltage lockoutwith hysteresis, digital soft-start/soft-stop for “glitch-free”power-up and power-down. Protection features includelossless, cycle-by-cycle current limit, hiccup-mode out-put short-circuit protection, and thermal shutdown.

Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)The supply voltage (VAVIN) must exceed the defaultUVLO threshold before any operation starts. The UVLOcircuitry keeps the MOSFET drivers, oscillator, and allthe internal circuitry shut down to reduce current con-sumption. The UVLO rising threshold is 2.2V (typ) witha 120mV (typ) hysteresis.

Digital Soft-Start/Soft-StopThe MAX15021 soft-start feature allows the load volt-age to ramp up in a controlled manner, eliminating out-put-voltage overshoot. Soft-start begins after VAVINexceeds the undervoltage lockout threshold and theenable input is above 1.225V (typ). The soft-start cir-cuitry ramps up the reference voltage, controlling therate of rise of the output voltage, and reducing inputsurge currents during startup. The soft-start duration is4096 clock cycles. The output voltage is incrementedthrough 64 equal steps. The output reaches regulation

when soft-start is completed, regardless of the outputcapacitance and load.

For tracking applications, soft-stop commences when theenable input falls below 1.1V (typ). The soft-stop circuitryramps down the reference voltage controlling the output-voltage rate of fall. The output voltage is decrementedthrough 64 equal steps in 4096 clock cycles.

OscillatorUse an external resistor at RT to program theMAX15021 switching frequency from 500kHz to 4MHz.Calculate the appropriate resistor at RT for the desiredoutput switching frequency (fSW):

Tracking/SequencingThe MAX15021 features coincident/ratiometric trackingand sequencing (see Figure 1). Connect SEL to groundto configure the device as sequencer. Connect SEL toAVIN for tracking with output 1 as the master. Leave SELunconnected for tracking with output 2 as the master.Assign the output with the higher voltage as the master.

R kAT[ ]

.[ ]

Ω =×

×f [kHz] 1 [V]

4[MHz]SW 067

32 μ

VOUT1

SOFT-START

SOFT-START

SOFT-START

SOFT-STOP

a) COINCIDENT TRACKING OUTPUTS

b) RATIOMETRIC TRACKING OUTPUTS

c) SEQUENCED OUTPUTS

SOFT-STOP

SOFT-STOP

VOUT2

VOUT1

VOUT2

VOUT1

VOUT2

Figure 1. Graphical Representation of Coincident Tracking,Ratiometric Tracking, and Sequencing

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Coincident/Ratiometric TrackingThe enable inputs in conjunction with digital soft-startand soft-stop provide coincident/ratiometric tracking.Track an output voltage by connecting a resistivedivider from the output being tracked to its enableinput. For example, for VOUT2 to coincidentally trackVOUT1, connect the same resistive divider used forFB2, from VOUT1 to EN2 to SGND (see Figure 2).

Track ratiometrically by connecting EN_ to SGND. Thissynchonizes the soft-start and soft-stop of all the regu-lator references, and hence their respective output volt-ages will track ratiometrically (see Figure 2).

When the MAX15021 regulators are configured as volt-age trackers, output short-circuit fault conditions ateither master or slave output are handled carefully—nei-ther the master nor slave output will remain energized

when the other output is shorted to ground. When theslave is shorted and enters hiccup mode, the master willsoft-stop. When the master is shorted and the partenters in hiccup mode, the slave will ratiometrically soft-stop. Coming out of hiccup mode, both outputs will soft-start coincidently or ratiometrically depending on theirinitial configuration. During the thermal shutdown orpower-off when the input falls below its UVLO, the out-put voltages decrease at a rate depending on therespective output capacitance and load.

See Figure 1 for a graphical representation of coinci-dent/ratiometric tracking.

SequencingWhen sequencing, the voltage at the enable inputsmust exceed 1.225V (typ) for each PWM controller tostart (see Figure 1c).

VRIN1

EN2

EN1

SEL AVIN

OUTPUT 1 IS THE MASTER AND OUTPUT 2 IS THE SLAVE.

RATIOMETRIC TRACKING COINCIDENT TRACKING COINCIDENT TRACKING

SEL AVIN

OUTPUT 1 IS THE MASTER AND OUTPUT 2 IS THE SLAVE.

VRIN1

RA

RB

RA

RB

EN1

VOUT1

EN2

VOUT2

FB2

SEL UNCONNECTED

OUTPUT 2 IS THE MASTER AND OUTPUT 1 IS THE SLAVE.

VRIN2

RC

RD

RC

RD

EN2

VOUT2

EN1

VOUT1

FB1

VRIN2

EN1

EN2

SEL UNCONNECTED

OUTPUT 2 IS THE MASTER AND OUTPUT 1 IS THE SLAVE.

