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Małgorzata Dyszlewska Małgorzata Samsonowicz - Friendly Grammar Gramatyka języka angielskiego dla szkoły podstawowej

Oct 31, 2015

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  • MAtG ;:-.-. J 'SZLEW5KA MAtGORZA-;' S~ 'SO a ICZ

    IELSKIEGO ~".rTA OWEJ

  • I ,

    Projekt gra iczny okladki i strony tytulowej Agata Jaworska

    Rysunki Beata Batorska. Hubert Ronek

    Konsultaqa J~zykowa Graham Carr

    Konsultacja polonistyczna Krystyna Dlugosz-Kurczab

    RecenzenCi dr Andrzej Omiejka. Zafia Grudzinska Redaktor inlqujqcy Mafgorzata Gutowska

    Redaktor merytoryczny Anita Korzeniowska

    Redaktor technlczny Jolanta Oqbrowska

    Redaktor graflczny Joanna Plakiewlcz

    ISBN 978-83-02-09555-9 ISBN 83-02-09555-9

    Copyright by Wydawnlctwa Szkolne Pedagog czne Spot a A cYJna Warszawa 2006

    Wydawnlcrwa Sz olne Pedagoglczne Spolka AkcYJna 02-305 Warszawa. AI. Jerozolimsk,e 136 Adres do orespondenCJI: 00-965 Warszawa. P poczt. nr 9 www.wsip.com.pl Wydanle plerwsze (2006) Ar uszy dru arskich 1 1 ,7 5 S tad lamanle: S udio Grafiki Komputerowej ARTPRESS sp.j. T. Waloch, E. Waloch 88-100 Inowroclaw. ul. Poznanska 281 Druk oprawa: Zaklady Graficzne im. KEN, Brzoza k. Bydgoszczy

  • Contents Spis tresci

    Contents Spis tresci ...... .. .. .. ..... .... ... .. ..... .. ........... .. ........... . ........................... 3

    List do uczni6w .......... .. ........... .... ....... . .. ........... .. .. . .. . ................ 7

    1. Basic grammar terms Podstawowe poj~cia gramatyczne ............ ..... ..... .. .............. ........... 8

    2. Articles Przed imki

    2.1. Indefinite article a/an Przed imek nieokreslony a/ an .... .................................. 12

    2.2. Definite article and "zero- - c e Przedimek okreslony i przec ~=-

    2.3 . Articles and place names Przedimki i nazwy miejsc .

    3. Singular, plural and cardinal nur-

    =~ I ......... 15

    .. .. . .. ................... .......... . 19

    Liczba pojedyncza i mnoga oraz IC:~- ?:i,,ne .. ...... .......... .. ... .... .. ... .. . 22

    4. Verb to be and personal prono~~ Czasownik to be i zaimki osobo .e

    5. Demonstrative pronouns Zaimki wskazujqce ............... ..

    6 . Substitute words: one/ones

    . ..... .... .. ..... ...... ... .. .... ....... .... 26

    .. . .................. . ........... . ........... 32

    Slowa mogqce zast~powac inne ' -. ~~ one/ ones ................... .... .... ..... 34

    7 . There islThere are and prepos - of place There is/There are i przyimki mie,:::.2. .. .. .. ............. ........................ 36

    8 . Verb have got Czasownlk have got .............. .. . ...................... . ............... 40

  • Friendly Grammar

    4 four

    9. Possessive Forms Formy dzieri:awcze

    9.1. Gen itive's Dopetniacz 's .......................................... .. .. ............ .. . ........... 44

    9.2 . Possessive adj ectives przymiotniki dzierzawcze ....... .. ... ......... .................. .. .. ..... ......... 48

    9.3. Possess ive pronouns Zaimki dzierzawcze ............ . .. . .. .................. .. ................... ..... 51

    10. Comparison of adjectives Stopniowanie przymiotnik6w ........... . ................. . ......................... .... 54

    11. Countable and uncountable nouns Rzeczowniki pol iczalne i niepoliczalne ........ . ................. ........ ............. 60

    12. Pronouns some, any, a lot of Zaimki some, any, a lot of

    1 3. Present Simple Czas terazniejszy pros

    14. Adverbs of freq uency

    .. 64

    ................................... ........... ....... . 68

    Przysl6wki cz~sto . wosc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 74

    15. Verb can Czasowni can

    16. Verb must

    ........................ .............. 78

    Czasownik must .......... . ............ .. ........ ...... .. ....................... .. . . ...... 82

    17. Verb have to Czasowni have to ...... " ..... " ..... "" ....... .......................... .............. 86

    18. Would you like . .. ? 90 Czy chciatbys .... ....................... . .. ..... " ............ .

    19. Imperatives Zdania rozkazujqce ............... .. . .. ... .. ...... . . ....... . ..... .... . .. ................. 94

  • 20. Prepositions Przyimki

    20.1. Prepositions of movement

    Contents

    Przyimki okreslajqce ruch . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

    20.2. Prepositions of time Przyimki czasu ... ... .

    . .... . .. . ........................ ... .. .. . ........... 101

    21. Like + -ing Konstrukcja like + -ing ... . .. . .. . . ...... .............. .... . .. ......... .. ... ...... . ....... 104

    22. Subject and object pronouns Zaimki osobowe w funkcji podmlo u dopelnienia ...... ............. .............. 108

    23. Present Continuous Czas terCiZn iejszy ciqgly

    23.1 . Present Continuous for present actions (zas erazniejszy ciqgly: DleZqCe wydarzenia ....................... . . ... .. 11 2

    23.1. Present Continuous for future plans Czas teraZniejszy ciqgly: plany na przyszlosc ....................... ....... 11 7

    24. Present Continuous and Present Simple Czas terazniejszy ciqgly i czas terazniejszy prosty ........ . ........................ 1 20

    25. Past Simple: to be Czas przeszly prosty czasownika to be .................................. .. ... ...... 124

    26. Past Simple Czas przeszly

    26.1. Regular verbs Czasowni i regularne ....... . ..... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ........... . ..... . .... ....... .. . 1 28

    26.2. Irregular verbs Czasowni n eregularne .. ...... . ....... 133

    27. Had to For~G. ad to .. .. ... .. . ... ...... ........... . .... ... ..................... ............... . 1 38

    28. 0 _ -- - ...... bers and dates GC::- :::-::qdkowe i daty ................... ................... . .. . ............... 142

  • Friendly Grammar

    6 six

    29. Going to Forma going to

    29.1. Going to fo r future plans Going to: plany na przysztosc . .. .. .

    29.2. Going to for predictions .. ............ . 146

    Going to: przewidywan ia dotyczqce przysztosci .................. . .... 150

    30. Future Simple (zas przyszty prosty ..................... . ... . ...... .......................... ... .... .... 152

    31. Verb should

    Czasowni should ............. ........... ...... ........ ............. ...... ...... .. .. .. 156 32. Present Perfect

    Czas Present Perfect

    32.1. Present Perfect for experience and recent actions Present Perfect: doswiadczenia zyciowe oraz ,., eda""ne wydarzenia .. . 160

    32.2. Present Perfect w ith since and for Present Perfect z przyimkami since i for ..

    33. Subject and obj ect questions Pytania 0 podmiot i dopelnienie . . ...... .. .

    Answer key Klucz odpowiedzi .... .. ..................... .. .....

    ..... ... .. .. .. ... .. . .. . 164

    ...... ................. 168

    ............. .. ... ..... . .... . 17 2

    Czasowniki nieregularne ............. .................... . . . ...... ...... .. ... .. . 184

  • Drogi uczniu,

    Czy uwazasz, ze uczenie s ~ 9 amatyki to nuda i niepotrzebna strata czasu? Sprobujemy przekonae ci~. ze :a ie musi bye, a nawet moze to bye ciekawa przygoda. Z a ~osC gramatyki pozwoli ci pre-cyzyjnie przekazae infor ac.? ./II j ~zyku obcym i dobrze rozumiee informacje kiero are 0 o ebie.

    Nauka kazdego j~zyka obceg :>'7)'pomina budowanie z kloc-kow Lego. Klockami Sq s' Co ore poznajesz, ale to nie wystarcza, aby zbudowae ;:-~e statek kosmiczny czy dom. Musisz jeszcze skorzystac z a'1U pokazujqcego, jak nalezy pofqczye elementy danej -s-r-:.. cji. Zasady gramatyczne Sq wfasn ie takim planem, kt6 ::' ala poprawnie tqczye stowa, czyJi budowae zdania.

    W tej ksiqzce podstawy gra ..... a- ,~zyka angielskiego Sq przed-stawione w sposob bardzo --==.7 sty, a eWiczenia towarzyszqce objasnieniom pozwolq ci narYa- :>rawy i pewnosci w stosowa-niu poznawanych zasad. ZJ . ~_ c wytrwafosci. Zaprzyjaznij si~ z gramaty..... :..-raNd~ warto! Good luck!

    Mafgorzata Oyszlewska Mafgorzata Samsonowicz

  • Friendly Gran1n1ar

    Basic grammar terms Podstawowe pojfi!cia gramatyczne

    1. Nouns - rzeczowniki. Sq to nazwy rzeczy, zwierzqt, ros lin, zjawisk itp., a takze imiona wlasne. Australia is a small continent. Dogs and cats are popular pets. Peter is my little brother. Many girls like beautiful roses .

    2. Adjectives - przymiotniki. Sq to slowa, kt6re m6wiq nam wi~cej 0 rzeczown ach. okreslajq je. Austral ia is a small continent. Dogs and cats are popular pets. Peter is my little brother. Many girls like beautiful roses.

    3. Articles - przedimki. Nie majq odpowiednika w j~zyku polskim. S aw,amy je przed rzeczo-wnikiem lub przed przymiotnikiem okreslaJqc)m en rzeczown ik. There is a bookshop near my school. I can see a big dog. The dog is black. Susan is the best singer. An apple a day is good for you.

    4. Pronouns - zaimki. Sq to slowa. kt6re mogq zast~powac rzeczo i' i. Andrew plays vo lleyball. He plays it . Magg ie I'kes fl owers. S h e likes the m .

    5 . Verbs - czasownik i. Informujq 0 co os lub cos robi albo co s i ~ z nim dzieje. re are

    ave go ::=.. =.ra.~ . 's ' ed

    cers c.a SI

  • I. Basic grammar t:erms

    6 . Adverbs - przystowki. Te slowa m6wiq, jak, kiedy lub 'a cz~sto jest wykonywana dana czynnosc. Tigers can swim very wel l. I watched TV yesterday. Ann often helps her Mum. My brothers shout loudly.

    7. Prepositions - przyimki. Te slowa m6wiq, gdzie zra_:::~A s i ~ osoby lub przedmioty oraz w jakim kierunku s i ~ poruszaja,. =>-=-_ mki uzywane sa, takze z wyrazeniami m6wia,cymi, kiedy cos si~ z~--=jlo .

    Mr Brown is in the garden. He is running down the stairs We have Biology on Monday. The party starts at seven o'e oc .

    8 . Word order - szyk wyrazow. W j ~zyku angielskim wyrazy r-a_q wyraznie okreslone miejsee w zdan iu. Zmiana miejsea wyrazu moze z ..... e Ie sens zdan ia lub u rudnic jego zrozu-mienie. Okreslenie miejsea i ezas~ CJmieszczamy na koneu lub na poeza,tku zdan ia.

    Who Alex I

    Action went buy fruit

    Mozna takze powiedziec:

    ~here -0 he cinema n the market

    Last Friday Alex went to the c ~e~a. Every Saturday I buy fruit in e -~ et.

