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Lao People’s Democratic Republic Ministry of Public Works and Transport Department of Civil Aviation of Lao MANUAL OF STANDARDS FOR AERODROMES FIRST ISSUE 2009
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Manual of Standard for Aerodromes

Mar 28, 2015

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Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Ministry of Public Works and TransportDepartment of Civil Aviation of Lao

MANUAL OF STANDARDS FOR AERODROMES

FIRST ISSUE 2009

FOREWORD

This Manual of Standards (MOS) is established in reference to Lao Civil Regulations governing Aerodromes and its purpose is standardized the method and procedures for promoting and supporting aviation safety in general and aerodrome safety in particular. ICAO Annex 14 Standards And Recommended Practices are contained in MOS, including the requirement that all certified aerodromes shall have a safety management system. Aerodromes are to be certified where international operations occur, or where air transport operations are conducted by aircraft with a passenger seating capacity greater than 30. Certified aerodromes in Lao PDR required to have an acceptable safety management system in place. Other smaller and less complex aerodromes may be registered with DCA and have aeronautical data published in the AIP, but the need for an aerodrome safety management system is not imposed. Standards are applicable to all aerodromes according to the type of aircraft operating at a particular location. This MOS consists of XIV chapters and it is hoped that this MOS will prove useful in implementation for airport safety operation. Any recommendation in this MOS forward its improvement to DCA at the address shown in this manual.

Department of Civil Aviation of Lao PDR (DCAL)Wattay Intnl Airport, PO Box: 119 Tel: 856-21 512163, Fax: 856-21512164, Vientiane Capital Lao PDR

Adopted by Director General Department of Civil Aviation of Laos Date____________________________