Figure 2. Ratiometric Tracking and Coincident Tracking Configurations

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Error AmplifierThe output of the internal voltage-mode error amplifier(COMP_) is provided for frequency compensation (seethe Compensation-Design Guidelines section). FB_ isthe inverting input of the error amplifier. The erroramplifier has an 80dB open-loop gain and a 12MHzgain bandwidth (GBW) product.

Output Short-Circuit Protection (Hiccup Mode)The MAX15021 features lossless, high-side peak cur-rent limit and low-side, valley current limit. At short dutycycles, both limits are active. At high duty cycles, onlythe high-side peak current limit is active. Either limitcauses the hiccup mode count (NCL) to increment.

For duty cycles less than 50%, the low-side valley cur-rent limit is active. Once the high-side MOSFET turns off,the voltage across the low-side MOSFET is monitored. Ifthis voltage does not exceed the current-limit thresholdat the end of the cycle, the high-side MOSFET turns onnormally at the start of the next cycle. If the voltageexceeds the current-limit threshold just before thebeginning of a new PWM cycle, the controller skips thatcycle. During severe overload or short-circuit condi-tions, the switching frequency of the device appears todecrease because the on-time of the low-side MOSFETextends beyond a clock cycle.

If the current-limit threshold is exceeded for more thanfour cumulative clock cycles (NCL), the device shutsdown for 8192 clock cycles (hiccup timeout) and thenrestarts with a soft-start sequence. If three consecutivecycles pass without a current-limit event, the count ofNCL is cleared (see Figure 3). Hiccup mode protectsthe device against a continuous output short circuit.

The internal current limit is constant from 5.5V down to3V and decreases linearly by 50% from 3V to 2V. Seethe Electrical Characteristics table.

Thermal-Overload ProtectionThe MAX15021 features an integrated thermal-overloadprotection with temperature hysteresis. Thermal-over-load protection limits the total power dissipation in thedevice and protects it in the event of an extended ther-mal fault condition. When the die temperature exceeds+160°C, an internal thermal sensor shuts down thedevice, turning off the internal power MOSFETs andallowing the die to cool. After the die temperature fallsby +15°C, the part restarts with a soft-start sequence.

Startup into a Prebiased Output(Sequencing Mode)In sequencing mode, the regulators start into a prebi-ased output and soft-stop is disabled. During soft-start,the complementary switching sequence is inhibited untilthe PWM comparator commands its first PWM pulse.Until then, the converters do not sink current from theoutputs. The first PWM pulse occurs when the rampingreference voltage increases above the FB_ voltage.

PWM Controllers

Design Procedure

Setting the Switching FrequencyConnect a 4.2kΩ to 33kΩ resistor from RT to SGND toprogram the switching frequency from 500kHz to4MHz. Calculate the resistor connected to RT using thefollowing equation:

Higher frequencies allow designs with lower inductorvalues and less output capacitance. At higher switch-ing frequencies core losses, gate-charge currents, andswitching losses increase. When operating from VAVIN≤ 3V, the switching frequency (fSW) should be deratedto 3MHz (maximum).

Rf [kHz] 1 [V]

32 4[MHz]TSW[ ]

.[ ]

kA

Ω =×

×067

μ

CURRENT LIMITCOUNT OF 4

NCL

IN

CLR

INITIATE HICCUPTIMEOUT

NHT

COUNT OF 3NCLR

IN

CLR

Figure 3. Hiccup-Mode Block Diagram

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Effective Input-Voltage RangeAlthough the MAX15021’s regulators can operate frominput supplies ranging from 2.5V to 5.5V, the input-volt-age range can be effectively l imited by theMAX15021’s duty-cycle limitations for a given outputvoltage (VOUT_). The maximum input voltage(VPVIN_MAX) can be effectively limited by the control-lable minimum on-time (tON(MIN)):

where tON(MIN) is 0.06µs (typ).

The minimum input voltage (VPVIN_MIN) can be effec-tively limited by the maximum controllable duty cycleand is calculated using the following equation:

where VOUT_ is the regulator output voltage andtOFF(MIN) is the 0.06µs (typ) controllable off-time.