    Look at other examples: Popatrz na inne przyktady:

    a.~ ::: _ 5 olay footb-Afte

    SC 00 1.

    rball.

    In e all there is a b::: - ~::' Th;"e 0; a big mirror in e all (\112..- _ == ole go to the c~ _-:::~ on Sunday. o $_ ay many people 9:J :~ ~'1urch.

    When last Friday. every Saturday.

  • riendly Grammar

    II Put the words in the right order., . Napisz wyrazy we wlasciwej koleJnosCl,

    1, got/mountain /I/new /have/ a/ bike . ,I . hc:t"e. 9.0:t .. Q. ~.e~ . ~o,u~tQ. i .~ . ~ .i ~~:, .. , .. , ...... , .... , .. , .. " ...... , ... " .... '.'

    2 . films/I/TV /Iike/horror/on/don't ............. . ................... ..... , . , .... 0.

    3. go/Bialystok/ Adam/ school /in/Ewa/to/and

    00 0. 00 0 ,

    4, after/friends/play /my /school /often/football

    ....... ........... .. .. .. ... , ................................ , ..... . .. ,., .... . ............ .

    5. on/there/ floor / my /is/ bedrom/ carpet/the/ a/in

    6 , talking/ my / the/ on/ mother / the/is/ phone/moment/ at

    7. eats/vegetables/he/ and/ a lot of/fruit

    , 00 0 0. 0 0 0

    ED Put the words and expressions into the given categories, Przydziel te slowa i wyrazenia do podanych ategoriL

    Sf'FT in the garden in spring Eats dogs ' yellow ' red ' walk ' In the sky waH kids sleep in the sea in autumn soft birds run on the first day of the holidays on Sunday afternoon in the park flowers are fast happy on the table t ired at the weekend apples ' under the tree ' at eight o'clock ' dance litt le big bananas swim in the street black ' white in the even ing juicy play strawberries ' on the beach ' tasty sad sit in the morning hungry near the door ' clouds dirty on a lovely day clean fly sharks naughty in the basket funny on a rainy day nice

  • adj ectives nouns

    .. . 9.r~e!1 .... cats

    .. .. ...... .. 1

    verbs

    al k

    I. Basic grammar terms

    expressions of place

    expressions of time

    aD Look at the examples, then fo lio' the pattern and wri te your own poems using t he phrases from the chan above. Sp6jrz na przy lady i napisz wlasre ersze wedlug podanego wzoru, uzywaj'l:c zwrot6w z tabel i powyzej.

    adject ive + p lural noun verb + express ion of place expression of t ime adjective + adjective

    Sad sha ks swim in he sea on a love day hungry and big.

    Gr een apples wait on the table on Sunday afternoon juicy and tasty .

    ... ... .. ... .... ........... .

  • Friendly Grammar

    Articles Przedimki

    Indefinite article a/an przedimek nieokreslony alan

    orange

    umbrella

    apple

    onion

    element

    idea

    agent

    eagle

    an

    dog

    flower

    house

    girl

    car

    pencil

    table

    school

    Well done, Witty! Dobra robota, Witty!

  • 2. Articles

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Stowa a i an nie majq odpowiea ow w j ~zyku polskim. W j~zyku angiel-skim stawiamy je przed rzeczowni kami policzalnymi w Ip. , kt6re nie Sq doktadnie okreslone i 0 kt6rych IC Jeszcze nie wiemy . Przedimek a stawiamy przed rzeczownikami zaczynajqcymi s i ~ od

    sp6tgtoski, np. a table - przeG""" ot, kt6ry jest stotem, jakis st61. Przedimek an stawiamy przeG rzeczownikami zaczynajqcymi si~ od samogtoski, np. an apple - 0 oc:. kt6ry jest jabtki em, jakies jabtko.

    W j~zyku angielskim y nie jest samogtoskct - a yacht, a year, a yard. Litera u na poczqtku wyrazu bywa V'j awiana jako samogfoska -an umbrella, an uncle, lub jako spotgtoska - a un icorn, a uniform.

    D Put in a/ an. Wstawa/ an.

    ~~ . insect .. ... end

    baby

    pilot

    ..... animal

    ..... plane

    ..... exam

    ..... tiger

    Look at t hese examples. Popatrz na podane przy lady.

    an oak tree a big oak tree a book an interesting book a box an enormous box a table an oval able an author a famous author an answer a good answer

    The Wi se Owl Say s:

    .. ... boy

    .. ... idol

    .. ... parrot

    ..... angel

    ..... tree

    .... . city

    ..... owl

    ..... evening

    Jesli do -::eczownika ::z.emy przymiotnik, to przedimek a/an przenosimy przed :Y=-Jmiotnik. MC=e: czasami spowodowac zmian~ tego przedimka.

  • Friendly Grammar

    e Match the captions with the pictures and complete them with a/ an. Dopasuj podpisy do rysunk6w i uzupelnij je przedimkami a/ an .

    . ~ . new car

    .... American flag

    .. .. old car

    .... closed window

    .," open window

    . , " Brit ish flag

    II Put in a/an then rewrite the rhyme w ithout adj ectives. Change the articles where necessary, Wstaw a an, a nast~p ni e napisz ten wierszyk bez przymio now. Zmien przedimki. jesli jest to konieczne .

    2 I ~ ~ 7

    I-

    .. A .. green apple and .. q .. yellow pear, ... . ........... .. .................. .. . . . ..

    , , , . . , African ostrich and ., . ... brown bear,

    ...... left eye and ...... right leg ,

    ...... new tractor and ." . .. big farm .

    . .. .. , oval head and ...... long arm,

    ". ' ,. small ear and ...... short neck,

    , , " " open bank and ,. ,'" signed cheque,

    , . . .. , orange pencil and . , .. . . empty box,

    .. ' ... white eagle and ...... red fox, . . ... . ..... ... ... . . . .. ... ... ..... . .. . .... .

    . . , , . . tennis racket and " . . ,' rubber ball, . . ...... . .... . .. ... . ..... . ... . .......... ..

    . , .... expensive bike and .... .. ugly doll. ... . ... . . . .. . .. . ... .............. .. ... . ...

  • 2. Articles

    Definite article and "zero" article Przedimek okreslony i przedimek "zerowy "

    Professor Brain, there are

    two more boxes with articles!

    Profesorze Brain, tu Sq jeszcze dwa pudelka

    z przed imkami!

    Look at the examples and try to work out

    w hen we use these articles. Popatrz na przyklady i odkryj , jak

    uzywamy tych przedimk6w.

    an

    " ,,-

  • Friendly Grammar

    Th is is a cat and a dog. The cat is white and the dog is black.

    Apples are usually green , yellow or red. The apples on your table are red and green.

    Ann likes soft toys. She has got a teddy bear, a monkey and a hippo. The teddy bear is old , the monkey is funny and the hippo is very big.

    The sun is a star and the moon isn 't.

    Monday is the first day of the week. Today is the tenth of June.

    She is the nicest girl I know. These are the most interesting books about Africa.

    I don't drink tea or coffee. I usually drink mineral water.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    I think, I can understand it!

    Mys l ~ , ze to rozumiem!

    Przed imek the nie ma odpowiednika w j ~zyku polskim. W j ~zyku angielskim stawiamy go przed: rzeczownikami w liczbie pojedynczej i mnogiej, 0 ktorych juz cos wiemy

    i ktore nie pojawiajq s i~ po raz pierwszy, rzeczownikami oznaczajqcymi rzeczy, ktore w danej sytuacji Sq jedyne -

    the floor, the ceiling , the sky, the sun, the moon, liczebnikami porzqdkowymi - the th ird , the eleventh ,

    the twenty-fifth , przymiotnikami w stopniu najwyzszym - the longest,

    the most difficult.

    Nie stawiamy przed imka the przed rzeczownikami niepoliczalnymi oraz rzeczownikami w liczbie mnogiej w znaczen iu og6lnym, kt6re pojawiajq

    s i ~ po raz pierwszy i 0 kt6rych jeszcze nic nie wiemy, przed imionami wlasnymi i przed nazwam i dni tygodnia oraz miesi~cy.

    16 sixteen

  • 2. Articles

    a What are the missing articles? Jakich przedimk6w brakuje?

    There is .. ~ .. boy and ...... girl . ...... boy is wearing ...... T-shirt.

    ...... girl is wearing ...... dress.

    There are .... .. toys on .. .... floor:

    ...... ball, ...... doll

    and .... .. teddy bear .

    . . . . .. doll is under ...... chair.

    a Put in a/an or the where necessary. Wstaw a/an lub he tam, gdzie to 0 eczne.

    Cameron is ..

  • Friendly Grammar

    II Put in articles a/ an or the where necessary. Wstaw przed imki a/an lub the tam, gdzie to konieczne.

    1. What .. . ~ . . nice day. . . T~.~ .. sun is shi ning. 2. In my room there is .. . . .. desk, ..... . bed and ..... . wardrobe.

    3. Frank is . . .. . . tallest boy in my class.

    4 . . . . . . . flowers, ... . .. trees and . .. . . . bushes are .. .. . . plants.

    5. Tom has got .. .. .. new car and his litt le sister has got . . . .. bike.

    6. . . . . . . elephants are . . .. .. biggest land an imals.

    7. I can't open it! Have you got .. .. .. opener?

    8 . A: What kind of bird is it?

    B: I th ink it is .. . .. . eagle.

    9. A: What do you keep in these boxes?

    B: I keep ... ... salt , . .. .. . sugar and .... . . flour there.

    10 . My birthday is on .... . . fifteenth of September.

    :ffle an e

    a an the

    a a

    the a

    ~~ ~.::,. .. -- ..

  • Articles and place names Przedimki i nazwy miejsc

    Witty, look at the map. I fee l lost with all these

    geog raphical names! Witty, popatrz na map~. Nie m09~

    dojse do ladu z tymi nazwam geograficznymi!

    The W ise Owl Says:

    o

    2. Ar1:icles

    Gosh, you 're right. Let's ask the professor.

    There must be some rules! Rety, masz racj~ .

    Zapytajmy profesora. MusZq bye jakies zasady!

    Przedimek the stawiam) n -=e~ ~~ ami oceanow, morz, rzek, grup wysp, pasm gorskich, kanalow ....., zeow, kin , teatrow i hoteli. Nie stawiamy przedimka e orzed nazwami kontynentow, krajow, miast i miejscowosci. Wyjqtki to: e USA, the UK, oficjalne nazwy kraj6w -The Republic of Poland (R=ecoospolita Polska), the Republic of Hungary (Republika W~gierska) itp., ora= 'lazwa stolicy Holandi i - the Hague (Haga). Nie stawiamy przedimka the orzed nazwami jezior, szczyt6w gorskich, park6w, ul ic, uczelni i lotnis .

  • Friendly Grammar

    Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przyklady.

    Poland Ireland Great Britain Spain

    Katowice Glasgow Berlin

    Africa Europe

    Lake Mamry Lake Victoria

    Mount Etna lazienki Park Central Park

    Warsaw University St. Paul's Cathedral Heathrow Airport

    Oxford Street Franklin Avenue

    the Republ ic of Poland the Republ ic of Ireland the United Kingdom (the UK) the United States (the USA)

    the Hague

    the Pacific Ocean the Baltic Sea the River Narew

    the English Channel the Suez Canal

    the Himalayas the Sahara desert

    the National Museum the Grand Hotel the Relax (Cinema)

    the Cayman Islands the Bahamas

    Jeszcze inne zasady uzywania przed imk6w poznacie podczas dalszej nauki j ~zyka ang ielskiego.