Yakua LOPANGKAO

Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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ContentsFOREWORD ............................................................................................................................. i Contents .................................................................................................................................... ii Records of Amendments and Corrigenda ............................................................................... xv CHAPTER 1 Introduction......................................................................................................... 1 Section 1.1 - General........................................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 1 1.1.2 Terminology used in MOS ................................................................................ 2 1.1.3 Document Set .................................................................................................... 3 1.1.4 MOS documentation change management........................................................ 3 1.1.5 Related documents ............................................................................................ 4 Section 1.2 - Common reference systems........................................................................... 4 1.2.1 Horizontal reference system........................................................................... 4 1.2.2 Vertical reference system................................................................................ 5 1.2.3 Temporal reference system ............................................................................ 5 Section 1. 3 - Airport design............................................................................................... 5 Section 1.4: Definitions ....................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 2 - Application of Standards to Aerodromes ...................................................... 1 Section 2.1: General.............................................................................................................. 1 2.1.1 Legislative background and applicability ......................................................... 1 2.1.2 Changes to standards......................................................................................... 1 2.1.3 Aeronautical studies .......................................................................................... 1 2.1.4 Exemptions to standards.................................................................................... 2 2.1.5 Conflict with other standards ............................................................................ 3 2.1.6 Using ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code ....................................................... 3 2.1.7 Aerodrome Reference Codes and aeroplane characteristics ............................. 4 2.1.8 Providing for future larger aeroplanes .............................................................. 6 2.1.9 Non-instrument and instrument runways .......................................................... 7 2.1.10 Non-precision approach runways...................................................................... 7 CHAPTER 3 - Applying for an Aerodrome Certificate ......................................................... 1 Section 3.1: General.............................................................................................................. 1 3.1.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. 1 3.1.2 Processing an Aerodrome Certificate application............................................. 1 3.1.3 Granting of an Aerodrome Certificate .............................................................. 2 Section 3.2 Aerodrome Manual ......................................................................................... 2 3.2.1 Format of an Aerodrome Manual...................................................................... 2 3.2.2 Maintenance and Control of Aerodrome Manual ............................................. 3 3.2.3 Issue, distribution and amendment of an Aerodrome Manual .......................... 3 3.2.4 Initiating NOTAM for a new certified aerodrome ............................................ 4 CHAPTER 4 Applying to Register an Aerodrome................................................................... 1 Section 4.1: General.............................................................................................................. 1 4.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 4.1.2 Approving an application to register................................................................. 1 4.1.3 Maintenance of Registration ............................................................................. 1 4.1.4 Aerodrome Safety Inspection Report................................................................ 2 CHAPTER 5 Aerodrome Information for AIP......................................................................... 1 Section 5.1: General............................................................................................................. 1 5.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 5.1.2 Aerodrome information to be provided for publication in AIP. ....................... 2 5.1.3 Standards for determining Aerodrome Information.......................................... 3Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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5.1.4 Obstacle Data .................................................................................................... 8 Section 5.2: Illustration of Declared Distances..................................................................... 9 5.2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 9 5.2.2 Calculation of Declared Distances .................................................................... 9 5.2.3 Obstacle-free Take-off Gradient ..................................................................... 11 5.2.4 Critical Obstacle.............................................................................................. 11 5.2.5 Declared Distances for Intersection Departures.............................................. 11 CHAPTER 6 - Aerodrome physical characteristics................................................................ 1 Section 6.1: General.............................................................................................................. 1 6.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 Section 6.2: Runways............................................................................................................ 1 6.2.1 Location of Runway Threshold ............................................................................. 1 6.2.2 Length of Runway............................................................................................. 2 6.2.3 Runway Width................................................................................................... 2 6.2.4 Runway Turn pads ............................................................................................ 2 6.2.5 Spacing for Parallel Runways ........................................................................... 3 6.2.6 Runway Longitudinal Slope.............................................................................. 4 6.2.7 Runway Sight Distance ..................................................................................... 5 6.2.8 Transverse Slopes on Runways......................................................................... 6 6.2.9 Runway Surface ................................................................................................ 6 6.2.10 Runway Bearing Strength ................................................................................. 7 6.2.11 Runway Shoulders............................................................................................. 7 6.2.12 Characteristics of Runway Shoulders ............................................................... 7 6.2.13 Surface of Runway Shoulder............................................................................. 8 6.2.14 Width of runway shoulders ............................................................................... 8 6.2.15 Slopes on runway shoulders.............................................................................. 8 6.2.16 Strength of runway shoulders............................................................................ 8 Section 6.3: Runway strip ..................................................................................................... 8 6.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 8 6.3.2 Runway Strip Length ........................................................................................ 9 6.3.3 Runway Strip Width.......................................................................................... 9 6.3.4 Longitudinal Slope on Graded Area of Runway Strip ................................ 11 6.3.5 Longitudinal Slope Changes on Graded Area of Runway Strip ..................... 11 6.3.6 Runway Strip Longitudinal Slope Changes at Runway End (Radio Altimeter Operating Area)............................................................................................... 11 6.3.7 Runway Strip Transverse Slope........................................................................ 11 6.3.8 Surface of Graded Area of Runway Strip .......................................................... 11 6.3.9 Objects on runway strips ................................................................................. 12 6.3.10 Runway strip strength...................................................................................... 12 Section 6.4: Runway End Safety Area................................................................................ 12 6.4.1 Runway End Safety Area (RESA) .................................................................. 12 Section 6.5: Clearway ......................................................................................................... 13 6.5.1 Clearways ........................................................................................................ 13 6.5.2 Location of Clearways .................................................................................... 13 6.5.3 Dimensions of Clearways................................................................................ 13 6.5.4 Slopes on Clearways ....................................................................................... 14 6.5.5 Objects on Clearways...................................................................................... 14 Section 6.6: Stopway ......................................................................................................... 14 6.6.1 Stopways ............................................................................................................ 14 6.6.2 Dimensions of stopways .................................................................................... 14 6.6.3 Surface of stopway............................................................................................. 14Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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6.6.4 Stopway slopes and slope changes.................................................................. 14 6.6.5 Bearing strength of stopway............................................................................ 15 Section 6.7: Taxiways......................................................................................................... 15 6.7.1 Taxiway Width................................................................................................ 15 6.7.2 Taxiway Edge Clearance................................................................................. 15 6.7.3 Taxiway Curves............................................................................................... 16 6.7.4 Taxiway Longitudinal Slope ........................................................................... 16 6.7.5 Taxiway Transverse Slope .............................................................................. 16 6.7.6 Taxiway Sight Distance .................................................................................. 17 6.7.7 Taxiway Bearing Strength............................................................................... 17 6.7.8 Taxiway Shoulders.......................................................................................... 17 6.7.9 Width of Taxiway Shoulders........................................................................... 17 6.7.10 Surface of Taxiway Shoulders ........................................................................ 17 6.7.11 Taxiway Strips................................................................................................. 17 6.7.12 Width of Taxiway Strip................................................................................... 17 6.7.13 Width of Graded Area of Taxiway Strip ......................................................... 18 6.7.14 Slope of Taxiway Strip.................................................................................... 18 6.7.15 Objects on Taxiway Strip................................................................................ 18 6.7.16 Taxiways on Bridges....................................................................................... 18 6.7.17 Taxiway Minimum Separation Distances ....................................................... 19 Section 6.8: Holding Bays, Runway-Holding Positions, Intermediate Holding Positions and Road-Holding Positions ............................................................................................... 20 6.8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 20 6.8.2 Provision of a Holding Bay, Runway-holding Position, Intermediate Holding Position and Road-holding Position................................................................ 20 6.8.3 Location of Holding Bay, Runway-holding Position, Intermediate Holding Position or Road-holding Position .................................................................. 20 6.8.4 Distance from Runway-holding Position, Intermediate Holding Position or Road-holding Position to Runway Centerline................................................. 20 Section 6.9: Aprons............................................................................................................. 21 6.9.1 Location of apron ............................................................................................ 21 6.9.2 Separation distances on aprons ....................................................................... 21 Code letter........................................................................................................................... 21 6.9.3 Slopes on Aprons ............................................................................................ 22 6.9.4 Apron Bearing Strength .................................................................................. 22 6.9.5 Apron Road ..................................................................................................... 22 Section 6.10: Jet Blast......................................................................................................... 22 6.10.1 General................................................................................................................. 22 6.10.2 Jet Blast and Propeller Wash Hazards............................................................. 22 CHAPTER 7 - Obstacle restriction and limitation ................................................................... 1 Section 7.1: General.............................................................................................................. 1 7.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 7.1.2 Obstacle Restriction .......................................................................................... 1 7.1.3 Obstacle Limitation ........................................................................................... 1 7.1.4 Procedures for Aerodrome Operators to deal with obstacles............................ 3 7.1.5 Objects outside the OLS.................................................................................... 4 7.1.6 Objects that could become obstacles................................................................. 4 7.1.7 Monitoring of obstacles associated with instrument runways .......................... 5 Section 7.2: Aerodrome Obstacle Charts.............................................................................. 5 7.2.1 Type A Charts ................................................................................................... 5 7.2.2 Type B Charts.................................................................................................... 6Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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Section 7.3: Obstacle Limitation Surfaces............................................................................ 6 7.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 6 7.3.2 Description of OLS ........................................................................................... 6 Section 7.4: Principles of Shielding.................................................................................... 12 7.4.1 General ............................................................................................................ 12 7.4.2 Shielding Principles......................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 8 - Aerodrome visual aids: markers, markings, signals and signs......................... 1 Section 8.1: General.............................................................................................................. 1 8.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 8.1.2 Permanently closed aerodrome ......................................................................... 1 8.1.3 Colours .............................................................................................................. 1 8.1.4 Visibility............................................................................................................ 1 Section 8.2: Markers ............................................................................................................. 2 8.2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 2 8.2.2 The use of markers on a runway strip ............................................................... 4 Width of graded strip ............................................................................................................ 4 Dimension A ...................................................................................................................... 4 8.2.3 The use of markers on an unsealed runway ...................................................... 5 8.2.4 The use of markers on an unsealed taxiway...................................................... 5 8.2.5 The use of markers on an unsealed apron ......................................................... 5 Section 8.3: Runway Markings............................................................................................. 5 8.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 5 8.3.2 Pre-runway-end markings ................................................................................. 6 8.3.3 Runway centerline markings............................................................................. 6 8.3.4 Runway designation markings .......................................................................... 7 8.3.5 Runway transverse stripe .................................................................................. 9 8.3.6 Runway side-stripe markings ............................................................................ 9 8.3.7 Runway aiming point markings .................................................................... 9 8.3.8 Runway touchdown zone markings ................................................................ 10 8.3.9 Runway threshold markings............................................................................ 12 8.3.10 Runway end markings......................................................................................... 13 8.3.11 Temporarily displaced threshold markings ..................................................... 14 Section 8.4: Taxiway Markings .......................................................................................... 19 8.4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 19 8.4.2 Taxi guideline markings.................................................................................. 19 8.4.3 Runway holding position markings................................................................. 20 8.4.4 Intermediate holding position markings.......................................................... 21 8.4.5 Taxiway edge markings .................................................................................. 21 8.4.6 Holding bay markings ..................................................................................... 22 8.4.7 Taxiway pavement strength limit markings .................................................... 22 Section 8.5: Apron Markings.............................................................................................. 23 8.5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 23 8.5.2 Apron taxi guideline markings........................................................................ 23 8.5.3 Apron edge markings ...................................................................................... 24 8.5.4 Parking clearance line ..................................................................................... 24 8.5.5 Aircraft Type Limit Line................................................................................. 25 8.5.6 Parking weight limit line ................................................................................. 25 8.5.7 Leased area line............................................................................................... 26 8.5.8 Equipment clearance line ................................................................................ 26 8.5.9 Equipment storage markings........................................................................... 26 8.5.10 Apron service road markings .......................................................................... 27Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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8.5.11 Aircraft parking position markings ................................................................. 28 8.5.12 Lead-in line ..................................................................................................... 28 8.5.13 Taxi lead-in line designation ........................................................................... 29 8.5.14 Pilot turn line................................................................................................... 30 8.5.15 Primary aircraft parking position markings .................................................... 30 8.5.16 Marshaller stop line......................................................................................... 30 8.5.17 Pilot stop line................................................................................................... 31 8.5.18 Alignment Line ............................................................................................... 32 8.5.19 Secondary aircraft parking position markings ................................................ 32 8.5.20 Keyhole marking ............................................................................................. 32 8.5.21 Triangle marking ............................................................................................. 33 8.5.22 Lead-out line ................................................................................................... 33 8.5.23 Designation markings...................................................................................... 34 8.5.24 Aircraft parking position designation.............................................................. 34 8.5.25 Designation characters for taxi and apron markings....................................... 35 8.5.26 Tug operators guidance marking..................................................................... 38 8.5.27 Aircraft push-back lines .................................................................................. 38 8.5.28 Tug parking position lines............................................................................... 38 8.5.29 Tow bar disconnect markings ......................................................................... 38 8.5.30 Push-back limit markings................................................................................ 39 8.5.31 Push-back alignment bars................................................................................ 39 8.5.32 Passenger path markings ................................................................................. 39 8.5.33 Road holding position marking ....................................................................... 40 8.5.34 Typical apron markings................................................................................... 40 Section 8.6: Movement Area Guidance Signs (MAGS)..................................................... 41 8.6.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 41 8.6.2 Naming of taxiways ........................................................................................ 42 8.6.3 Dimensions, location and lettering.................................................................. 42 8.6.4 Sign size and location distances, incl. runway exit signs................................ 43 8.6.5 Structural requirements ................................................................................... 48 8.6.6 Illumination ..................................................................................................... 48 8.6.7 MAGS with mandatory instructions ............................................................... 49 8.6.8 Runway designation signs............................................................................... 49 8.6.9 Category I, II or III Runway designation signs ............................................... 49 8.6.10 Runway holding position sign......................................................................... 49 8.6.11 Aircraft NO ENTRY sign ............................................................................... 50 8.6.12 Vehicle STOP signs ........................................................................................ 50 8.6.13 Runway/Runway intersection signs ................................................................ 50 8.6.14 MAGS with information ................................................................................. 50 8.6.15 Taxiway location signs.................................................................................... 50 8.6.16 Direction signs................................................................................................. 51 8.6.17 Destination signs ............................................................................................. 51 8.6.18 Take-off Run Distance Available sign ............................................................ 52 8.6.19 Runway exit signs ........................................................................................... 52 8.6.20 Markings in lieu of signs................................................................................. 53 Section 8.7: Wind Direction Indicators .............................................................................. 53 8.7.1 Requirements................................................................................................... 53 8.7.2 Wind direction indicator characteristics.......................................................... 54 Section 8.8: Ground Signals ............................................................................................... 55 8.8.1 Signal Areas .................................................................................................... 55 8.8.2 Ground Signals in Signal Area........................................................................ 55Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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Section 8.9: Marking of Unserviceable and Work Areas ................................................... 57 8.9.1 Introduction................................................................................................................ 57 8.9.2 Marking of unserviceable areas on movement area ........................................ 57 8.9.3 Use of Unserviceability Markers..................................................................... 59 8.9.4 Works Limit markers ...................................................................................... 59 Section 8.10: Obstacle Markings ........................................................................................ 59 8.10.1 General ............................................................................................................ 59 8.10.2 Marking of Obstacles ...................................................................................... 59 8.10.3 Marking of temporary and transient obstacles ................................................ 61 8.10.4 Marking of Vehicles........................................................................................ 61 Section 8.11: Helicopter Areas on Aerodromes ................................................................. 62 8.11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 62 8.11.2 Helicopter Landing and Lift-off Area markings ............................................. 62 8.11.3 Helicopter apron markings .............................................................................. 62 8.11.4 Helicopter parking position markings ............................................................. 62 8.11.5 Helicopter taxi guideline designation.............................................................. 63 8.11.6 Helicopter parking position numbers .............................................................. 63 8.11.7 Helicopter apron edge markings ..................................................................... 64 Section 8.12: Marking of Glider Runway Strips on an aerodrome..................................... 64 CHAPTER 9 - Aerodrome visual aids aerodrome lighting ................................................... 1 Section 9.1: General.............................................................................................................. 1 9.1.1 Application and definitions ............................................................................... 1 9.1.2 Standardization of aerodrome lighting.............................................................. 2 9.1.3 Lighting in the vicinity of an aerodrome........................................................... 2 9.1.4 Minimum lighting system requirements ........................................................... 3 9.1.5 Primary source of electricity supply.................................................................. 3 9.1.6 Electrical circuitry ............................................................................................. 4 9.1.7 Secondary power supply ................................................................................... 4 9.1.8 Switch-over time limits ..................................................................................... 5 9.1.9 Standby power supply ....................................................................................... 5 9.1.10 Portable lighting ................................................................................................ 6 9.1.11 Light fixtures and supporting structures............................................................ 6 9.1.12 Elevated and inset lights.................................................................................... 7 9.1.13 Colour of light shown........................................................................................ 7 9.1.14 Light intensity and control ................................................................................ 7 9.1.15 Maintenance performance of aerodrome lighting ........................................... 10 9.1.15.1 A light shall deemed to be unserviceable when the main beam average intensity is less than 50% of value specified in the appropriate figure in Section 9.7. For light units where the designed main beam average intensity is above the value shown in Section 9.7 the 50% value shall be related to the design value..................................................................................................... 10 9.1.15.2 A system of preventive maintenance of visual aids shall be employed to ensure lighting an marking system reliability. ................................................ 10 9.1.15.3 The system of preventative maintenance employed for a precision approach runway category II or III shall have as its objective that, during any period of category II or II operations, all approach and runway lights are serviceable and that in any event at least: ................................................................................. 10 (a) 95% of the lights are serviceable in each of the following particular significant elements:.......................................................................................................... 10 (1) precision approach category II and III lighting system, the inner 450 m; . 10 (2) the runway centerline lights; ........................................................................... 10Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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(3) (4) (b) (c)