Inductor SelectionThree key inductor parameters must be specified foroperation with the MAX15021: inductance value (L),peak inductor current (IPEAK), and inductor saturationcurrent (ISAT). The minimum required inductance is afunction of operating frequency, input-to-output voltagedifferential, and the peak-to-peak inductor current (ΔIP-P). Higher ΔIP-P allows for a lower inductor value. Alower inductance minimizes size and cost andimproves large-signal and transient response.However, efficiency is reduced due to higher peak cur-rents and higher peak-to-peak output-voltage ripple forthe same output capacitor. A higher inductanceincreases efficiency by reducing the ripple current;however, resistive losses due to extra wire turns canexceed the benefit gained from lower ripple current lev-els especially when the inductance is increased withoutalso allowing for larger inductor dimensions. Choosethe inductor’s peak-to-peak current, ΔIP-P, in the rangeof 20% to 50% of the full load current; as a rule ofthumb 30% is typical.

Calculate the inductance, L, using the following equation:

where VPVIN_ is the input supply voltage, VOUT_ is theregulator output voltage, and fSW is the switching fre-quency. Use typical values for VPVIN_ and VOUT_ sothat efficiency is optimum for typical conditions. Theswitching frequency (fSW) is programmable between500kHz and 4MHz (see the Oscillator section).

The peak-to-peak inductor current (ΔIP-P), whichreflects the peak-to-peak output ripple, is largest at themaximum input voltage. See the Output-CapacitorSelection section to verify that the worst-case outputcurrent ripple is acceptable.

Select an inductor with a saturation current, ISAT, high-er than the maximum peak current to avoid runawaycurrent during continuous output short-circuit condi-tions. Also, confirm that the inductor’s thermal perfor-mances and projected temperature rise above ambientdoes not exceed its thermal capacity. Many inductormanufacturers provide bias/load current versus tem-perature rise performance curves (or similar) to obtainthis information.

Input-Capacitor SelectionThe discontinuous input current of the buck convertercauses large input ripple currents and therefore, theinput capacitor must be carefully chosen to withstandthe input ripple current and keep the input-voltage rip-ple within design requirements.

The input-voltage ripple is comprised of ΔVQ (caused bythe capacitor discharge) and ΔVESR (caused by the ESRof the input capacitor). The total voltage ripple is thesum of ΔVQ and ΔVESR which peaks at the end of theon-cycle. Calculate the required input capacitance andESR for a specified ripple using the following equations:

ILOAD(MAX) is the maximum output current, ΔIP-P is thepeak-to-peak inductor current, and VPVIN_ is the inputsupply voltage, VOUT_ is the regulator output voltage,and fSW is the switching frequency.

ESRV [mV]

II2

[A]

C

I [A]V [V]

V [V]

V [V] f [MHz]

I [A]V V [V] V [V]

V [V] f [MHz] L

ESR

LOAD(MAX)P P

PVIN_

LOAD(MAX)OUT_

PVIN_

Q SW

P PPVIN_ OUT_ OUT_

PVIN_ SW

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

m

F

H

ΩΔ

Δ

Δ

Δ

=+⎛

⎝⎜⎞⎠⎟

=

×⎛

⎝⎜

⎠⎟

×

=−( ) ×

× ×

μ

μ

L HI AP P

[ ][ ]

μ =× −

× × −

V [V] (V [V] V [V])

V [V] f [MHz]OUT_ PVIN_ OUT_

PVIN_ SW Δ

V [V]V [V]

1 (t [ s] f [MHz])PVIN_MINOUT_

OFF(MIN) SW≥

− ×μ

V [V]V [V]

t [ s] f [MHz]PVIN_MAXOUT_

ON(MIN) SW≤

×μ

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Use the following equation to calculate the input ripplewhen only one regulator is enabled:

The MAX15021 includes UVLO hysteresis to avoid possi-ble unintentional chattering during turn-on. Use additionalbulk capacitance if the input source impedance is high. Ifusing a lower input voltage, additional input capacitancehelps to avoid possible undershoot below the undervolt-age lockout threshold during transient loading.

Output-Capacitor SelectionThe allowed output-voltage ripple and the maximumdeviation of the output voltage during load steps deter-mine the required output capacitance and its ESR. Theoutput ripple is mainly composed of ΔVQ (caused bythe capacitor discharge) and ΔVESR (caused by thevoltage drop across the equivalent series resistance ofthe output capacitor). The equations for calculating theoutput capacitance and its ESR are:

where ΔIP-P is the peak-to-peak inductor current, andfSW is the switching frequency.

ΔVESR and ΔVQ are not directly additive since they areout of phase from each other. If using ceramic capaci-tors, which generally have low ESR, ΔVQ dominates. Ifusing electrolytic capacitors, ΔVESR dominates.