    There are some rules but there

    are some exceptions as well!

    Sa, pewne zasady, ale jes r6wniez

    iI a wyjqtk6w!

  • II Put in the where necessary. Wstaw the am, gdzie to onieczne.

    1. We are from .... 7 . ... Poland, P;erre is from .... 7 ... . France

    and Tim is from .. th? .. USA. 2 . ......... Dead Sea is small and very salty.

    3 ......... . Alps are higher than ......... Tatra Mountains.

    4 . . ........ River Odra is on ......... oorder between ......... Poland

    and ...... .. . Germany.

    5 .......... Sahara desert is in ......... Africa .......... Gobi desert is

    in ......... Asia.

    6. Now my ship is cross ing ..... .... Pacific Ocean .

    7. What film is on today in ...... ... Relax Cinema?

    8 . There are many interesting objeas in .... . . . .. Briti sh Museum in ......... London.

    2. Articles

    9. Tomek lives in .... ... .. Poznan. His friend Steffen lives in ........ . Mainz.

    10. My school is in .. .. .... . Kielce, in ........ . Wesola street.

    11 . . . ....... Central Park is in ........ . New York, .. .... . .. Hyde Park is in ..... .... London.

    12 .......... Bal ic Sea is in .. ....... Europe.

    13. . .. .. . ... Washington DC is ...... . .. capital of .. ....... United States.

    14. I think ha . .. . .... . Lake Nidzkie is really beautiful.

    1 5. Chris and Carol spen last weekend in ... . .. .. . Hague.

    16 ...... .... Orkney Islands are in ......... North Sea.

    17 .......... Moun Everes 's ......... highest mountain in ... .. .... Himalayas.

    18 . .. ..... .. English Channel is between ......... France and ..... .... UK.

    19. . .. . .. ... River Thames and .. ... . ... River Severn are big rivers

    in ........ . England.

    20. Young people don't often visit .. ....... National Museum.

  • Friendly Grammar

    Singular, plural and cardinal numbers Liczba pojedyncza i mnoga oraz liczebniki gt6wne

    Aleck, what does it mean?

    Aleck, co to znaczy?

    The Wise Owl Says:

    I've underlined your mistakes!

    Podkreslilam twoje bl~dy!

    Liczb~ mnoga, rzeczownik6w tworzymy na og61 przez dodanie -s do formy liczby pojedynczej. Przed rzeczownikami w liczbie mnogiej nie stawiamy przedimka a/an.

  • Professor Brain, you told me

    to add "-s" to a noun! Profesorze Brain, powiedz ial pan. aby dodac ,, -s " do rzeczown-1.

    a man - two men a woman - four women a child - many children a person - many people

    Spelling Tips ;

    3. Plurals

    Yes, Witty. We usually form plurals in this way,

    but not always. Look! Tak, Witty. Zwykle tworzymy liczb~ mnogq w ten spos6b,

    ale nie zawsze. Popatrz!

    a foot - two feet a tooth - some teeth a mouse - five mice a re indeer - six reindeer

    Rzeczowniki z konc6wkq -x, -s, -ch , -sh otrzymujq w liczbie mnogiej -es, np.: a dress - dresses, a church - churches, a fox - foxes, a bench - benches;

    rzeczowniki z konc6wkq -f lub -fe zm ieniajq p i sown i~ w liczbie mnogiej, np.: a wife - wives, a leaf - leaves, a le uwaga: a roof - roofs ;

    rzeczowniki zakonczone literq -y po spotgtosce takze zmieniajq pisowni~, np. : a lady - ladies. a party - parties. a city - cities.

  • Friendly Grammar

    II What are singular forms of the underl ined nouns? Jaka jest liczba pojedyncza podkreslonych rzeczownik6w?

    Henry and Ellen are my next-door neighbours. They are interesting people. Henry likes watching basketball games on TV He collects toy buses, penknives, and old watches. His wife Ellen collects small boxes and toothbrushes. She likes watching her babies playing with her two small puppies. Henry and Ellen li ke going to part ies and read ing. On the shelves in their living room there are hundreds of books and many dictionaries. They have also addresses of the most famous bookshops in many European ci ies. In heir garden they grow delicious cherries and peaches.

    1. neighbours - .. q . ~.~.i9h.~.

  • 3. Plurals

    II Find 20 plurals in the wordsearch. What are their singular forms? Znajdz 20 wyraz6w w liczbie mnog ej w tej wykreslance. Jaka jest ich liczba pojedyncza?

    1 . . . I

  • Friendly Grammar

    Verb to be and personal pronouns Czasownik to be i zaimki osobowe

    Do you know Clara? She is so clever and so pretty! No, I don 't.

    Czy znasz Klar~? Jest taka mqdra i taka pi~kna!

    Yes, she's my best fr iend .

    Look at the photo. Tak, ona jest mojq najlepszq

    przyjaci6tkq. Popatrz na zdj~cie .

    Is Clara your friend? Nie, nie znam. Czy Klara jest

    twojq przyjaci6tkq?

    Clara is a cat! I thoug ht .....

    Klara jest kotem! Ja myslaiam ...

    She's not my friend.

    Ona nie jest mojq przyjaci6lkq.

  • Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane zdania.

    I am a girl. He is a boy. I'm a girl. He's a boy.

    She is my sister. It is my toy. She's my sister. It's my toy.

    We are from Poland. You are from Spain . We're from Poland. You're from Spain.

    They are from Scotland. Who is from Ukraine? They're from Scotland. Who's from U raine?

    He is not a girl. I am not a boy. He isn't a girl. I'm not a boy.

    She is not my sister. It is not my oy. She isn't my sister. It isn't my oy.

    A tak tworzymy pytania z czasown ikiem to be:

    Is she your sister? Is it your toy?

    Are you from Poland? Are they from Scotland?

    4. t:o be

    You can also use short forms

    of the verb "to be". Mozna takze uzyc form skr6conych

    czasownika "to be".

  • Friendly Grammar

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Zaimki osobowe I, you , he, she, it, we, you , they Ua, ty, on , ona, ono/to, my, WY, oni) mogq w zdaniu zastqpic podmiot. Mr Brown is a teacher. He is a teacher. Zaimk6w he i she uzywamy na og61 w odniesien iu do os6b, a zaimka it uzywamy w przypadku roslin , zwi erza,t i rzeczy w liczbie pojedynczej . This room is big. It is b ig. M6wiqc 0 zwierz~tach domowych, mozemy takZe uzyc zaimk6w he oraz she.

    II Rep lace the underl ined words w ith personal pronouns. Podkreslone slowa zastqp zaimkami osobowymi.

    1. My sister is seven ... ?~.~ ... is seven. 2. Kasia and I are good fr iends ..... . ....... are good fr iends.

    3. My uncle is very tall . .......... is very tall.

    4. All boys love football ................ love football.

    5. Miss Szulc is my English teacher .. . .. . . ..... is my English eacher.

    6. Little puppies are sweet. .............. . are swee .

    7. My cat is black. .. ........ ... is black.

    8 . The trees in the garden are old ..... ....... ... are old.

    9 . That boy over there is French .............. is French.

    10. Your new dress is fantastic ........... is fan as ic.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Drzeczenie czasownika to be tworzymy przez dodanie do formy osobowej S ONa not. I am not Basia. He is not tall. We are not hungry. They are not flowers. Pytania, na kt6re odpowiadamy "tak" lub "nie" , tworzymy przez i nwersj~ , tzn. stawlamy form~ osobowa, czasownika to be na poczqtku pytania Is he tall? No, he isn 't . . Are you hungry? Yes, we are. Are they flowers? No, they aren 't .

  • 4. to be

    Czasown ik to be - fo rmy petne i s r6cone:

    Twierdzenia Pytania Przeczen ia

    I am I'm Am I? I am not I'm not You are You're Are yo ? You are not You aren't He is He 's Is he? He is not He isn't She is She's Is s e? She is not She isn't It is It's Is ? It is not It isn't We are We're Are \e? We are not We aren 't You are You're Are l. You are not You aren't They are They're Are :.ne} ? They are not They aren't

    fJ Put in the ri ght fo rms of the verb to be. Wstaw wlasciwe ormy czaso .... r ..a ~o be.

    My name .. !? ... Chris. I ........ E 9 sh. Ewa and Antek ...... ... Polish. They ........ . twins but hey ......... d ~eren . Ewa's hair ......... blond, Antek's hair ..... . . . . black. Ewa's eyes ......... green, Antek 's eyes . .. . .... . brown. Ewa

    .. ...... . tall, Antek ......... ra her shor . I ......... their best fri end. We .. .......

    in the same class a school. I ... .. .... a Briti sh school in Warsaw. The ch il dren

    in this school ...... . .. from many coun ries.

    o Finish t he short answers to t he quest ions. Dokoncz kr6tkie odpowiedzi na podane pytania.

    1. Is Mark a good pupil? he isn't. No, .. ... ... ............ . 2. Are Peter and Mark at school? No,

    3. Is Kate busy oday? Yes, 4 . Is Frank Alice's brother? Yes,

    5. Is th is a pen? No,

    6. Is Tom 's father a doctor? No,

    7. Are they your friends? Yes,

    8. Are you and your riend Po /ish? yes, ................ ... .. 9. Are you a pupil? Yes, ........... ........ ..

  • Friendly Grammar

    Jak przechodzimy od pytan wymagajqcych odpowiedzi "tak" lub "nie" (w j~zyku polskim pytania te zaczynajq s i ~ od "czy") do pytan wymagajqcych szczegotowych odpowiedzi?

    Are you angry? Yes, I am. Why are you angry? Because I'm late. Is this a sweet? No, it isn 't. What is it? It is a chocolate. Is Anna at home? No, she isn't. Where is Anna? She 's at the cinema. Are they happy? Yes, they are.

    In English , questions haven 't got a word

    like Polish "ezy". Pytania w j~zyku angielskim nie

    zawierajq slowa odpowiadajqcego polskiemu "czy".

    Why are they happy? Because it's their birthday.

    II Answer the questions. Odpowiedz na pytania.

    1. Where are you from? .. ~' .m .. f~~~ .. ,',' .. .............................................................. ...... .

    2. Where is your school?

    3. Wha ime is i now? " 0 00 ,.,

    4. What is on your desk? ........... ' . ................... .......... . ......................... , ................. . .

    5. Who is your best friend?

    6. What is your favourite colour?

    " 0 0

    7. What is your Eng lish teacher's name?

    , II , 1 0

  • 4. to be

    a Put the words in the right order. Ustaw wyrazy we wtasciwej kolejnosc.

    1. yellow/this/ a/ umbrella/is .. !~.is .. i ~ .. ~ . y~ ~I .~~ . ~~.~:.~~Ip : ... . .... ... ..... ... .. . .... .. ... ..... . .. . ... .. . ..... . .

    2. good/ am/pupil/I/very / a

    " t o " , " , . ,. ,0' . , , '0. ,,0 t o 0

    3. your/number /what/ favourite/is ? " " " , 00 , , 0 0 . "0 ,

    4. at/ today/they / school /are/ ? , , , , , , "0 I " . , ,1 , t

    5. school / friend/Ola/ my/ from/is , , 00. ,0' , ., 0 0 ' 0 . , . ,

    6. capital /not/France/is/Warsaw/o e

    CI Complete the sentences wi th the g iven words and match the questions to the answers. Uzupetnij zdania podanymi wyrazam aooasuj pytania do odpowiedzi.

    she's are I'm It's She's HT! is are They she I'm we it Are

    1. Hi, Im Ala. What's your name? a. Yes, ............ are. 2 . Where ....... . .. .. you from? b. . ... .. .. ... . from Kroscienko.