the runway threshold lights; ............................................................................ 10 the runway edge lights; ................................................................................... 10 90% of the lights are serviceable in the touchdown zone lights; .................... 10 85% of the lights are serviceable in the approach lighting system beyond 450m;............................................................................................................... 10 (d) 75% of the lights are serviceable in the runway end lights............................. 10 In order to provide continuity of guidance the allowable percentages of unserviceable lights shall not be permitted in such a way as to alter the basic pattern of the lighting system. Additionally an unserviceable light shall not be permitted adjacent to another unserviceable light except in a barrette or crossbar where two adjacent unserviceable lights may be permitted....................................... 10 9.1.15.4 The system of preventative maintenance employed for a stop bar provided at a runway holding position used in conjunction with a runway intended for operations in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 350, shall have the following objectives:......................................................................... 10 (a) no more than two lights will remain unserviceable; and................................. 10 (b) two adjacent lights will not remain unserviceable unless the light spacing is significantly less than that specified................................................................ 10 9.1.15.5 The system of preventative maintenance employed for a taxiway intended for use in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 350m shall have as its objective that no two adjacent taxiway centerline lights shall be unserviceable................................................................................................... 10 9.1.15.6 The system of preventative maintenance employed for a precision approach runway category 1 shall have as its objective that during any period of category 1 operations all approach and runway lights are serviceable, and that in any event at least 85 percent of the lights are serviceable in each of the following: ........................................................................................................ 10 (a) precision approach category I lighting system;............................................... 10 (b) the runway threshold lights; ............................................................................ 10 (c) the runway edge lights; and............................................................................. 10 (d) the runway end lights. ..................................................................................... 10 9.1.15.7 In order to provide continuity of guidance an unserviceable light shall not be permitted adjacent to another unserviceable light unless the light spacing is significantly less than that specified................................................................ 11 9.1.15.8 The system of preventative maintenance employed for a runway meant for takeoff in runway visual range conditions of less than a value of 550m shall have as its objective that during any period of operations all runway lights are serviceable and that in any event: ................................................................... 11 (a) at least 95% of the lights are serviceable in the runway centerline lights (where provided) and in the runway edge lights; and ................................................. 11 (b) at least 75% of the lights are serviceable in the runway end lights................. 11 In order to provide continuity of guidance an unserviceable light shall not be permitted adjacent to another unserviceable light. .......................................................... 11 9.1.15.8 The system of preventative maintenance employed for a runway meant for takeoff in runway visual range conditions value of 550m or greater shall have as its objective that during any period of operations all runway lights are serviceable and that in any event at least 85% of the lights are serviceable in the runway edge lights and runway end lights. In order to provide continuity of guidance an unserviceable light shall not be permitted adjacent to another unserviceable light........................................................................................... 11 9.1.16 commissioning of lighting systems ................................................................. 11Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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Section 9.2: Colours for Aeronautical Ground Lights ........................................................ 12 9.2.1 General ............................................................................................................ 12 9.2.2 Chromaticity.................................................................................................... 13 9.2.3 Discrimination between coloured lights.......................................................... 13 Section 9.3: Obstacle Lighting............................................................................................ 14 9.3.1 General ............................................................................................................ 14 9.3.2 Types of obstacle lighting and usage .............................................................. 15 9.3.3 Location of obstacle lights .............................................................................. 16 9.3.4 Natural Obstacles ............................................................................................ 18 9.3.5 Temporary obstacles ....................................................................................... 18 9.3.6 Characteristics of low intensity obstacle lights ............................................... 19 9.3.7 Characteristics of medium intensity obstacle lights........................................ 19 9.3.8 Characteristics of high intensity obstacle lights.............................................. 19 9.3.9 Floodlighting of Obstacles .............................................................................. 20 9.3.10 Ongoing availability of obstacle lights............................................................ 21 Section 9.4: Aerodrome Beacons........................................................................................ 21 9.4.1 General ............................................................................................................ 21 Table 9.5-1: Aerodrome beacon light intensity distribution........................................... 22 Section 9.5: Illuminated Wind Direction Indicator............................................................. 23 9.5.1 General ............................................................................................................ 23 Section 9.6: Approach lighting systems.............................................................................. 24 9.6.1 Simple approach lighting system .................................................................... 24 9.6.2 Precision approach Category I lighting system............................................... 24 9.6.3 Precision Approach Category II and III Lighting System............................... 25 Section 9.7: Isocandela Diagrams of Approach Lighting................................................... 28 9.7.1 Collective Notes .............................................................................................. 28 Section 9.8: Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems ..................................................... 29 9.8.1 General ............................................................................................................ 29 9.8.2 Obstacle assessment surface............................................................................ 31 9.8.3 T-VASIS and AT-VASIS................................................................................ 32 9.8.4 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) system ......................................... 36 Section 9.9: Runway Lighting ............................................................................................ 42 9.9.1 Types of runway edge lighting systems .......................................................... 42 9.9.2 Runway edge lights ......................................................................................... 42 9.9.3 Location of runway edge lights ....................................................................... 43 9.9.4 Longitudinal spacing of runway edge lights ................................................... 43 9.9.5 Lateral Spacing of Runway Edge Lights......................................................... 44 9.9.6 Characteristics of low and medium intensity runway edge lights................... 44 9.9.7 Characteristics of high intensity runway edge lights ...................................... 44 9.9.8 Use of bi-directional or back-to-back light fittings......................................... 45 9.9.9 Runway threshold lights.................................................................................. 45 9.9.10 Location of runway threshold lights................................................................ 45 9.9.11 Wing bar lights ................................................................................................ 45 9.9.12 Characteristics of runway threshold lights ...................................................... 46 9.9.13 Characteristics of high intensity runway threshold lights ............................... 46 9.9.14 Additional lighting to enhance threshold location .......................................... 46 9.9.15 Runway end lights........................................................................................... 48 9.9.16 Runway turning area edge lights..................................................................... 49 9.9.17 Stopway lights ................................................................................................. 49 9.9.18 Runway Centerline Lights............................................................................... 50 9.9.19 Runway touchdown zone lights ...................................................................... 50Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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9.9.20 Rapid exit taxiway indicator lights................................................................. 51 9.9.21 Photometric Characteristics of Runway Lights............................................... 51 9.9.22 Installation and Aiming of Light Fittings........................................................ 51 9.9.23 Illustrations of Runway Lighting .................................................................... 52 Section 9.10: Isocandela Diagrams of Runway Lighting ................................................... 52 9.10.1 Collective Notes .............................................................................................. 52 Section 9.11: Illustrations of Runway Lighting.................................................................. 59 Section 9.12: Taxiway Lighting.......................................................................................... 64 9.12.1 Provision of taxiway centerline lights............................................................. 64 9.12.2 Provision of taxiway edge lights ..................................................................... 64 9.12.3 Taxiway markers ............................................................................................. 65 9.12.4 Apron taxiway lighting.................................................................................... 65 9.12.5 Use of different types of taxiway lights .......................................................... 65 9.12.6 Control of lights on taxiways .......................................................................... 65 9.12.7 Location of taxiway centerline lights .............................................................. 65 9.12.8 Spacing of taxiway centerline lights ............................................................... 65 9.12.9 Location of taxiway centerline lights on exit taxiways................................... 67 9.12.10 Location of taxiway centerline lights on rapid exit taxiways.......................... 67 9.12.11 Characteristics of taxiway centerline lights .................................................... 67 9.12.12 Beam dimensions and light distribution of taxiway centerline lights ............. 68 9.12.13 Location of Taxiway Edge Lights ................................................................... 68 9.12.14 Spacing of taxiway edge lights........................................................................ 69 9.12.15 Characteristics of Taxiway Edge Lights ......................................................... 70 9.12.16 Provision of runway guard lights .................................................................... 70 9.12.17 Pattern and location of runway guard lights.................................................... 71 9.12.18 Characteristics of runway guard lights............................................................ 71 Control of runway guard lights ....................................................................................... 72 9.12.20 Provision of Intermediate Holding Position Lights......................................... 72 9.12.21 Pattern and Location of Intermediate Holding Position Lights ....................... 72 9.12.22 Characteristics of Intermediate Holding Position Lights.................................. 72 9.12.23 Stop bars............................................................................................................ 73 9.12.24 Location of stop bars...................................................................................... 73 9.12.25 Characteristics of Stop Bars............................................................................. 73 9.12.26 Taxiway edge reflective markers ..................................................................... 74 9.12.27 Characteristics of taxiway edge markers ......................................................... 74 9.12.28 Taxiway centerline markers .......................................................................... 74 9.12.29 Characteristics of taxiway centerline markers .................................................. 74 9.12.30 Photometric characteristics of taxiway lights .................................................. 74 9.12.31 Installation and aiming of light fittings ........................................................... 75 9.12.32 Illustrations of Taxiway Lighting .................................................................... 75 Section 9.13: Isocandela Diagrams for Taxiway Lights..................................................... 75 9.13.1 Collective notes to figures............................................................................... 75 Section 9.14: Illustrations of Taxiway Lighting ............................................................. 79 Section 9.15: Apron Floodlighting ................................................................................. 80 9.15.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 80 9.15.2 Provision of apron floodlighting ..................................................................... 81 9.15.3 Location of apron floodlighting ...................................................................... 81 9.15.4 Characteristics of apron floodlighting............................................................. 81 Section 9.16: Visual Docking Guidance Systems............................................................... 82 9.16.1 Provision of visual docking guidance systems................................................ 82 9.16.2 Characteristics of visual docking guidance systems ....................................... 82Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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9.16.3 Azimuth Guidance Unit - location .................................................................. 83 9.16.4 Azimuth Guidance Unit - characteristics ........................................................ 