The allowable deviation of the output voltage duringfast load transients also affects the output capacitance,its ESR, and its equivalent series inductance (ESL). Theoutput capacitor supplies the load current during aload step unti l the controller responds with anincreased duty cycle. The response time (tRESPONSE)depends on the gain bandwidth of the controller (seethe Compensation-Design Guidelines section). Theresistive drop across the output capacitor’s ESR(ΔVESR), the drop across the capacitor’s ESL (ΔVESL),and the capacitor discharge (ΔVQ) cause a voltagedroop during the load-step (ISTEP). Use a combinationof low-ESR tantalum/aluminum electrolyte and ceramiccapacitors for better load transient and voltage rippleperformance. Nonleaded capacitors and capacitors inparallel help reduce the ESL. Keep the maximum out-

put voltage deviation below the tolerable limits of theelectronics being powered.

Use the following equations to calculate the requiredoutput capacitance, ESR, and ESL for minimal outputdeviation during a load step:

where ISTEP is the load step, tSTEP is the rise time of theload step, and tRESPONSE is the response time of thecontroller.

Compensation-Design GuidelinesThe MAX15021 uses a fixed-frequency, voltage-modecontrol scheme that regulates the output voltage bycomparing the output voltage against a fixed reference.The subsequent “error” voltage that appears at theerror-amplifier output (COMP_) is compared against aninternal ramp voltage to generate the required dutycycle of the pulse-width modulator. A second-orderlowpass LC filter removes the switching harmonics andpasses the DC component of the pulse-width-modulat-ed signal to the output. The LC filter has an attenuationslope of -40dB/decade and introduces 180° of phaseshift at frequencies above the LC resonant frequency.This phase shift in addition to the inherent 180° ofphase shift of the regulator’s negative feedback systemturns the feedback into unstable positive feedback. Theerror amplifier and its associated circuitry must bedesigned to achieve a stable closed-loop system.

The basic controller loop consists of a power modulator(comprised of the regulator’s pulse-width modulator,associated circuitry, and LC filter), an output feedbackdivider, and an error amplifier. The power modulator hasa DC gain set by VAVIN/VRAMP where the ramp voltage(VRAMP) is a function of the VAVIN and results in a fixedDC gain of 4V/V, providing effective feed-forward com-pensation of input-voltage supply DC variations. Thefeed-forward compensation eliminates the dependencyof the power modulator’s gain on the input voltage suchthat the feedback compensation of the error amplifierrequires no modifications for nominal input-voltagechanges. The output filter is effectively modeled as adouble-pole and a single zero set by the output induc-tance (L), the DC resistance of the inductor (DCR), theoutput capacitance (COUT) and its equivalent seriesresistance (ESR).

ESR mV [mV]I [A]

CI [A] t

V [V]

ESLV [mV] t

I [A]

ESR

STEP

OUTSTEP RESPONSE

Q

ESL STEP

STEP

[ ]

[ ][ ]

[ ][ ]

ΩΔ

ΔΔ

=

μμ

μ

Fs

nHs

C FI [A]

8 V [V] f [MHz]

ESR m2 V [mV]

I [A]

OUTP P

Q SW

ESR

P P

[ ]

[ ]

μ =× ×

ΔΔ

ΩΔΔ

I [A] I [A]

V [V] V V [V]

V [V]

CIN(RMS) LOAD(MAX)

OUT_ PVIN_ OUT_

PVIN_

= ×

× −( )

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Below are equations that define the power modulator:

ROUT is the load resistance of the regulator, fLC is theresonant break frequency of the filter, and fESR is theESR zero of the output capacitor. See the Closed-LoopResponse and Compensation of Voltage-ModeRegulators section for more information on fLC and fESR.

The switching frequency (fSW) is programmablebetween 500kHz and 4MHz. Typically, the crossoverfrequency (fCO)—the frequency at which the system’sclosed-loop gain is equal to unity (crosses 0dB)—should be set at or below one-tenth the switching fre-quency (fSW/10) for stable closed-loop response.

The MAX15021 provides an internal voltage-mode erroramplifier with its inverting input and its output available tothe user for external frequency compensation. The flexi-bility of external compensation for each controller offersa wide selection of output filtering components, especial-ly the output capacitor. For cost-sensitive applications,

use aluminum electrolytic capacitors while for space-sensitive applications, use low-ESR tantalum or multilay-er ceramic chip (MLCC) capacitors at the output. Thehigher switching frequencies of the MAX15021 allow theuse of MLCC as the primary filter capacitor(s).

First, select the passive and active power componentsthat meet the application output ripple, componentsize, and component cost requirements. Second,choose the small-signal compensation components toachieve the desired closed-loop frequency responseand phase margin as outlined below.

Closed-Loop Response and Compensation of Voltage-Mode RegulatorsThe power modulator’s LC lowpass filter exhibits a vari-ety of responses, dependent on the value of the L andC and their parasitics. Higher resistive parasiticsreduce the Q of the circuit, reducing the peak gain andphase of the system; however, efficiency is alsoreduced under these circumstances.