    3. Where is ............ ? c. ......... are over there near the car.

    4. Is .. . .. . . . .... your sister? d. Hi, ............ Dorota.

    5. How old ............ she? e. .. ........ .. in the south of Poland.

    6 ............. you on hoi ida 5 -e"e? f. yes, ............ my little sister An ia.

    7. Where ............ your pG1"e-cs? g. .. .......... four years old.

  • Friendly Grammar

    Demonstrative pronouns Zaimki wskazujqce

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Pirate, look at this. Th is is a ball

    and that is a stick. ' \ Popatrz, Pirat.

    I \. To jest pilka, a tamto ;,l 1'-.., to patyk.

    ~ ~

    Phew, these are bones and those are sausages.

    Phi, to Sq osci, a tamto to kielbaski.

    Wskazujqc na cos / kogos blisko nas, w zas i~gu r~ki, uzywamy zaimk6w wskazujqcych this (dla Ip.) oraz these (dla 1m.). Gdy te osoby/rzeczy znajdujq s i ~ dalej od nas, uzywamy zaimk6w wskazujqcych that (dla Ip.) oraz those (dla 1m.). This pen is blue, that pen is black. These apples are red, those apples are green.

  • S. Demonstrative pronouns

    This is a desk, That is a chair.

    b;iiin===~?\""' This is a computer, That is a teddy bear.

    " o

    o

    a Help Tom descri be his room using this , that, these and those. Pom6z Tomkowi opisac jego pok6j , uzywajqc zaimk6w this, that, these i those .

    .. . !~.i~ ... is my desk. .. .. .. ....... " is my computer, ........ .. .. .. .. .. .. .

    is my discman, .. .. .. .... .. .. . are my

    headphones and ........... . .. ... .

    are my favourite CDs. Look over

    there - .. . .. .. ...... .. is a fantastic

    poster, .. .... , ........ .. .. .... . are the books I like,

    ,. t ., . .

    is my plane, . , ' 0

    is y oed and .... ................... .

    ca- are cal led Smo y ano fly.

  • Friendly Grammar

    Substitute words: Stowa mogqce zast~powac inne wyrazy: one/ones

    Hey, Pirate, fetch the ball!

    Pirat, przynies pilk~!

    Which ones? The o ld ones

    or the new ones? Kt6re? Stare czy nowe?

    Which one? The black one or the white one? Ktorq? Czarnq czy bialq?

    Hey Pirate, fetch my sli ppers!

    Pira . przynies moje kapc,e!

  • 6. one/ones

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Aby uniknqc powtarzania tego samego rzeczown ika, mozna zastqpic go wyrazem one w Iiczbie pojedynczeJ lub wyrazem ones w liczbie mnogiej . This TV set is big. The one over ere is small. He loves cartoons, especially the ones about Bolek i Lolek.

    a Put in one or ones. Wstaw one lub ones.

    1. This is my new Engl ish book bu where is myoid .. ~.r:'~ ... ? 2. Which dress is nicer? Th is red . . ..... or that yellow ....... . .. ?

    3. These red roses are beautifu l b I prefer the white ... . . . . ....... .

    4. Don't buy these oranges. Buy he ... ..... . . . .. over there.

    5. My glass is dirty. Can I have a c ean .. .......... ?

    6. I don't like soap operas espeCially Brazilian ...... ...... ..

    7 . These chocolates are delicious. Wh ich . .... .. . .. . .. do you want?

    8. I like songs but the . . . ... .. . . . . about love are boring.

    a Use the information from the table to answer the questions. Wykorzystaj informacje z tabelkl. aby odpowiedziec na pytania.

    shorts T-shirt socks baseball cap Alice pink white pink black Chris orange green white green Carol blac I blue black red

    1. What are Alice 's favouri e shorts? Her favourite ones are pink. ..... ............. ....... .. ...............

    2. What is Alice 's favouri e --shir ?

    3. What are Chris's avour' e socks?

    4. What is Chris's avouri e baseball cap?

    5. What is Carol's favouri e baseball cap?

    6. What are Carol's favouri e shor s?

  • Friendly Grammar

    There is/There are and prepositions of place There islThere are i przyimki miejsca

    What a mess! What's up? Ale balagan! Co siy dzieje?

    I have looked for it in my desk, under my bed . ..

    Szukalem go w biurku. pod 16zkiem ...

    There are old comics, my dirty socks

    and trainers but where 's my project?

    Sq stare komiksy, moje brudne skarpetki i adidasy. ale gdzie

    jest m6j projekt?

    Witty, look what's under Pirate!

    Witty, popatrz , co jest pod Piratem!

  • 7. There isfThere are

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Wyrazenia there is/ there are pozwalajq nam powiedziec, ze cos lub ktos gdzies s i ~ znajduje. There is Batman on the poster. There isn 't a pen on the table.

    II Put in there is or there are. Wstaw there is lub there are

    I h k' h there is ntis Itc en ... ... . .. ........... .

    There are apples in the basket. Are there big shops in this town?

    a big window . ..... .... . ........... a cupboard, a sink, a cooker and a fridge ......... . .. ..... . ..... . .... plates in the cupboard . . . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . also a table and a lamp .... ........ .. . .. ... .. a cat sleeping on the floor . ....... .. . . .... . ... . . apples In the basket and flowers in the vase.

    Where is the butterfly? Gdzie jest motyl?

    on the flower over the table near the table

    under the table in the cup in front of the cup

    behind the cup between the cup and the vase next to the vase

  • Friendly Grammar

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Preposit ions of place (przyimki miej sca) pozwalajq opisac, gdzie znajdu-jq s i ~ omawiane osoby lub rzeczy. My bag is under the chair. The kids are in the garden .

    B Rewrite the jumbled letters in t he brackets to get prepos itions of place. Przestaw litery w nawiasach tak, aby powstaly przyimki miejsca.

    My school is . n.~~! .. ~

  • 7. There is/There are

    6. Where's the baske ?

    7. Where are he flowers?

    8 . Where's the vase?

    9. Where 's the lamp?

    10. Where's the cat?

    II Look at the picture again and answer the questions. Popatrz ponownie na rysune i odpowiedz na pytania.

    1. Is there a big window in he ki chen? . 'ye.~ , .th~.r~ . i.~ , .... , ... . , .... , ..... , 2. Is there a sink under he window?

    3. Is there a dog in the ki chen?

    4. Are there apples on he able?

    5. Are there plates on the table?

    6. Is there a fridge next 0 the cooker?

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Czasami w j~zyku ang ielskim uzywamy innych przyimkow niz w j~zyku polskim - np. on television (w telewizji), in the picture (na obrazku), in the sky (na niebie).

    a Write the underlin ed expressions in Po lish . Napisz, co znaCZq po polsku podkreslone wyrazenia.

    There are stars in the sky,

    There are films on TV,

    There is music on the rad io,

    There are birds in the tree,

    There 's a vase in the picture,

    In the photo there's my class,

    There are cars in the street,

    There are people on the bus.

    no nieb ie

    Naucz si~ na pam i ~c pOwyZszego wierszyka, a un ikn iesz bt~d6w.

  • Friendly Grammar

    Verb ve Czasownik have got

    I've got a magic wand ,

    I've got a magic box!

    Have you got a black cat?

    Have you got flying socks? Mam czarodziejskq r6Zdzk~,

    mam magiczne pudelko! Masz czarnego kota?

    Masz latajqce skarpetki?

    I haven 't got a black cat, I haven 't got

    flying socks but with my magic wand I'll turn you into a fox!

    Nie mam czarnego kota ani la ajqcych skarpe ek, ale mojq czarodziejskq

    rozdzkq zam i eni ~ c i ~ w lisa!

  • She has got a magic wand. She hasn't got flying socks. Has she got a black cat? Has she got a magic box?

    Twierdzenia Pytania

    I have got Have I got? I've got You have got Have you got? You've got She has got Has he got? She 's got He has got Has she got? He 's got It has got Has i got? It's got We have got Have we got? We've got

    You have got Have you got? You've got They have got Have hey got? They 've got

    8. have go t

    Przeczenia

    I have not got I haven't got You have not got You haven't got He has not got He hasn't got She has not got She hasn't got It has not got It hasn't got We have not got We haven't got

    You have not got You haven't got They have not got They haven't got

  • Friendly Grammar

    a Which obj ects has each child got? Jakie przedrn ioty rna kazde z dzieci?

    a skirt

    Ewa Jurek

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Pytania, na ktore odpowiadamy "tak" lub "nie", budujemy, stawiajqc have/ has na poczqtku pytan ia. W krotkich odpowiedziach na taki e pytania nie wyst~puje forma got. Have you got a cat? Yes, I have. Has he got a sister? No, he hasn 't .

    Przeczen ia budujemy za pomocq slowa not, ore wstawiamy pomi~dzy have i got. Uzywamy na ogol form skroconych. You haven 't got a car. She hasn 't got a dog.

    fJ Give short answers to the questions. Odpowiedz r6 ko na podane pytania.

    1 . Has Ewa got a notebook? Yes , she has.

    2 . Has she got a basebal l cap? No , she hasn't . . ... . . . . . ... ... .. . . . .... . .. . . .... .

    3. Has she got a kite?

    4 . Has she got a ball?

    5. Has Jurek got a kite?

    6. Has he got a jacket? 7. Has he got a pencil case?

    8 . Has he got a ru ler?

  • 8. have got

    II Put in have got or has got. Wstaw w luki have got lub has got.

    I .... ~.9Y~. 9?~ .... two friends - Sue and Tony. They live in a nice house. It .................. .. a garden wi h many trees and flowers. Some birds

    nests in his garden. In his room Tony .. .. .. .. ...... ...... .. ..

    a collection of toy cars. Sue ............ . ... .. a big doll's house in her room .

    They .. ................ .... two dogs and a cat. The cat ........ .. .. .. ..... three funny kittens.

    II Answer t he quest ions. Odpowiedz na pytan ia.

    1. What have you got in your schoolbag?

    .. ~'y~. g~.~ .. ,': .... ................... ...................... .. .... .. .. .. ... ....... ... .... . 2. What have you got in your pockets?

    , 0 0

    3. What have you got under your bed?

    ........ ..... ... ............. .... ........... .. ..... ........... ...... ..... ............. . ...

    D Look at the table and complete the text wi t h: have got, has got, haven 't got, hasn 't got. Popatrz na tabe lk~ i uZv::le'~ . -'"

  • Friendly Grammar

    Possessive forms Formy dzierzawcze

    Genitive Dopetniacz 's

    This is Pirate's blanket. To jest kocyk Pirata.

    44 forty-four

    This is Witty 's vest and Aleck's skirt.

    To podkoszulka Witty'ego i sp6dn iczka Aleck.

  • 9. Possessive forms

    ~ Here are the children's

    Oh, no!

    socks but where's my sh irt? My best shirt!

    Oh, nie! Tutaj sa, dz i ec~ce skaroe .. ae

    gdzie jest moja oszu a7 Moja najlepsza

    koszula!

    Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przykfady.

    Tom has got a bike. Susan has got a doll. Jim and Frank are friends. Carol and Anna go to th is school. These boys have got colourful kites. These books belong to students. Whose toys are these?