83 9.16.5 Stopping Position Indicator - location............................................................. 83 9.16.6 Stopping Position Indicator - characteristics................................................... 84 9.16.7 Parking position identification sign................................................................. 84 9.16.8 Notification of type of aircraft docking guidance systems ............................. 84 Section 9.17: Lighting associated with closed and unserviceable areas............................. 85 9.17.1 Closed runway or taxiway............................................................................... 85 9.17.2 Unserviceable areas......................................................................................... 85 9.17.3 Characteristics of unserviceability lights ........................................................ 85 Section 9.18: Other Lights on an Aerodrome ..................................................................... 85 9.18.1 Vehicle warning lights .................................................................................... 85 9.18.2 Works limit Lights .......................................................................................... 86 9.18.3 Road and Car Park Lighting ............................................................................... 86 Section 9.19: Monitoring, Maintenance and Serviceability of Aerodrome Lighting ......... 86 9.19.1 General ............................................................................................................ 86 9.19.2 Reporting of aerodrome lighting outage ......................................................... 86 Section 9.20: Lighting in the vicinity of aerodromes ......................................................... 88 9.20.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 88 9.20.2 General requirement........................................................................................ 88 9.20.3 Light fittings.................................................................................................... 89 9.20.4 Coloured lights ................................................................................................ 89 CHAPTER 10 - Operating standards for certified aerodromes............................................. 1 Section 10.1: General............................................................................................................ 1 10.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 10.1.2 Aerodrome Manual and Aerodrome operating procedures............................... 1 10.1.3 Training of aerodrome personnel involved with safety functions..................... 1 10.1.4 Aerodrome Safety Management System (SMS) ............................................... 2 Section 10.2: Inspecting and Reporting Aerodrome Serviceability...................................... 2 10.2.1 General .............................................................................................................. 2 10.2.2 Significant objects ............................................................................................. 3 10.2.3 Surface conditions of the movement area, including the presence of water ..... 3 10.2.4 Aerodrome markings, lighting, wind direction indicators and ground signals . 3 10.2.5 Cleanliness of the movement area..................................................................... 4 10.2.6 Wildlife on, or in the vicinity of, the movement area ....................................... 4 10.2.7 Currency of NOTAMs ...................................................................................... 4 10.2.8 Aerodrome fencing............................................................................................ 4 10.2.9 Inspection Records ............................................................................................ 4 10.2.10 Obstacles Infringing the take-off, approach and transitional surfaces .............. 4 10.2.11 Empirical assessment of the bearing strength of unrated runway pavements and runway strips .............................................................................................. 5 Section 10.3: Initiating a NOTAM ....................................................................................... 5 10.3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 5 10.3.2 Changes Reported to NOTAM Office .............................................................. 5 10.3.3 Time-limited NOTAM ...................................................................................... 6 10.3.4 Permanent NOTAM .......................................................................................... 6 10.3.5 Making changes to aerodrome information published in AIP .......................... 6 10.3.6 Wildlife Hazard Warning .................................................................................. 7 10.3.7 New or upgraded visual aids ............................................................................. 7 10.3.8 Changes to Type A Chart Information.............................................................. 7 10.3.9 Follow up actions .............................................................................................. 7Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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10.3.10 Record keeping ................................................................................................... 7 Section 10.4: Sample Aerodrome Report Form.................................................................... 8 Section 10.5: Examples of NOTAM and Listing of Abbreviations...................................... 9 10.5.1 Examples ........................................................................................................... 9 10.5.2 General abbreviations and phrase contractions to minimize message length of aerodrome NOTAMs....................................................................................... 11 Section 10.6: Appointment of Reporting Officers.............................................................. 21 10.6.1 General ............................................................................................................ 21 10.6.2 Reporting Officer qualifications...................................................................... 21 10.6.3 What to report.................................................................................................. 21 10.6.4 Monitoring activities outside aerodrome......................................................... 22 Section 10.7: Aerodrome Emergency Planning.................................................................. 22 10.7.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 22 10.7.2 Records............................................................................................................ 23 10.7.3 Disabled Aircraft Removal.............................................................................. 23 Section 10.8: Guidelines for Aerodrome Emergency Plans ............................................... 23 10.8.1 General ............................................................................................................ 23 10.8.2 Medical Subcommittee.................................................................................... 24 10.8.3 Testing facilities and reviewing roles.............................................................. 24 10.8.4 Aerodrome Emergency Exercises ................................................................... 24 10.8.5 Emergency Operations Centre and Mobile Command Post............................ 25 10.8.6 Definitions of Command, Control, and Coordination..................................... 25 10.8.7 Role of the Police ............................................................................................ 26 Section 10.9: Control of Airside Access and Vehicle Control ........................................... 26 10.9.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 26 10.9.2 Airside Vehicle Control .................................................................................. 26 10.9.3 Airside drivers ................................................................................................. 27 Section 10.10: Aerodrome Works Safety ........................................................................... 27 10.10.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 27 10.10.2 Method of Working Plans................................................................................. 27 10.10.3 Time-Limited Works....................................................................................... 28 10.10.4 Restrictions on Time-Limited Works.............................................................. 28 10.10.5 Restoration of Normal Safety Standards.......................................................... 29 10.10.6 Resumption of Aerodrome Works .................................................................... 29 10.10.7 Management and control of aerodrome works................................................ 29 10.10.8 Markers, Markings and Lights ........................................................................ 30 10.10.9 Communication Equipment .............................................................................. 30 10.10.10 Completion...................................................................................................... 30 10.10.11 Pavement Overlay Works ............................................................................... 30 10.10.12 Works on Runway Strips ................................................................................ 31 Section 10.11: Method of Working Plans....................................................................... 31 10.11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 31 10.11.2 Title Page......................................................................................................... 32 10.11.3 Works Information .......................................................................................... 32 10.11.4 Restrictions to aircraft operations and issue of NOTAMs............................... 32 10.11.5 Work Stages ..................................................................................................... 32 10.11.6 Emergencies and Adverse Weather.............................................................. 33 10.11.7 NOTAMs ....................................................................................................... 33 10.11.8 Restrictions to Works Organisations .............................................................. 33 10.11.9 Personnel and Equipment ............................................................................... 33 10.11.10 Access 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10.11.11 Aerodrome Markers, Markings and Lights................................................... 33 10.11.12 Protection of Electrical Services................................................................... 33 10.11.13 Special Requirements.................................................................................... 33 10.11.14 Administration .............................................................................................. 34 10.11.15 Authority ....................................................................................................... 34 10.11.16 Drawings ....................................................................................................... 34 10.11.17 Distribution List ............................................................................................ 34 Section 10.12: Functions of a Works Safety Officer .......................................................... 35 10.12.1 Works Safety Officer ...................................................................................... 35 Section 10.13: Aircraft Parking .......................................................................................... 36 10.13.1 Introduction..................................................................................................... 36 10.13.2 Apron Congestion ........................................................................................... 36 10.13.3 Apron Safety Management............................................................................ 36 Section 10.14: Wildlife Hazard Management..................................................................... 36 10.14.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 36 Section 10.15: Pavement Maintenance ............................................................................... 37 10.15.1 Pavement Cleanliness ..................................................................................... 37 10.15.2 Runway Surface Friction................................................................................. 37 objective.................................................................................................................................. 38 10.15.3 Deterioration of Runway Grooves .................................................................. 39 10.15.4 Surface Irregularities........................................................................................ 39 10.15.5 Standards for Natural and Gravel Surface Runways ........................................ 39 Section 10.16: Maintenance around navigational aids ....................................................... 39 10.16.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 39 Section 10.17: Aerodrome safety procedures during low visibility operations.................. 40 10.17.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 40 Section 10.18: Aerodrome Technical Inspections .............................................................. 40 10.18.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 40 CHAPTER 11- Standards for other aerodrome facilities. ........................................................ 1 Section 11.1: General............................................................................................................ 1 11.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 11.1.2 Standards for sitting and clearance areas for airways facilities on airports ...... 1 11.1.3 General sitting requirements ............................................................................. 1 11.1.4 Navigation Aid Facilities .................................................................................. 2 11.1.5 VOR Facilities................................................................................................... 3 11.1.6 DME Facilities .................................................................................................. 3 11.1.7 Instrument Landing System .............................................................................. 4 11.1.8 Localizer......................................................................................................... 4 11.1.9 Glide Path.......................................................................................................... 5 11.1.10 Marker Beacons ................................................................................................ 7 11.1.11 Locator Beacons................................................................................................ 7 11.1.12 Non-Directional Beacons (NDB)...................................................................... 7 11.1.13 Radar Sensor Sites ............................................................................................ 8 11.1.14 Communication Facilities ................................................................................. 9 11.1.15 Ground earthing points ................................................................................... 10 11.1.16 Testing of ground earthing points ................................................................... 10 11.1.17 Inspection of ground earthing points ............................................................... 11 11.1.18 Remedial action ............................................................................................. 11 11.1.19 Compass swinging site.................................................................................... 11 11.1.20 Light aircraft tie-down facilities...................................................................... 11 CHAPTER 12 - Operating standards for registered aerodromes.............................................. 1Manual of Standard for Aerodromes/2009