One such response is shown in Figure 4a. In this exam-ple, the ESR zero occurs relatively close to the filter’sresonant break frequency, fLC. As a result, the powermodulator’s uncompensated crossover is approximate-ly one-third the desired crossover frequency, fCO. Notealso, the uncompensated rolloff through the 0dB planefollows a single-pole, -20dB/decade slope, and 90° ofphase lag. In this instance, the inherent phase marginensures a stable system; however, the gain-bandwidthproduct is not optimized.

GainVV

VV

4

4V/V

f1

2 L CR ESRR DCR

1

2 L C

f1

2 ESR C

MOD(DC)AVIN

RAMP

AVIN

AVIN

LC

OUTOUT

OUT

OUT

ESROUT

= = =

=

× × ×++

⎛⎝⎜

⎞⎠⎟

≈× ×

=× ×

ππ

π

MAX15021 fig04a

MAG

NITU

DE (d

B)

PHAS

E (D

EGRE

ES)

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

-80100 1k 10k

FREQUENCY (Hz)

100k 1M 10M10

-135

-90

-45

0

45

90

-180

|GMOD|

fLC

fESR< GMOD

|GMOD| ASYMPTOTE

Figure 4a. Power Modulator Gain and Phase Response withLossy Bulk Output Capacitor(s) (Aluminum)

MAX15021 fig04b

MAG

NITU

DE (d

B)

PHAS

E (D

EGRE

ES)

FREQUENCY (Hz)

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

-80

-135

-90

-45

0

45

90

135

180

-180100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M10

< GEA

|GEA|

|GMOD|

fLC

fESR

fCO

< GMOD

Figure 4b. Power Modulator and Type II Compensator Gain andPhase Response with Lossy Bulk Output Capacitor(s) (Aluminum)

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As seen in Figure 4b, a Type II compensator provides forstable closed-loop operation, leveraging the +20dB/decade slope of the capacitor’s ESR zero, while extend-ing the closed-loop gain-bandwidth of the regulator. Thezero crossover now occurs at approximately three timesthe uncompensated crossover frequency, fCO.

The Type II compensator’s midfrequency gain (approxi-mately 12dB shown here) is designed to compensatefor the power modulator’s attenuation at the desiredcrossover frequency, fCO (GainE/A + GainMOD = 0dB atfCO). In this example, the power modulator’s inherent -20dB/decade rolloff above the ESR zero (fZERO,ESR) isleveraged to extend the active regulation gain-band-width of the voltage regulator. As shown in Figure 4b,the net result is a three times increase in the regulator’sgain bandwidth while providing greater than 75° ofphase margin (the difference between GainE/A andGainMOD respective phases at crossover, fCO).

Other filter schemes pose their own problems. Forinstance, when choosing high-quality filter capacitor(s),e.g. MLCCs, the inherent ESR zero may occur at amuch higher frequency, as shown in Figure 4c.

As with the previous example, the actual gain andphase response is overlaid on the power modulator’sasymptotic gain response. One readily observes themore dramatic gain and phase transition at or near thepower modulator’s resonant frequency, fLC, versus the

gentler response of the previous example. This is dueto the filter components’ lower parasitic (DCR and ESR)and corresponding higher frequency of the inherentESR zero. In this example, the desired crossover fre-quency occurs below the ESR zero frequency.

In this example, a compensator with an inherent midfre-quency double-zero response is required to mitigatethe effects of the filter’s double-pole phase lag. This isavailable with the Type III topology.

As demonstrated in Figure 4d, the Type III’s midfre-quency double-zero gain (exhibiting a +20dB/decslope, noting the compensator’s pole at the origin) isdesigned to compensate for the power modulator’sdouble-pole -40dB/decade attenuation at the desiredcrossover frequency, fCO (again, GainE/A + GainMOD =0dB at fCO) (see Figure 4d).

In the above example the power modulator’s inherent(midfrequency) -40dB/decade rolloff is mitigated by themidfrequency double zero’s +20dB/decade gain toextend the active regulation gain-bandwidth of the volt-age regulator. As shown in Figure 4d, the net result isan approximate doubling in the controller’s gain band-width while providing greater than 55 degrees of phasemargin (the difference between GainE/A and GainMODrespective phases at crossover, fCO).

Design procedures for both Type II and Type III com-pensators are shown below.