    The Wise Owl Says:

    It 's Tom's bike. It's Susan's doll. Jim is FranK's friend. It's Carol and Anna's school. These are the boys' kites. These are students' books. These are the children's toys.

    Forma genitive 's umozliwia m6wienie 0 relacjach pomi~dzy ludzmi i 0 tym, ze cos do kogos nalezy. W Ip. dodajemy do rzeczownika -s po apostrofie, np. Mary's blouse, dog 's tail , Peter's brother. W 1m. tworzonej przez dodanie -s, w form ie dzierzawczej (czyli okreslajqcej posiadanie) mamy jedyn ie apostrof po koncowej literze, np. the Browns' house, girls ' clothes. Rzeczowniki, ktore w 1m. nie majo, koncowki -s, tworzo, formy dzierzawcze tak, jak rzeczowniki w Ip., np. people 's rights, men 's interests, children 's

  • Friendly Grammar

    II Whose are these objects? Czyje Sq te przedmioty?

    Ewa Jacek Aleck and Witty Pirate girls

    ~----------------------------~---\ ~

    1. Th is is ... :T ~c.E7~' ~ .... boat. Z. Th is is .................. bone.

    3 . These are .................. comics.

    4 . These are .................. flowers.

    5. Th is is ..................... cat.

    a Change the short forms into full forms where possible. Zamieri formy skr6cone na dlugie am. gdzle Jes to mozliwe.

    1. Tom 's sister 's got a big house .

    . . !?~'~ .. ~ ! ~.~~.~ . ~':l~ .. g~t . Cl . ~. ig . ~

  • 9. Possessive forms

    3. Magg ie's tall but Magg ie's mum 's sho'": .

    . .... . ...... ..... . ..... . .. . . ... ... . ........ ... . .... ... ... ... ..... ..... .... .. .... .. . ,., ... , .

    6. My father 's got Peter 's book .

    .. ... .. . .. .. ...... . ... . . . . . ......... ...... .... .. ..... .... ...... .. ... .. . .. ........ .... . .. .. , .

    a In the given t it les 's can mean is or has or can be a possessive form . Match the t itl es with the correct categories. W podanych tytulach 's moze znaczyc is lub has lub bye forma, okreslaja,ca, posiadanie. Dopasuj tytuly do wlasc.wych ategorii.

    is has possessive

    2. Whats Ouer There?

    4. ~ea tJot 4 s~

    5. My Best Friend's Story 6. Dog's Heart

    7. What's Andy Got?

    8. Vampire)s Dance 9. It's Time To Go

    10. Who's there? 11. With Mother's Help

    12. Carol's Got It for You

  • Friendly Grammar

    Possessive adjectives Przymiotniki dzierZawcze

    I'm looking for my su itcase. It must be

    somewhere here. Szukam mojej walizki. Musi bye gdzies tutaj.

    This one must be Witty's. This is his suitcase. Ta musi bye Witty'ego.

    To jego walizka.

    48 forty-eight

    This one is Aleck's. I'm sure this is her suitcase.

    Ta nalezy do Aleck. Jestem pewien, ze to jej wali zka.

    And this is my suitcase at last!

    I wreszcie jest moja walizka!

  • ook at these examples. Dopatrz na podane przyklady.

    I have got a mountain bike. This is my bike.

    You have got a hamster. This is your hamster.

    Susan has got a Barbie doll. This is her doll.

    Robert has got a Ch inese kite. This is his kite.

    A bird is build ing a nest here. This is its nest.

    We live in a semi-detached house. This is our house.

    These books belong to my parents. These are their books.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    9. Possessive forms

    Possessive adjectives (przymiotn iki dzierzawcze) wyst~pujq zawsze Iqcznie z rzeczownikiem, ktory okreslajq. W j ~zyku angielskim nie uzywamy odpowiedn ikow polskich okreslen "swoj" , "swoje". Zamiast nich uzywamy takich okreslen jak "moj" , "twoj" , "jego" itd. : my book, your cat, her dress.

    a Put in my, your, his , her, its, our, their. Some of these words will be used more than once. Wstaw my, your. his. her. its, our, their. Niektorych z tych slow musisz uzyc wi~cej niz raz.

    1. I have go a dog and a alking parrot.

    They are .... my ..... pe s. 2. Karina and Wite collect badges.

    It is ............ hobby.

    3. Peter usually meets Jack and Paul after school.

    They are ............ friends.

  • Friendly Grammar

    4. I like the clothes you are wearing today.

    Is this .... ........ new jacket? 5. My parents and I often watch nature f ilms on TV

    They are ... .. .. ... .. favourite films.

    6. Look out! This chair has got a broken leg .

    . .. .. .. .. ... leg is broken.

    7. She is a famous American singer.

    This is ... ....... .. new CD.

    8 . I like listening to classical music.

    It is . .. . ..... favourite music.

    9 . Paul is inviting us to a party.

    This is .. . .. .... tenth birthday.

    10. My brothers share a bedroom upstairs.

    e This is .. ....... bedroom.

    Put in my, your, his , her, its, our, their. Some of these words w ill be used more t han once. Wstaw my. your. his, her, its, our, their. Niekt6re Z tych sl6w mUSZq bye uzyte

    wi~cej niz raz.

    I want you to meet Han ia and Wojte k. I like them very much . They are .. tnY ... best friends. We all go to the White Eagle School in Warsaw. Have a look at th is

    photo - this is .... .. ... ... school. It is big and . .. ....... .. walls are yellow and

    brown. Hania is in year five .. . . . . . . .. .. . favourite subject is English. Miss Black is .. .. . . .... .. teacher. She is nice and fr iendly. Wojtek and I are in year six. Miss Thomas is .. ... .. .. .. . teacher. She is rather strict. Wojtek plays the guitar and

    favourite subjects are music and PE. I like maths and science but favourite subject is history. I coll ect f igures of knights.

    I know a lot about ........ . .. . li fe, old castles and famous battles. In

    bedroom there is a model of a castle on the desk.

    How about you? Wh ere is ..... ... . school? What is . .. . . .. . . favourite subject?

  • Possessive pronouns Zaimki dzieriawcze

    What a mess! Are these socks Aleck 's?

    Ale balagan! Czy to skarpetki Aleck?

    Whose are these books on the floor?

    Czyje Sq te ksiqzki na podlodze?

    They are yours! Sq twoje!

    9. Possessive forms

    No, they aren 't hers. They are mine. Nie, one nie Sq jej .

    Sq moje.

  • Friendly Grammar

    Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przyklady.

    Th is is my mountain bike. This is your hamster. Th is is her Barbie doll. Th is is his kite with a long tail. Th is is our new house. These are their English books.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    This bike is mine . This hamster is yours . This dol l is hers. This kite is his. This house is ours . These books are theirs .

    Possessive adjectives (przymiotniki dzierzawcze) wyst~pujq zawsze razem z rzeczownikiem.

    Th is is her pencil. Possessive pronouns (zaimki dzierzawcze) wyst~pujq samodzielnie, nie lqczymy ich z rzeczownikami. Th is pencil is hers.

    II Match the sentences. Dopasuj do siebie zdania.

    1. I've got a tennis racket. a. 2. These are Alice's dolls. ~ b. 3. We all go to th is school. ~ c. 4 . It's your new bicycle. d. 5. Look at these books on my shelf. e. 6 . Andy's T-sh irt is yellow. f.

    It's ours. It 's his. It's mine. They are theirs. They are hers. It 's hers.

    7. Hanna has got a hamster. g. They are ours. 8. These are Mark and Pau l's kites. h. It's yours. 9. These are our Lego bricks. i. They are mine.

    10. This is my parents' bedroom. j. It's theirs .

    I : 12131415161718191101

    ;.JCo IIIIY-IWU

  • 9. possessive forms

    fJ Put in mine, yours, his, hers, ours. theirs. Some of these words will be used more than once. Wstaw mine. yours. his, hers, ours. the rs. iekt6rych z tych st6w musisz uzyc

    wi~cej niz raz. We went for a school rip 0 France by plane. In Paris we couldn't get our luggage at the airport. By mista e i was sent to Moscow! After two days our suitcases were returned .

    Tom: There are so many bags and suitcases. Where are .... C?~r:~ ..... ? Andy: That big red suitcase is ............... . I think.

    Mark: There is another red sui case over here. Which one is ................. . ?

    Andy: I must have a look. How about Tom and Henry's luggage? Can you

    Mark:

    see ...... .... ..... ?

    No, but I can see Kate's bag. That pink one is

    Kate, your bag is here!

    Kate: Thank you, Mark. I've found Tom 's bag. It is ........ " .. " .. '" isn't it? Tom: Henry. have you got your su itcase?

    Henry: Yes, I've got"" .. "",, .. ,," Let 's go back to the hotel.

    II Rewrite the jumbled words in each row of the table to get correct sentences. Ustaw wyrazy w kazdym wierszu tabel i tak. aby powstaly poprawne zdania.

    1. more dress hers than Your elegant is 2. ours computer Two are these of games 3. smaller guinea is yours pig My than 4 . on photos table Those mine are the 5. over house is That theirs big there 6 . bike his rusty but Th is isn't mine

    1 .. y~.~~ .. ~r.~?~ . !? .~

  • Friendly G r ammar

    Comparison of adjectives Stopniowanie przymiotnik6w

    Today is warmer than yesterday. It's going to be the warmest day in May. Dzisiaj jest cieplej niz wczoraJ

    To b~dzie najciepleJszy dzien w maju.

    ~ Pirate is ready

    54 fifty-four

    fo r a :val . Soo)r:: D 'a: Jest

    go ow 00 ,)Jsc,a.

    Let's have a picnic! Jedzm) "'a :J '" ;

    You are the most clever dog in the world!

    Jestes najmqdrzejszym psem na swiecie!

  • I o. Comparison of adject:ives

    Look how beautifu l it is around here. Popatrzcie, jak

    ::; ~kni e jest wok61.

    Yes, the trees are higher and

    the grass is greener. Tak, drzewa sq wyzsze

    i trawa jes bardz ej zielona.

    Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przyklady.

    It was warm yesterday. Today is warmer than yesterday. July is the warmest month of the year.

    Betty's sister is a pretty girl. Betty is prettier than her sister. She is the prettiest girl in the class.

    Tom is a fat boy. Peter is fatter than Tom. John is the fattest boy in the class.

    German is a difficult language. Polish is more difficu t than German. Chinese is the most difficult language.

    The flowers are more colourful. Kwiaty Sq rv

    bardziej kolorowe.~~

    And my bone is bigger than usual! I moja kosc jest wi~ksza

    niz zwykle!

  • Friendly Grammar

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Stopien wyzszy przymiotnik6w jednosylabowyc oraz dwusylabowych konczqcych s i ~ na -y tworzymy przez dodanie 0 cow i -er, a stopien najwyzszy przez postawienie przedimka the przeG :::>rzymiotnikiem oraz dodan ie konc6wki -est (long - longer - the longest Wi~kszosc przymio nik6w dwusylabowych oraz pc:/"'" : : wielosylabowe stopniujemy stawiajqc przed przymiotnikiem w stOD~ ~ , zszym more, a w stopniu najwyzszym most (modern - more moder~ - the most modern).

    Spelling Tips:

    Jednosylabowe przymiotniki konczqce si~ literq -e $lopniu wyzszym otrzy-mujq konc6wk~ -r, a w stopniu najwyzszym ko c ? -st (nice - nicer - the nicest).