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Section 12.1: General............................................................................................................ 1 12.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 12.1.2 Aerodrome Reporting Officer ........................................................................... 1 12.1.3 Aerodrome serviceability inspections ............................................................... 2 12.1.4 Frequency of serviceability inspection.............................................................. 2 12.1.5 Record of inspections and remedial actions...................................................... 2 12.1.6 Reporting changes ............................................................................................. 3 12.1.7 Aerodrome Works ............................................................................................ 3 12.1.8 Safety Inspection Report ................................................................................... 3 Section 12.2: Sample Aerodrome Report Form.................................................................... 4 CHAPTER 13 - Standards for aerodromes used light aircraft operations. ........................... 1 Section 13.1: General............................................................................................................ 1 13.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 13.1.2 Aerodrome standards......................................................................................... 1 Approach and take-off surfaces ................................................................................................ 2 13.1.3 Aerodrome Markings ........................................................................................ 3 13.1.4 Aerodrome Lighting .......................................................................................... 4 13.1.5 Wind Direction Indicators................................................................................. 4 13.1.6 Ground Signal and Signal Area......................................................................... 4 13.1.7 Runway and Runway Strip Conditions ............................................................. 5 13.1.8 Aerodrome Serviceability Reporting ................................................................ 5 CHAPTER 14 - Rescue and fire fighting service ................................................................. 1 Section 14.1: General.......................................................................................................... 1 Section 14.2: Level of protection........................................................................................ 1 Section 14.3: Extinguishing agents.................................................................................... 2 Section 14.4: Response time .............................................................................................. 3 Section 14.5: Emergency access roads ............................................................................... 4 Section 14.6: Fire stations................................................................................................... 4 Section 14.7: Communications and alerting systems ......................................................... 4 Section 14.8: Rescue and Fire Fighting vehicles ................................................................ 4 Section 14.9 : Rescue and Fire Fighting vehicles................................................................ 5 Appendix 1 - Schedule of particulars to be included in an Aerodrome Manual.................. 1 Appendix 2............................................................................................................................ 1 LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES ............................................................................................ 1 Appendix 3: Application to Register an Aerodrome ............................................................. 1