MAG

NITU

DE (d

B)

PHAS

E (D

EGRE

ES)

FREQUENCY (Hz)

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

-80

-135

-90

-45

0

45

90

-180

MAX15021 fig04c

100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M10

|GMOD|

|GMOD|ASYMPTOTE

fLC

fESR< GMOD

Figure 4c. Power Modulator Gain and Phase Response withLow-Parasitic Capacitor(s) (MLCCs)

MAX15021 fig04d

MAG

NITU

DE (d

B)

PHAS

E (D

EGRE

ES)

FREQUENCY (Hz)

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

-80

-203

-135

-68

0

68

135

203

270

-270100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M10

< GEA

|GEA|

|GMOD|

fLC

fESR

fCO

< GMOD

Figure 4d. Power Modulator and Type III Compensator Gainand Phase Response with Low Parasitic Capacitors (MLCCs)

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Type II: Compensation when fCO > fZERO,ESRWhen the fCO is greater than fESR, a Type II compensa-tion network provides the necessary closed-loop com-pensated response. The Type II compensation networkprovides a midband compensating zero and a high-fre-quency pole (see Figures 5a and 5b).

RFCF provides the midband zero fMID,ZERO, andRFCCF provides the high-frequency pole, fHIGH,POLE.Use the following procedure to calculate the compen-sation network components.

Calculate the fESR and LC double pole, fLC:

where COUT is the regulator output capacitor and ESRis the series resistance of COUT. See the Output-Capacitor Selection section for more information on cal-culating COUT and ESR.

Set the compensator’s leading zero, fZ1, at or below thefilter’s resonant double-pole frequency from:

Set the compensator’s high-frequency pole, fP1, at orbelow one-half the switching frequency, fSW:

To maximize the compensator’s phase lead, set thedesired crossover frequency, fCO, equal to the geomet-ric mean of the compensator’s leading zero, fZ1, andhigh-frequency pole, fP1, as follows:

Select the feedback resistor, RF, in the range of 3.3kΩto 30kΩ.

Calculate the gain of the modulator (GainMOD)—com-prised of the regulator’s pulse-width modulator, LC filter,feedback divider, and associated circuitry—at the desiredcrossover frequency, fCO, using the following equation:

where VFB is the 0.6V (typ) FB_ input-voltage set-point,L is the value of the regulator inductor, ESR is the

series resistance of the output capacitor, and VOUT_ isthe desired output voltage.

The gain of the error amplifier (GainE/A) in the midbandfrequencies is:

The total loop gain is the product of the modulator gainand the error amplifier gain at fCO and should be setequal to 1 as follows:

GainMOD x GainE/A = 1

So:

20 log 20 log 0dB

RR

4 ESR x V2 f L x V

1

10

RR 10

4 ESR x V2 f L x V

F

1

FB

CO OUT_

F

1

FB

CO OUT_× + × =

××

× ×=

⎣⎢

⎦⎥

×× ×

⎣⎢⎢

⎦⎥⎥π

π

GainR [k ]R [k ]E/A

F

1=

ΩΩ

Gain 4(V/V)ESR [m ]

2 f [kHz] L[ H]V [V]

V [V]MODCO

FB

OUT_= ×

× ×( ) ×Ωπ μ

f f fCO Z1 P1= ×

ff

2P1SW≤

f fZ1 LC≤

f1

2 ESR C

f1

2 L C

ESROUT

LCOUT

=× ×

≈× ×

π

π

R1

VREF

RF

FB_COMP_

VOUT_

R2

CF

CCF

Figure 5a. Type II Compensation Network

GAIN(dB)

1ST ASYMPTOTE(ωR1CF)-1

2ND ASYMPTOTE(RFR1)-1

3RD ASYMPTOTE(ωRFCCF)-1

ω (rad/sec)1ST POLE(AT ORIGIN) 2ND POLE

(RFCCF)-11ST ZERO(RFCF)-1

Figure 5b. Type II Compensation Network Response

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Solving for R1:

where VFB is the 0.6V (typ) FB_ input-voltage set-point,L is the value of the regulator inductor, ESR is theseries resistance of the output capacitor, and VOUT_ isthe desired output voltage.

1) CF is determined from the compensator’s leadingzero, fZ1, and RF as follows:

2) CCF is determined from the compensator’s high-fre-quency pole, fP1, and RF as follows:

3) Calculate R2 using the following equation:

where VFB = 0.6V (typ) and VOUT_ is the output voltageof the regulator.

Type III: Compensation when fCO < fESRAs indicated above, the position of the output capaci-tor’s inherent ESR zero is critical in designing an appro-priate compensation network. When low-ESR ceramicoutput capacitors (MLCCs) are used, the ESR zero fre-quency (fESR) is usually much higher than the desiredcrossover frequency (fCO). In this case, a type III com-pensation network is recommended (see Figure 6a).