    Jednosylabowe przymiotniki, w kt6rych samog' 5 - $loi przed. sp61~loskq (z wyjqtkiem sp6tgloski w), podwajajq t~ spor ~ ~s ? w stopnlu wyzszym i najwyzszym (big - bigger - the biggest, ale re - ~ewer - the newest).

    Jednosylabowe i dwusylabowe przymiotniki korC:::q~e 5 ~ literq -y, w stopniu wyzszym i najwyzszym zmieniajq -y na -i (nols. - ~ sier - the nois iest).

    II Complete the table. Adjective Comparative

    I Superlative (przymiotn ik) (stopie" wyzszy) (stopie" najwyzszy)

    cold colder 1 the coldest happier ~

    fantastic 1 more dangerous I

    t the craziest sunny 1

    hotter I I :~e most popular

    wet I drier J

    small I comfortable 1

  • Look at these examples. Popatrz na po dane przyklady.

    Ann is good at swimming.

    I o. Comparison of adjectives

    Kate is a better swimmer han Ann. Mary is the best swimmer in our group.

    The results of my final exam are bad . Henry's resu lts are worse han mine. Carol 's results are the worst.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    / Przymiotn iki good, bad, far stopniujemy inaczej. Sq to przymiotniki nieregularne: good - better - the best bad - worse - the worst far - further - the furthest lub far - farther - the farthest

    '-

    e Put in the gaps: good, the best, bad, the worst. Wstaw w luki: good, the best. bad, the worst.

    Paul: I'm very .... g?~~ ... . at English but I want to be ............. .. I'm really ...... at maths - frankly speaking l'm ............... J

    The Wise Owl Says:

    W por6wnaniach uzywamy slowa than, kt6re odpowiada slowu "n iz " w j~zyku polskim lub konstrukcji as ... as, kt6ra odpowiada konstrukcji "tak ... jak" w j~zyku polskim . London is bigger than Warsaw. Tom is as tall as his bra her. You aren't as fat as Carol.

    D Put in the right forms of the adjectives in brackets. Wstaw wlasciwe formy przymio n ow oodanych w nawiasach.

    1 . Ju ly is .. ~h~ .. ~~t:t.~~t ... (hot) mon h of the year. 2 . 1his --' "':'35 s ..... .... . ....... ............ (expensive) than that red one. 3. The crocoa lle 5 as ..... ..... ..... . . ...... . (dangerous) as the shark.

  • Friendly Grammar

    4. Football is ................. .. ...... ....... .... (popular) soor n the world. 5. Kate is a .......... .... ............. (good) student than 'ary. 6. Which planet is . ................... ........ ..... (far) frolT' Ear h? 7. Mount Everest is .................. ....... .. ... (high) mOl ..... 'la ln in the world. 8. Wroclaw is a ......................... .. (big) town than 3 alystok. 9. My brother wants to be as ............ .... ......... (fa ...... loS) as Ronaldo.

    10. Is the climate in Africa .... ................. (dry) tha" ~ ::urope? 11. Last Monday was ........................ .. (bad) da ~ ...... y life! 12 . Dolphins are ........ .. ............................. (in:e ;e"'-) than sharks. 1 3 S . II (sur r I :-. a:- autumn. . ummer IS usua y ........ .. ........ ........ -14. I am as ..................... (tall) as my father 1 5. The cheetah is ..... .................. .... (fas and.

    a Look at the pictures and complete the se e ces.. Popatrz na rysunki i uzupetn j zdania.

    Tom age: 14

    Chris age: 10

    1. Tom is ..... ~~~. ~!~.~~.~ ..... 2 . Chris is .................. than Susan.

    3. Anna is as .... .. .. .......... as Chr s.

    4. Tom is .................... . than Anna.

    Susan age. ' 2

    Anna age: 10

  • I O. COnlparison of adjectives

    5. Box A is ...... . .................. . .

    6. Box B is .......... .. ....... ..... .. .

    than box A.

    7. Box C is .......................... .

    8. Box B is ............. . .... ....... ..

    than box C.

    Rose Carol Felix

    9. Felix 's hands are ......................... ..

    10. Carol 's hands are ...... ..... .. ... .. ......... than Rose's.

    11. Rose's hands aren't as ..................... as Felix's.

    :p"2 ? 2 Z 2 ;

    ZII

    12. Line A is .......................... .

    13. Line D is eo ,

    14. Line B is as ........................ as line C.

    1 5. Line 0 is ........ .................. than line A.

  • Friendly Grammar

    Countable and uncountable nouns Rzeczowniki policzalne i niepoliczalne

    How man Y black spiders? . ?

    H w many white mIce. o ? How much cold water.

    . ? How much brown rIce. How many slimy wormS and how much moonlight do we need to make

    . right? this magic potIon .

    e 's make some ag ic potion. ~ _ . JO ujmy troch~

  • I I. Countable and uncountable nouns

    Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przy lady.

    There is an apple and two pears in he bas et. There is snow everywhere. These boys and girls work toge her as a group. My brother loves spaghetti You must buy a bottle of oil and a carton of milk. I like coffee with m Ik and sugar.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Countable nouns (rzeczowniki policzalne) tworzq liczb~ mnogq, a w liczbie pojedynczej mogq wyst~powac z przedimkiem a/an -an orange - oranges; a bott le - bott les.

    Uncountable nouns (rzeczowniki niepoliczalne) nie tworzq liczby mnogiej i nie wyst~pujq z przedimkiem a/ an . Sugar is sweet. Snow is white. I like pasta.

    Look at some more examples. Popatrz na jeszcze kilka przyklad6w. How many oranges are there on the table? How much cheese is in the fridge? How many girls are in that group? How much water do you drink? How many trees are there in the garden? How much flour do we need?

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Zwrotu how many uzywamy w pytaniach z rzeczownikami policzalnymi. Odpowiada on polskiemu zwrotowi - "jak wiele, ile". Zwrotu how much uzywamy w pytaniach z rzeczownikami niepo/icza/nymi. Odpowiada on polskiemu zwrotowi - "jak duzo. ile".

  • Friendly Grammar

    D Wh ich of these nouns are countable and which are uncountable? Kt6re z tych rzeczownik6w Sq policzalne, a ktore nleoo czalne?

    milk water a cat vJ\C~~S 0.11- eg$ S..14U

    ~ carl 0\\ ~ bl.Jtt Oil. \\a\f e1' hoofs ham leaves

    .,.\C:J 0-1:)~'

  • I I. Coun1:able and uncoun1:able nouns

    e Put in how much, how many. Wstaw how much. how many.

    1 .... ~~~ . . ~~~y. ....... no eboor

  • Friendly Grammar

    Pronouns so e, a y, a lot of Zaimki some, any, a lot of

    Let's make spaghetti. We need some tomato sauce

    and some pasta. Zrobmy spaghetti. Potrzebny jest

    nam sos pomidorowy i makaron.

    There 's some cheese in the fridge but there

    isn 't any oil. W lodowce jest troch~ sera.

    ale nie ma oleju.

    Great! Do we need any cheese?

    Wspaniale! Czy potrzebujemy sera?

    I can do some shopping. Mog~ zrobic zakupy.

    Spaghetti , YukI Spaghetti , obrzydliwos::

  • 12. some, any, a 101: of

    _ook at these examples. :::l :::>a rz na podane przyklady.

    ere is an apple. - here is some milk. There is some butter. There is a roll .

    There are some apples.

    Is there any tea? Are there any oranges? Is there any coffee? Are there any eggs?

    The Wise Owl Says:

    There are some cartons of milk. There are some packets of butter. There are some rolls.

    No, here isn't any. Yes, there are a lot of oranges. Yes, there is a lot of coffee. Yes, there are some.

    /'Okreslen ia some, any, a lot of Sq uzywane zar6wno z rzeczownikami'" policzalnymi, jak i niepoliczalnymi. W zdaniach twierdzqcych uzywamy some, co odpowiada polskiemu "kilka",

    "troch~ ". W pytaniach oraz zdan iach przeczqcych na og61 uzywamy any, co odpo-wiada polskiemu "jakies", "jacys", "zadne", "zadn i".

    , A lot of odpowiada polski emu okres leniu "duzo", "wiele". ~

    II Look at the p icture and complete the sentences wi th some or any. Popatrz na rysunek i uzupelnij zdania wyrazami some lub any.

    Look at the table. There are . . . ?C?~.e .. rolls and ........ .... bread. There aren't .......... ..

    cakes. There is ............ " butter and

    ...... .. .... " " cheese. There isn't .... .. ...... .

    orange juice but there is ............ . . . apple juice. There are ................ eggs but there

    aren't .. .. ... ........ oma oes. There isn'

    .............. " milk bu here is ................ ..

    mineral water

  • Friendly Grammar

    fJ Complete the questions. Use Is there any, Are .there any, look at the picture in exercise 1 again and answer t he questions. Uzupelnij pytania. Uzyj Is there any, Are there an} 009a rz Jeszcze raz na obrazek w cwiczeniu 1. i odpowiedz na pytania.

    Is there any bread? 1. . ..................... .

    Are there any .. tomatoes? 2 .. . ... . .............. .

    3 ............. .. butter?

    4 ... ...................... sugar? 5. . . ...................... mineral water?

    6 ..... .................... eggs? 7 ......................... milk?

    8 ......................... apple juice? 9 ... .. .................... rolls?

    10 ......................... cheese?

    11. .. ...................... oranges?

    12 . .. ...................... meat?

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Yes , e e is some. There is a loaf of bread . No , tee a en't any.

    . .... .. , . . . ... . .. , ... .. ..... .. .

    ... .. . " ... .... . . .. ........... ....... .... . .

    .. ... . .. .. .. . . . ........ ..

    ....... , ............. ....... .... ... .. ........ .

    .......... . . ................... ...................... .. .

    . . .. . . . . . . ... .. ............. .. ................ .. .. .

    Wyrazen much (dla rzeczownik6w nieoo c:::anych) i many (dla rzeczo-wnik6w policzalnych) uzywamy na ogo' pytaniach i przeczeniach. W zdan iach twierdzqcych, zar6wno z rzeczownikami policzalnymi jak i z niepoliczalnymi, stosujemy zazwyczaJ vyrazen e a lot of. Do you drink much milk? We haven't got much t ime. We need a lot of water.

    Have you got many friends? There aren't many cars. She reads a lot of books.

  • II Put in the gaps much, many, a lot of Wstaw w luki much, many, a lot of

    I 2. some, any, a lot: of

    Th 't many b" b h . a lot of h I 1. ere aren .. .. .. .... ....... ISCUltS ut t ere IS ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. coco ate. 2 . My father is interested in polit ics so he reads ........ . , ..... . .. newspapers

    and magaz ines.

    3 . There aren't ...... . .. .. ... . ...... new buildings in this part of the town.

    4 . The f ilm starts at six o'clock so we don't have to hurry. We have

    . .. .. . ............... t ime.

    5. A: Do we need ..................... meat?

    B: Yes, I want to buy ..................... sausages.

    6 . There is ........ .... . .. . .. fresh air in that small village in the mountains.

    7. A: Are there .................. trees in the garden?

    B: Yes, and there are ............... flowers.

    II Put in the gaps a, some, a lot of Wstaw w luki a, some, a lot of

    In the picture I painted last night,

    There are .... ?~t:t:'~ .... white clouds And .. ............. blue ki te.

    There are .. .. ........... flowers,

    There are ............... bees.

    There is .. .. ........ cosy house

    And there are ............... trees.

    There is ............... sunshine

    And ................... peace.

    I painted ............ summer day

    You would always miss.