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction

Section 1.1 - General1.1.1 1.1.1.1 Background Aerodrome safety is a vital link in aviation safety. Providing adequate suitable facilities and maintaining a safe operational environment for aircraft activities promotes aerodrome safety. By complying with the prescribed standards and procedures and taking a pro-active safety management system approach, aerodrome operators can demonstrate that they have discharged their safety obligations to the regulatory authority and to their clients who, ultimately, are the traveling public. This document, titled: Manual of Standards for Aerodromes, hereafter referred to as the MOS, is made pursuant to governing aerodromes (GA). GA sets out the regulatory regime for aerodrome operators at aerodromes used by aeroplanes conducting international and national air transport operations. The aerodrome regulatory regime sets out when an aerodrome is to be certified or is to be registered, and this MOS contains the standards and operating procedures for certified and registered aerodromes used in air transport operations. Aeroplanes with less than 10 passenger seats can conduct air transport operations from aerodromes that are not certified or registered, provided the specified facilities at those aerodromes are to the required standard, and the aircraft operator has, and makes available to crew members, the requisite aerodrome information to enable the pilot to safely land and take off at such uncertified aerodromes. Chapter 13 specifies the standards and procedures for aerodromes intended only for small aeroplanes (those with less than 10 passenger seats or in the case of freight operations, those not exceeding 5,700 kg MTOW) conducting air transport or private operations. Subject to published conditions of use, aerodromes and their associated facilities shall be kept continuously available for flight operations during published hours of operation, irrespective of weather conditions. Published conditions of use refers to aeronautical data promulgated by Lao PDR AIP or NOTAM . To assist aerodrome operators or potential operators, some general advice about specifications, procedures and other information of an educational or advisory nature may be issued from time to time by DCA in the form of Advisory Circulars. This Manual of Aerodrome Standards, as referred to in GA and as defined therein, contains: (a) the requirements for the certification and registration of aerodromes; and (b) aerodrome standards, recommended practices and guidance materials pertaining to the planning, operation and maintenance of aerodrome services, facilities and equipment to be complied with by aerodrome operators. The scope of this manual is confined to the safety, regularity and efficiency aspects of aerodrome facilities, equipment and operational procedures. It does not cover such aspects as those related to aeronautical meteorology, the administration of aerodrome finances and the servicing of passengers and cargo.

1.1.1.2

1.1.1.3

1.1.1.4

1.1.1.5

1.1.1.6

1.1.1.7

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It also excludes air traffic services and aeronautical information services, although the coordination between those services and the aerodrome operators has been incorporated as an integral part of an aerodromes operations. 1.1.1.8 Aerodrome standards may change from time to time to meet identified safety needs, technological changes and changes in international standards and practices. It is recognized that there may be difficulties and limitations in applying new standards to existing aerodrome facilities and installations. This aspect is addressed in some detail in Chapter 2. Standards are identified by the words must or shall. Appendices and tables form part of the main document and have the same status as the primary text. This MOS may also require standards from other documents to be followed, and where this is so, the referred standards become part of this MOS. Under particularly unusual circumstances, the application of a standard or procedure may not be possible or necessary. Such a standard or procedure will be phrased as if practicable, where physically practicable, where determined necessary or similar words. Whilst such phrases may imply compliance is not mandatory, aerodrome operators are required to provide justification for noncompliance. The final decision as to the applicability of the standard to a particular aerodrome facility or procedure rests with DCA. Where there is flexibility in compliance with a specification, words such as should or may are used. This does not mean that the specification can be ignored, but it means that there is no need to seek DCA approval if an aerodrome operators chooses to adopt an alternate means to achieve a similar outcome. Any such decision and the alternative means adopted are to be formally recorded and the record maintained while the chosen means of conformance exists. This MOS includes standards and procedural requirements relating to preventing the inadvertent entry of animals and people to the movement area. Those standards and procedures are intended for aviation safety only. This MOS does not specifically address aviation security, i.e. the safeguarding against acts of unlawful interference, and that subject matter is under separate regulation. Where it is necessary or helpful to provide factual or background information, explanation or references, or to provide a means of achieving compliance, information may be provided in the form of a note. A note does not constitute part of a standard.

1.1.1.9

1.1.1.10

1.1.1.11

1.1.1.12

1.1.1.13

1.1.2 1.1.2.1

Terminology used in MOS The status of other terms used jointly with standards and recommended practices in this MOS is explained as follows: a) Appendices Appendices contain materials grouped separately for convenience and forming part of the standards or practices. b) Definitions Definitions do not have independent status but each one is an essential part of each standard or practice in which the term is used, since a change in the meaning of the term would affect the specifications. c) Tables and Figures

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d) e)

f)

g)

Tables and Figures add to or illustrate a standard or practice, form part of the associated standard or practice and have the same status. Forewords Forewords contain historical and explanatory material based on the action of the DCA or ICAO. Introductions Introductions comprise explanatory material introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters, or sections of this MOS to assist in the understanding of the application of the text, but do not constitute part of the standards or practices. Notes Notes are included in the text, where appropriate, to give factual information or references bearing on the standards or practices in question, but do not constitute part of the standards or practices. Attachments Attachments comprise material supplementary to the standards or practices, or are included as a guide to their application, but do not constitute part of the standards or practices.