As shown in Figure 6b, the Type III compensation net-work introduces two zeros and three poles into the con-trol loop. The error amplifier has a low-frequency poleat the origin, two zeros, and two higher frequency polesat the following frequencies:

Two midband zeros (fZ1 and fZ2) are designed to com-pensate for the pair of complex poles introduced by theLC filter.

fP1 introduces a pole at zero frequency (integrator) fornulling DC output voltage errors.

fP1= at the origin (0Hz)

Depending on the location of the ESR zero (fESR), fP2can be used to cancel it, or to provide additional atten-uation of the high-frequency output ripple.

fP3 attenuates the high-frequency output ripple.

Since CCF << CF then:

f1

2 R CP3F CF

=× ×π

f1

2 R C C

1

2 RC CC C

P3F F CF F

F CF

F CF

=× × ( ) =

× ××+

π π

f1

2 R CP2I I

=× ×π

f1

2 R C

f1

2 C (R R )

Z1F F

Z2I 1 I

=× ×

=× × +

π

π

R [k ] R [k ]V [V]

V [V] V [V]2 1FB

OUT_ FBΩ Ω= ×

C F]1

2 R [k ] f [kHz]CFF P1

[μπ

=× ×Ω

C [ F]1

2 R [k ] f [kHz]FF Z1

μπ

=× ×Ω

R [k ]R [k ] 4 ESR[m ] V [V]

2 f [kHz] L[ H] V [V]1F FB

CO OUT_Ω

Ω Ω=

× × ×× × ×π μ

R1

VREF

RF

FB_COMP_

VOUT_

R2

CF

CCF

RI

CI

Figure 6a. Type III Compensation Network

GAIN(dB)

1ST ASYMPTOTE(ωR1CF)-1

3RD ASYMPTOTE(ωRFCI)-1

5TH ASYMPTOTE(ωRICCF)-1

ω (rad/sec)1ST POLE(AT ORIGIN) 2ND POLE

(RICI)-13RD POLE(RFCCF)-1

1ST ZERO(RFCF)-1

2ND ASYMPTOTERFR1( )1

4TH ASYMPTOTERFRI( )

2ND ZERO(R1CI)-1

Figure 6b. Type III Compensation Network Response

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The locations of the zeros and poles should be suchthat the phase margin peaks around fCO.

Set the ratios of fCO-to-fZ and fP-to-fCO equal to one anoth-er, e.g., fCO = fP = 5 is a good number to get approximately

fZ fCO

60° of phase margin at fCO. Whichever technique, it isimportant to place the two zeros at or below the doublepole to avoid the conditional stability issue.

The following procedure is recommended:

1) Select a crossover frequency, fCO, at or below one-tenth the switching frequency (fSW):

2) Calculate the LC double-pole frequency, fLC :

where COUT is the output capacitor of the regulator.

3) Select the feedback resistor, RF, in the range of3.3kΩ to 30kΩ.

4) Place the compensator’s firstzero at or below the output filter’sdouble-pole, fLC , as follows:

5) The gain of the modulator (GainMOD)—comprised ofthe regulator’s pulse-width modulator, LC filter,feedback divider, and associated circuitry—at thecrossover frequency is:

The gain of the error amplifier (GainE/A) in midband fre-quencies is:

The total loop gain is the product of the modulator gainand the error amplifier gain at fCO should be equal to 1,as follows:

GainMOD x GainE/A = 1

So:

Solving for CI:

6) For those situations where fLC < fCO < fESR < fSW/2,as with low-ESR tantalum capacitors, the compen-sator’s second pole (fP2) should be used to cancelfESR. This provides additional phase margin. On thesystem Bode plot, the loop gain maintains its+20dB/decade slope up to 1/2 of the switching fre-quency verses flattening out soon after the 0dBcrossover. Then set:

fP2 = fESR

If a ceramic capacitor is used, then the capacitor ESRzero, fESR, is likely to be located even above one-half ofthe switching frequency, that is fLC < fCO < fSW/2 <fESR. In this case, the frequency of the second pole(fP2) should be placed high enough not to significantlyerode the phase margin at the crossover frequency.For example, fP2 can be set at 5 x fCO, so that its con-tribution to phase loss at the crossover frequency fCO isonly about 11°:

fP2 = 5 x fCO

Once fP2 is known, calculate RI:

7) Place the second zero (fZ2) at 0.2 x fCO or at fLC,whichever is lower, and calculate R1 using the fol-lowing equation:

8) Place the third pole (fP3) at 1/2 the switching fre-quency and calculate CCF from:

9) Calculate R2 as:

where VFB = 0.6V (typ).