  • Friendly Grammar

    Present Simple Czas terai:niejszy prosty Do you like

    your present, Witty? ezy podoba ci s i ~ tw6j prezent, Witty?

    They eat seeds and they drink water.

    This parrot talks! Jedzq ziarenka i pijq wod~.

    Ta papuga gada!

    Yes, I do. What do parrots eat and drink? - a . Co papugi

    jedzq i pijq?

    'our homework! 'our homework!

  • Look at these examples. Popatrz na po dane przykfady.

    I visit Granny once a week. You read a lot of books. He plays basketball. She watches TV in the evening. We watch football matches together. You get up at half past six. They spend holidays at the seaside. This bee flies over the flower beds.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    I 3. Present: Simple

    Czas Present Simple (terazniejszy prosty) uzywany jest do opisu czynnosci powtarzajqcych s i ~ z pewnq regu larnosc iq, opisu czynnosci dnia codziennego, upodoban i zwyczaj6w. We meet on Mondays. I get up at six o 'clock. She likes pizza.

    W czasie Present Simple czasownik uzywany jest w formie podstawowej, a w 3. os. Ip. (he, she, it) otrzymuje konc6wk~ -so

    Spelling Tips:

    Czasownik konczqcy s i ~ li terami -s, -sh , -ch , -x, -0 , otrzymuje w 3. os. Ip. konc6wk~ -es, np. He watches. She washes. It passes quickly. He does. She goes.

    Jesli czasownik konczy s i~ spotgtoskCl + y, wtedy -y zamieniamy na -i i dodajemy konc6wk~ -es np. He studies. The bird flies. She cries.

  • Friendly Grammar

    a Write the right forms of the verbs in brackets. Napisz wlasciwe formy czasownik6w podanych w a.\ asach.

    1. My parents .... ..I.i k~.. ...... (like) dancing roc -a'1d-roll. 2 . Tom ........................ (ry) to climb up he -ree 3. Tom and Kate .......... .............. (go) to sc 00 b bi e. 4. Andrew ........................ (go) to schoo 0 :00:. 5. My sister and I ....................... . (help) 0 r ~ n he itchen. 6 . The chi ldren ........................ (play) in ne garee . 7. Mr Brown ........................ (buy) a lot of ne . S:Jagers and magazines. 8 . I ........... .......... ... (write) e-mails to my frienos ~ Great Bri aln. 9 . Ewa ...... .... . .. .. .... .. (mix) blue and ye llow pain :~ e a green colour.

    10. His little brother ... .. ... .... .. .. .. (wish) you all re:>es;: on your bir hday.

    a Write the given verbs into the third person si g ... ar. put ese forms in the crossword and read the hidden word. Napisz po dane czasowniki w trzeciej osobie Ircz::. :-. e-::;.~ce. woisz je do krzyzowki i odczytaj haslo.

    washes wash - .......... .... . kiss

    rush

    try

    go

    fix

    watch - ......... .... ..

    finish

    study - .............. .

    lie

    miss - .............. .

    mix

    cry

    play

    do

    I D

    I I I I I L

    r

    F E I I I I s sl

    I H r J u E

    I

    0 T

    W A S H E 5 X S

    M T S

    L luI I E

  • I 3. Present Simple

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Do budowy pytan i przeczen w Present Simple uzywamy czasownika pomocniczego do. W 3. 05. Ip. czasowni ten ma form~ does, a glowny czasownik w zdaniu wraca do swoJeJ 'ormy podstawowej. Do you like tea? Does she live there? I don 't like pizza. She doesn 't help me.

    II Complete the table. Uzupelnij tabel~.

    Zdan ie twierd zqce

    I cook dinner.

    She brushes her hair.

    We go shopping.

    Do hey write poems? Does he sing? They don 't sing songs. He doesn 't see.

    Zdanie przeCZqce Zdan ie pytajqce

    I don't cook d inner. Do I cook dinner?

    You don't play the piano.

    Does he fix cars?

    It doesn't make noise.

    Do you drink Coke?

    They don't walk to school.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    f Pytania rozpoczynajqce s i ~ od do/ does odpowiadajq w j~zyku polskim"' pytaniom zaczynajqcym s i ~ od slowa "czy". Na takie pytania odpowiadamy kr6tko - "tak" lub "nie". Do you go to school? Does he like apples? Do they learn German?

    , Does she play tenn is?

    Yes. I do. Yes, he does. No. they don 't.

    o. she doesn 't .

  • Friendly Grammar

    D Put do or does in t he gaps and finish the short answers. Wstaw w luki do lub does i dokoncz kr6 kie odpo " edz ,.

    1 ... ~?~~ ..... Mr Paxton come from Canada? Yes, .. h~ . ~.C?~~ : .... ... .. . 2 .............. his dog like cats? o ......... ... ........ .... .

    3 .............. your friends wa ch MTV? es, .................. .. ... .

    4 . .. ........... her aunt work in a bank? o .................... .... .

    5 . ............. you read many books? es ............... . ... ... . . .

    6 . ............. your cat like milk? o ............. ... ....... . .

    7 .............. they live on the second floor?

    8 .............. these people speak English? es . .. .. .. .. ............ ... .

    9 . .... . .. ...... his brother play the gu itar?

    10. .. ........... your sister want to be a singer? es .... .... ........... ..... .

    11 . .. ..... .. .... your uncle work in hospital? o ...................... .. .

    12 .............. your parents often go to the cine ....... a? Yes .................... ... ..

    a Correct the information. Popraw podane informacje.

    1. Cats like apples. Co s

    2. Storks spend the winter in Poland.

    3. You buy to ilet paper at McDonald 's.

    4 . Harry Potter lives in Canada.

    5. The sun goes round he Earth.

    6. Polar bears eat pengu ins.

    7. Water boils at 750 C.

    8 . Kangaroos live in Africa.

    9. Polish pupils p lay cricket at school.

    10. Koala bears eat bamboo.

    1 1. Elephants lay eggs.

    12. Babies drink Coca-Cola.

  • I 3. Present Simple

    CI Match t he English words wi~h th.eir. Po li s ~ equ ivalents. Dopasuj do siebie s!owa anglelskle I POlS Ie.

    I d I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 : 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 I

    2. what

    3. where 7. whose

    8. how

    a. gdzie f. co I jaki , . ktory g. kiedy

    h. kto

    fJ Put correct questi on words in the gaps. Wstaw w luki wlasciwe wyrazy pytajqce.

    1. Bab ies sleep a lot. . . . yyhy .. do babies sleep a lot? 2. My favourite colour is blue.

    .. .... .. .. . . is your favourite colour? 3. We play basketball aher school.

    . ........... do you do aher school? 4 . They live in Ireland.

    .. ... ... . . .. do you live? 5. The summer holidays start in Ju ly.

    ........... do the winter holidays start? 6. The film finishes at ten o'clock.

    . ..... .. . .. does it start? 7. I've got two presen s or you.

    .. . .... . .. . one do you want? 8 . Boys sing 10 diy,

    .. . ... . ... .. do girls sing?

  • Friendly Grammar

    Adverbs of frequency Przystowki cz~stotliwosci

    Witty, it 's not fai r! You never help me!

    Witty, to nie w porzqdku! Nigdy mi nie pomagasz!

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Because I aI ays have someth ing else to do.

    s=e am cos

    innego G - .:) e ll a.

    d he sometimes es me for a walk!

    Adverbs of frequency (przys/owki cz~stotl iwosc :_ - . :::s enia pozwala-jqce nam powiedziec, jak cz~sto wykonujemy danq c J -osc. Przyslowki: always, usually, often , sometimes, rarely never stawiamy w zdaniu m i~dzy podmiotem a orzeczeniem. Jesli or:ec::e em jest czasownik to be, to przys/owki te stawiamy po orzec.::e" She often goes to the disco. They never eat meat. We are sometimes sad.

  • Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przy lady.

    I 4. Adverbs of frequency

    Every day my brother and I wasn up he dishes. They usually meet Ewa a he bus SlOO. We never go to the hea reo I watch television every evening . He always stays late in bed on Sunday. My dog sometimes sleeps on my bed. The News programme on TV star s at 7.30. She often visits her grandparen S. It is rarely cold and ra iny in June.

    II Complete the table. Uzupeln ij tabe/k~ .

    1. every week

    2 . ............ .... .....

    3 . . . ... . .. .. .. .. . . .....

    4. ohen

    5. . ..... ........... ....

    6 . rarely

    7 . . ...... .. ............

    8. . ............. " .....

    The Wise Owl Says:

    . ...

  • Friendly Grammar

    a Put the words in the sentences in t he right order. Ustaw wyrazy w zdaniach we wlaSciwej olejnosc

    1. attack/ sometimes/ Polar bears/ people Po lar bears somet imes attack people .

    .. ..................... .... . , .... ... .... . ...... . , . . .

    2 . lunch/My brother/ a McDonald 's/ often/ has

    .................. ........ .................. ..... .... ............ .... .... .............. .. .. .

    3. at seven/every day/ Frank/ o 'clock/ gets up

    '.0 0

    4 . to the mountains/ go/ Every year/ my parents

    0 , ...... .

    5 . sometimes/ for school/am/late / I

    .................................... . ..... . , .. .. . -......

    6. ch ildren/g%n Sundays/In Poland/ never 0 --~ool . .. . . . ... . ... . . . ................ . . ... . ........ . .. ............ . .. , . . .. ........ ....... ..... . .. .

    7. t ired/ the match/are/ after/They/ usually

    ... .......... .. ........ .... .......... ..... ... .. ......... ... ........... , ...... ..... , , , . , . , .. .

    8. in winter/ rarely/ go/ swimming/They

    , " ' , ,., ,',.,.", , , ' . ' , ,., . 0"

    9. a maths test/ have/ every Monday/We

    ,." 0"' ,', , , '

    10. his homework/always/ in the after .... does/ Harry

    II Six adverbs of frequency are mixed together and ew words are created. What adverbs are there? Szesc przysl6wk6w cZfi!stotliwosc zmieszalo sifi! ze SObq orzqC nowe slowa. Jakie to przysl6wki?

    1. ALWALLY -

    2. USUVER

    3.0FELY

    4 . S0METEN

    5. RA YS 6. NETIMES

    ' ,. ' 0

  • 14. Adverbs of frequency

    Complete the sentences with information that is true for your family. Uzupelnij zdania prawdziwymi informacjami 0 oJeJ rodzinie.

    avays

    Ilever

    sometimes .. . . . . ............. ... .. .. ....................................... .. .. .. .. ... .... .

    every day I ...... . ...... . .. .......... .. .. ................................. .......... . ...... .

    lvIy Mum always

    My Mum never

    My Mum usually

    . ...... . .. .. ...............................................................

    .. . ... . .. .. . . ....................................... . .......... . .. . ........

    . . ... . .. . .... . ............ . ........... . .... . .............. ............... . .

    Every Saturday my Mum . . .. . ................... . ...... . . . . .............. . ..... .. .. .. . . .. .

    My Dad sometimes

    My Dad never ................ . .. . ..... . .. .... ........ .. ..... . .. .. ... .. . ... ..... . .. . . .

    ....... . ............. . .. . .. .. . . .... . ... . .............. .. . .. .... . ........ . .. . ..

    My Dad rarely . ....... . .. . .................... . .............. ... . .. . . ........ . , ..... . .. . .. . .

    Every weekend my Dad

    My sister/ brother often

    My sister/ brother never

    ... . ........ . .. . ........................ .. . . ....... ... . ......... . .. .

    .............. . ............. . ..... . ... . .. . .. .............. . .......