1.1.3 1.1.3.1

Document Set The document hierarchy consists of: (a) Civil Aviation Law No. 1 ,2005; (b) Governing Aerodromes (GA); (a) Civil Aviation Law No. 1 establishes the broad intent of the government of Lao PDR with regard to regulations of civil aviation. Governing Aerodromes establish the regulatory framework rules (regulations) within which all service providers must operate. The MOS comprises specifications (standards) prescribed by DCA, for uniform application, determined to be necessary for the safety of air navigation. In the event of any perceived disparity of meaning between MOS and GA, primacy of intent is to be with the GA. Service providers must document internal actions (rules) in their own operational manuals, to ensure the compliance with, and maintenance of, relevant standards. MOS documentation change management This document is issued and amended under the authority of DCA Requests for any change to the content of the MOS may be initiated from: (a) staff of technical areas within DCA; (b) staff of aerodrome operators; (c) ATS service providers and staff; (d) aviation industry service providers, such as airlines, and their staff; and (e) interested consultants, auditors and others. The need to change standards in the MOS may be generated by a number of causes. These may be to: (a) for safety promotion; (b) ensure standardization;

1.1.3.2 1.1.3.3 1.1.3.4 1.1.3.5 1.1.3.6 1.1.4 1.1.4.1 1.1.4.2

1.1.4.3

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(c) (d) (e) 1.1.5 1.1.5.1

respond to changed legislative or DCA requirements; respond to ICAO prescription; or accommodate new initiatives or technologies.

Related documents These standards should be read in conjunction with: (a) ICAO Annex 4 Aeronautical Charts; (b) ICAO Annex 6 Part I International Commercial Air Transport Aeroplanes (c) ICAO Annex 14 Aerodromes (Vol 1); (d) ICAO Annex 15 Aeronautical Information Services; (e) ICAO Doc 9157/AN901: Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 1 Runways Part 2 Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays Part 3 Pavements Part 4 Visuals Aids Part 5 Electrical Systems Part 6 Frangibility (f) ICAO Airport Planning Manual (Doc 9184) Part 1 Master Planning Part 2 Land Use and Environment Control Part 3 Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services (g) ICAO Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137) Part 1 Rescue and Fire Fighting Part 2 Pavement Surface Conditions Part 3 Bird Control and Reduction Part 4 Fog Dispersal Part 5 Removal of Disabled Aircraft Part 6 Control of Obstacles Part 7 Airport Emergency Planning Part 8 Airport Operational Services Part 9 Airport Maintenance Practices (h) ICAO Manual on ICAO Bird Strike Information System (Doc 9332) (i) ICAO Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (Doc 9476) (j) ICAO Manual on Certification of Aerodromes (Doc 9774/A969); (k) ICAO Safety Management Manual (Doc 9859/AN460); and (l) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Advisory Circular 150/ 5300 -13

Section 1.2 - Common reference systems1.2.1 1.2.1.1 Horizontal reference system World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84) shall be used as the horizontal (geodetic) reference system. Reported aeronautical geographical coordinates (indicating latitude and longitude) shall be expressed in terms of the WGS-84 geodetic reference datum. Note. Comprehensive guidance material concerning WGS-84 is contained in the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84) Manual (Doc 9674).

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1.2.2 1.2.2.1

Vertical reference system Mean sea level (MSL) datum, which gives the relationship of gravity related height (elevation) to a surface known as the geoid, shall be used as the vertical reference system. Note 1. The geoid globally most closely approximates MSL. It is defined as the equipotential surface in the gravity field of the Earth which coincides with the undisturbed MSL extended continuously through the continents. Note2. Gravity-related heights (elevations) are also referred to as optometric heights.

1.2.3 1.2.3.1 1.2.3.2

Temporal reference system The Gregorian calendar and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) shall be used as the temporal reference system. When a different temporal reference system is used, this shall be indicated in GEN 2.1.2 of the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).

Section 1. 3 - Airport design1.3.1 Architectural and infrastructure-related requirements for the optimum implementation of international civil aviation security measures shall be integrated into the design and construction of new facilities and alterations to existing facilities at an aerodrome. Note. Guidance on all aspects of the planning of aerodromes including security considerations is contained in ICAO Document 9184 Airport Planning Manual, Part 1. 1.3.2 Where determined necessary, the design of aerodromes shall take into account land-use and environmental control measures. Note. Guidance on land-use planning and environmental control measures are described in the ICAO Doc 9184 Airport Planning Manual, Part 2. 1.3.3 For aerodromes open to public use, the aerodrome operators shall coordinate with Aerodrome Division, DCA, for all matters to ensure international civil aviation security requirements are incorporated into the design and construction of new facilities and alterations to existing facilities. Unless otherwise approved by DCA, no aerodrome shall be constructed within twenty four kilometers of an operational aerodrome used by turbo-jet aircraft or within ten kilometers of any other operational aerodrome.

1.3.4

Section 1.4: DefinitionsAerodrome A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.

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Aerodrome beacon An aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air. Aerodrome elevation The elevation of the highest point of the landing area. Aerodrome reference point The designated geographical location of an aerodrome. Aerodrome reference temperature The monthly mean of the maximum daily temperature for the hottest month of the year (the hottest month being that which has the highest monthly mean temperature). Aerodrome traffic density (a) Light. Where the number of movements I the mean busy hour is not greater than 15 per runway or typically less than 20 total aerodrome movements per hour. (b) Medium. Where the number of movements I the mean busy hour is of the order of 16 to 25 15 per runway or typically between 20 to 35 total aerodrome movements per hour Heavy. Where the number of movements I the mean busy hour is of the order of 26 or more per runway or typically more than 35 total aerodrome movements per hour

(c)

Aerodrome works Construction or maintenance works carried out at an aerodrome, on or adjacent to the movement area, that may create obstacles or restrict the normal take-off and landing of aircraft. Aeronautical beacon An aeronautical ground light visible at all azimuths, either continuously or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth. Aeronautical ground light Any light specially provided as an aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an aircraft. Aeronautical study An investigation of an aeronautical problem to identify possible solutions and select a solution that is acceptable without degrading

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