R [k ] R [k ]V [V]

V [V] V [V]2 1FB

OUT_ FBΩ Ω= ×

C [ F]1

2 0.5 f [MHz] R [k ]CFSW F

n =× × ×( )π Ω

R [k ]1

2 f [kHz] C [ F]1Z2 I

Ω =× ×π μ

R [k ]1

2 f [kHz] C [ F]IP2 I

Ω =× ×π μ

C pF]2 f [kHz] L[ H] C [ F]

4 R [k ]ICO OUT

F[ =

× × ×( )×

π μ μΩ

41

(2 f [kHz]) C [ F] L[ H]2 f [kHz] C [ F] R [k ] 1

CO2

OUT

CO I F

×× × ×

× × × × =π μ μπ p Ω

Gain 2 f [kHz] C [ F] R [k ]E/A CO I F= × × ×π μ Ω

Gain 41

(2 f [MHz]) L[ H] C [ F]MOD

CO2

OUT= ×

× × ×π μ μ

C [ F]1

2 R [k ] 0.5 f [kHz]FF LC

μπ

=× × ×Ω

f [MHz]1

2 L[ H] C F]LC

OUT≈

× ×π μ μ[

f [kHz]f [kHz]

10COSW ≤

f1

2 R CZ1F F

=× ×π

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Applications Information

PCB Layout GuidelinesCareful PCB layout is critical to achieve clean and sta-ble operation. Follow these guidelines for good PCBlayout:

1) Place decoupling capacitors as close as possible tothe IC pins.

2) Keep SGND and PGND isolated and connect themat one single point close to the negative terminal ofthe input filter capacitor.

3) Route high-speed switching nodes away from sensi-tive analog areas (FB_, COMP_, and EN_).

4) Distribute the power components evenly across theboard for proper heat dissipation.

5) Ensure timing resistor and all feedback connectionsare short and direct. Place feedback resistors asclose as possible to the IC.

6) Place the bank of the output capacitors close to theload.

7) Connect the MAX15021 exposed pad to a largecopper plane to maximize its power dissipationcapability. Connect the exposed pad to SGNDplane. Do not connect the exposed pad to theSGND pin directly underneath the IC.

8) Use 2oz. copper to keep trace inductance andresistance to a minimum. Thin copper PCBs cancompromise efficiency since high currents areinvolved in the application. Also thicker copper con-ducts heat more effectively, thereby reducing ther-mal impedance.

9) A reference PCB layout included in the MAX15021Evaluation Kit is also provided to further aid layout.

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Typical Operating Circuits

CI2

MAX15021

LX2

PGND2

EN1

DVDD1

RT SEL COMP1SGND

AVIN EN2 PVIN2 DVDD2

CDD1

CCF2

CF2 RF2

RT

RI2

R1C1

VIN

R1FB1RI1

RS2

L2

R2FB2

R2FB1

R1FB2

CT

C2

CI1

COUT2

VOUT2

VAVIN

CS2

CIN2 CDD2

FB2

VIN

PVIN1

CIN1VIN

COMP2

CCF1

CF1 RF1

LX1

PGND1

FB1

PGND SGND

RS1

L1

COUT1

VOUT1

VAVIN

CS1

R1EN2

R2EN2

Figure 7. MAX15021 Double Buck with Tracking

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Typical Operating Circuits (continued)

CI2

MAX15021

LX2

PGND2

EN1

DVDD1

RT SEL COMP1SGND

AVIN EN2 PVIN2 DVDD2

CDD1

CCF2

CF2 RF2

RT

RI2

R1C1

VIN

R1OUT1RI1

RS2

L2

R2OUT2

R2OUT1

R1OUT2

CT

C2

CI1

COUT2

VOUT2

VOUT1

VAVIN

CS2

CIN2 CDD2

FB2

VIN

PVIN1

CIN1VIN

COMP2

CCF1

CF1 RF1

LX1

PGND1

FB1

PGND SGND

RS1

L1

COUT1

VOUT1

CS1

Figure 8. MAX15021 Double Buck with Sequencing

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Chip InformationPROCESS: BiCMOS

Package InformationFor the latest package outline information and land patterns (foot-prints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note that a“+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status only.Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but thedrawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.

PACKAGETYPE

PACKAGECODE

OUTLINENO.

LANDPATTERN NO.

28 TQFN-EP T2855+6 21-0140 90-0026

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Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patentlicenses are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min andmax limits) shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.

Maxim Integrated and the Maxim Integrated logo are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. © 2015 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. | 24

For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim Integrated’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.

Revision History

REVISIONNUMBER

REVISIONDATE

DESCRIPTIONPAGES

CHANGED

0 5/08 Initial release —

1 8/12 Added automotive qualified part to Ordering Information 1

2 4/15 Updated Benefits and Features section 1