    ... . . . ............ . .... . .. . ...... . ............ . ....... . . . . ...... ..

    My sister/ brother usually . .... . ..................... . .... . ....... . .. . ....... . .. . .... . ...

    Every Friday my sister/ brother ... .. ....... . ..................... . . .. .... . ... .. .. . .. . .. ...

    My grandmother/ grandfather always .......... . ....... . .. .. ......... .. . ... . ........... . My grandmother/ grandfather sometimes

    .......... ... .. . .. ........... .. . .............

    My grandmother/ grandfather never ..... . . .. . .. .......... . ........... .. ...... . .. . .... .

    Every Sunday my grandmother/ grandfather ........ . .... . .. ........ .. .............. ..

  • Friendly Grammar

    Verb can Czasown i k can

    I can run fast and I can cI i m b trees.

    Biegam szybko i potrafi~ wspinac si~ na drzewa.

    Can I mix these liquids?

    ezy mog~ zmieszac 'r>-U ... ~tlA te plyny? ~ ~

    ~(; ~~~ " 0. II.~ 0 -- ) j ,

  • Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przy lady.

    Ewa can swim very well. My sister can't cook spaghe i. Can your father play the gu i ar? What language can you speak?

    The Wise Owl Says :

    We can organize a disco. He can't talk to strangers. Can you draw on the walls? Where can you go on your own?

    Czasownik can pozwala powiedziee 0 tym, co potrafimy lub czego nie potrafimy robie. Pytan ia i przeczen ia buduje samodzielnie. Marek can ski. Can Marek p lay volleyball? Marek can 't play tenn is. Czasownik can pozwala takZe powiedz iee, co mozemy robie, a czego nam nie wolno. I can answer the phone. Can you wear make up at school? He can 't be rude.

    II Look at the table and write down what the ch ildren can or can 't do. Na podstawie tabelki napisz, co dzieci potrafiq, a czego nie potrafiq robie.

    ride a horse play basketball ride a bike fly a kite Kate X ./ ./ X Harry X ./ X ./ Alice

    ./ X ./ X Danny X X ./ ./

    IS. can

    1 . Kate . . c~n . pl.'?-y. .~~~~et.~~I. I . ~r:'~ . r.i ~e. ~ . ~.i ~~: ... ......... . . . . . . .......... . .. . .. ?~.~ . ~.an.' ! . . ~ i.~~ .':1. ~?r~~ .

  • Friendly Grammar

    fJ Correct the information . Popraw podane informacje.

    1. Pengu ins can fly. . .. ... ..... . P.~.~9~ .i '!~ . ~~'! '~ .f!y ........ .. . 2. Kangaroos can climb trees.

    3. Polar bears can't sw im.

    4. Giraffes can 't run .

    5. Tigers can bu ild nests.

    6 . Camels can eat sand.

    7. Lions can 't roar.

    II Wri te w hat you can and can't do. Use the verbs in the box. Napisz, co potrafisz, a czego nie potrafisz robie. Uzyj czasownikow z ramki.

    dance speak English cook play football swim paint ski run fast play computer games make a snowman cl imb trees ride a horse sing

    I can ...

    , I e 1 1

    I can't ...

    D Finish the short answers to the questions. Dokoncz krotkie odpowiedzi na podane pytania.

    1. Can Sally cook some tomato soup? Yes, she can.

    2. Can we go to the park together? No, .. .......... . . .. . .

    3. Can you switch on the radio? No, . .. .. . ... . ..... . . .

    4 . Can my friend come to me? Yes, .. . ... . . .... ..... .

    5. Can I watch this film on TV? No, .......... . ...... .

    6 . Can Mum drive me to school? Yes, ... . ........ .. ... .

    7. Can I take the dog for a walk? Yes . ......... .. . .. ... .

  • IS. can

    a Match t he questions wi t h the answers. Dopasuj pytania do odpowiedzi.

    1. Can you help me with my mathS?\ a. No, it's not suitable for kids.

    2 . Can we go to the cinema? b. No, you have a class test tomorrow.

    3. Can Tom sleep in my room? c. Yes, but how much is the course?

    4 . Can I watch th is reality show? d. Sure, it's your birthday.

    5. Can I go to the disco? e. Yes, you can. What fi lm is on?

    6. Can I open my presents? f. Ok, but don't climb up the trees.

    7 . Can we play in the garden? g. Yes, there is a spare bed.

    8. Can I start learn ing French? h. No, I'm bad at maths.

    CI Put in can or can 't. Wstaw w luki can lub can 't.

    1. We .... .

  • Friendly Grammar

    Verb Czasownik must

    Witty, we must hurry up.

    It's late! Witty, musimy s i ~ pospieszyc.

    Jest pozno!

    OK. You needn 't shout. I'm ready.

    OK. Nie musisz krzyczec. Jestem got6w.

    Let's go. We mustn 't be late.

    Chodzmy. Nie mozemy s i~ spoznic.

  • _ook at these examples. ::lo:Ja rz na podane przyklady.

    e must leave our jackets in he hall. ou must finish work at half past fou r. ou needn't go there. You can stay at home. needn't read the book. I can watch the f ilm.

    Children mustn't eat sweets before dinner. You mustn't touch it. It can be dangerous.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    16. must:

    Czasown ik must pozwala na m6wienie 0 czynnosciach, kt6re muszq bye wykonane. You must wake up. He must stay in bed. Pytania tworzymy przez inwersj ~ , tj. postawienie must przed podmiotem. Must she go now? Must they work so hard? Forma przeczqca mustn 't wyraza zakaz wykonania danej czynnosci. You mustn 't talk to a stranger. We mustn't eat food in the class.

    II Put in must or mustn 't. Wstaw w luki must lub mustn't.

    1. You ... ~~S~ . . drink a glass of blood every day. 2. you . ... . ....... be back in your coffin before dawn.

    3. you . . ........ . . bite more than one person a night.

    4. you ............ keep your coffin t idy.

    5. You .. .......... eat garlic.

    6 . You . . .... . ... . . be rude to other vampires.

    7. You .. .. .. .. .... brush your teeth with

    worm toothpaste.

    8, You , ........... wear colourfu l clothes. 9. you ... . ... .. .. . dance rock-and-roll.

    10, You .. .. .. ...... sing jolly songs.

  • Friendly Grammar

    The Wise Owl Says :

    Aby powiedziee, ze czynnose nie musi bye wykonywana, mozemy uzye czasownika pomocniczego need . You needn't wash it. It isn't dirty. I needn 't get up early today.

    fJ Put in must, mustn 't or needn 't. Wstaw w luki must, mustn't lub needn't.

    1. You .. .. ~~.~~~ '.t .... speak loudly in a library. 2. you .................. touch the paintings in a museum.

    3. You .................. eat if you aren't hungry.

    4. You .................. wear a sweater on a sunny day.

    5. You .................. eat fruit and vegetables.

    6. You .................. buy this dress if you don't like it.

    7. You ......... ...... ... play computer games for many hours.

    8 . You .................. copy homework from others.

    9 . You .................. be at school on time.

    10. You .......... .... .... go there on foot. You can take a bus.

    II Read the instructions for the game and play it with a partner. Przeczytaj informacje 0 grze i zag raj z partnerem.

    Find a partner. You both write a t imetable for some housework you must do every day but each of you decide individually on which day and when you do your da ily chores (only one chore a day) and you don 't look at each other 's table. Then ask your partner questions to find out what he/ she must do on different days of the week. The person who is first to find out his/ her partner's chores is the winner.

    Znajdz partnera. Oboje piszecie plan prac domowych, kt6re musicie codziennie wykonywac, ale kazdy z was sam decyduje ktorego dnia i kiedy je wykonuje Uedno zadanie dziennie). Nie zaglqdaj do tabeli par nera. Nast~pnie zadaj mu pytan ia, aby dowiedziec s i ~ , jakie Sq jego obowiqzki w poszczegolne dni tygod-nia. Wygrywa osoba, kt6ra pierwsza odgad/a rozktad obowiqzkow partnera.

  • 16. must

    Look at the sample table with all the chores wh ich should be put down and read the beg inn ing of the d ialogue to fo llow. Popatrz na przykfadowa, tabel~ ze wszystkimi pracami, ktore powinny bye tam wpisane oraz przeczytaj pocza,tek rozmowy, jaka, masz przeprowadzie.

    morning afternoon evening

    Monday water the plants

    Tuesday hoover the carpets

    Wednesday clean the bathroom

    Thursday do the shopping

    Friday tidy your bedroom

    Saturday set the table

    Sunday wash up the dishes

    A: You must wash up the dishes on Saturday afternoon. S: No, you're wrong. You must water the plants on Monday morning. A: Yes, you're right. You must set the table on Sunday morning.

    morning afternoon evening

    Monday

    Tuesday

    Wednesday

    Thursday

    Friday

    Saturday

    Sunday

  • Friendly Grammar

    Verb o Czasownik have to

    Witty, help me to set

    the table. Witty. pomaz

    mi nakryc stat.

    We have to blow up the balloons. Musimy nadmuchac

    ba/ony.

    And we have to decorate the room.

    In a moment! I have to finish

    this first. Za chwi'~ ! f\1usz~ to najpierw

    skonczyc.

  • Look at these examples. Popatrz na podane przyklady.

    17. have to

    We have to finish our work on Friday and Chris has to finish his work on Monday. Do we have to read th is text? Yes, you do but you don't have to write anything. Does Wojtek have to go to Gdansk? No, he doesn't have to go there.

    The Wise Owl Says:

    Wyrazenie have to ma podobne znaczen ie jak czasownik must, ale wyrazenia tego mozemy uzywac we wszystkich czasach gramatycznych, natomiast czasownik must ma tylko form~ czasu terazniejszego. W wyrazen iu have to czasown ik have wyst~puje jako czasownik zwykly, co oznacza, ze do tworzen ia pytan i przeczen kon ieczny jest czasownik pomocniczy do. We have to go there. Do we have to go there? We don't have to go there.

    W 3. os. Ip. uzywamy form has to oraz does w pytaniach i przeczeniach. Kasia has to go there. Does Kasia have to go there? Kasia doesn 't have to go there.

    II Look at t he table. What do t he child ren have to do? Sp6jrz na tabe l ~ . Co dzieci m USZq zrobiC:?

    tidy the bedroom water the plants feed the dog go to the dentist

    Karol

    Monika

    Janek ./

    Basia ./

    1. Karol has t o t idy his bedroom. . . .. ..... . ......... . ........ .. .. ... .. .. . ..... . . ' 0 ..... , 2. Monika . . .. .... .. .. ... .. .. . . . ......... .. .... ... .. . .

    , '" '0

    3. Monika and Janek ... ........ ...... .... ... ... .. .... .... ... . .... .. ... ......... .. ... .... .

    4 . Janek and Basia ... ........ .... ..... " .... ....... ........ ... .... ........ ..... .......... .

  • Friendly Grammar

    II Put in do or does and finish the short answers. Wstaw do lub does i dokoncz kr6tkie odpowiedzi.

    1. . P~~.~ . Karol have to water the plants? . N..~ !. ~.E7 . ~~.E7?~:! : .. ... .. ......................... ... .. .. ..... .. .... ... .... .. .... ....... .

    2 . . P~.~~ . Karol have to tidy his bedroom? . '! ~~ ! . h~. '~~~'~ " """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""'" .. ... .. .

    3 ... ....... Monika have to t idy her bedroom?

    ... .. ...... ......... .... ........ .. .................. ..