TechnologyPROJECT Submitted By-Subhrajit SadhukhanBca 6th semesterNetaji Subhash engineering college
WIFI & its Problems06-05-20142
From using wireless internet in a coffee shop or stealing it from the guy next door to competing for bandwidth at a conference, the most probable cause of frustration is the decreasing speed due to more than one device being are tapped into the network.If we have a limited internet plan, say for example 5GB for 30days, then we have to make sure that that our network isnt being used by someone else( i.e. We have to password protect our network, thereby preventing unauthorized extra usage).The radio waves used for transmitting data in WIFI networks has detrimental impact on human health.06-05-20143
Introduction to LIFI06-05-20144
Introduction to LIFI networksData Through Illumination: A German physicist, Dr. Harald Haas, has come up with a solution to address the problems with WIFI networks, he calls Data Through Illuminationtaking the fiber out of fiber optics by sending data through an LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow. Light Fidelity: And this technology is calledLight Fidelity, popularly know as LIFI.5G Visible Light Communication, Technology: LI-FI is 5G Visible Light Communication, Technology. The light from light emitting diodes (LEDs) is used as medium to deliver networked, mobile, high speed communication: The light is provided by light emitting diodes (LEDs) which acts as medium to deliver networked, mobile, high speed communication just as WI-FI or Optical fibre.With LIFI is possible to encode the data into the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker ON and OFF which is too quickly to be noticed by the human eye.
Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs. These devices are normally used for illumination by applying a constant current through the LED. However, by fast and subtle variations of the current, the optical output can be made to vary at extremely high speeds. Unseen by the human eye, this variation is used to carry high-speed data, says Dr Povey, Product Manager of the University of Edinburgh's Li-Fi Program D-Light Project.5
Development teamPeople without whom lifi would just have been another Great theory with no practical implementation06-05-20146
Li-Fi is a Visible Light Communication (VLC), technology developed by a team of scientists including Dr. Gordon Povey, Prof. Harald Haas and Dr. Mostafa Afgani at the University of Edinburgh.
Dr. Gordon PoveyProf. Harald HaasDr. Mostafa Afgani06-05-20147
Dr. Gordon Povey German Physicist, Product Manager of the University of Edinburgh's Li-Fi Program D-Light Project.Prof. Harald Haas Professor Harald Haas, from the University of Edinburgh in the UK, is widely recognised as the original founder of Li-Fi. He coined the term LIFI.Dr. Mostafa Afgani VP EngineeringatPureLiFi
Professor Harald Haas, from the University of Edinburgh in the UK, is widely recognised as the original founder of Li-Fi. He coined the term Li-Fi and is Chair man of Mobile Communications at the University of Edinburgh and co-founder of pureLiFi.The general term visible light communication (VLC), includes any use of the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit information. The D-Light project at Edinburgh's Institute for Digital Communications was funded from January 2010 to January 2012. Haas promoted this technology in his 2011 TED Global talk and helped start a company to market it.PureLiFi, formerly pureVLC, is an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) firm set up to commercialize Li-Fi products for integration with existing LED-lighting systems.
A number of companies offer uni-directional VLC products which is not the same as Li-Fi.
In October 2011, companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium, to promote high-speed optical wireless systems and to overcome the limited amount of radio-based wireless spectrum available by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum.VLC technology was exhibited in 2012 using Li-Fi. By August 2013, data rates of over 1.6 Gbit/s were demonstrated over a single color LED. In September 2013, a press release said that Li-Fi, or VLC systems in general, do not require line-of-sight conditions.In October 2013, it was reported Chinese manufacturers were working on Li-Fi development kits.Philips lighting company has developed a VLC system for shoppers at stores. They have to download an app on their smartphone and then their smartphone works with the LEDs in the store. The LEDs can pinpoint where they are at in the store and give them corresponding coupons and information based on where aisle they are on and what they are looking at.
Present ScenarioVLC technology is ready right now; it's being installed in museums and businesses across France, and is being embraced by EDF, one of the nation's largest utilities.The First VLC smartphone prototype was presented at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas from January 710 in 2014.The phone uses SunPartner's Wysips CONNECT. A clear thin layer of crystal glass can be added to small screens like watches and smartphones that make them solar powered. Smartphones could gain 15% more battery life during a typical day. This first smartphones using this technology should arrive in 2015. This screen can also work to receive VLC signals and so can the smartphone camera.The cost of these screens per smartphone is between $2 and $3, much cheaper than most new technology.
SunPartner's Wysips CONNECT a technique that converts light waves into usable energy, making the phone capable of receiving and decoding signals without drawing on its battery.
More than 338 MillionMore than 1.8 Million06-05-201413
Issues Regarding Radio SpectrumCapacityEfficiencySecurityAvailability06-05-201414
Different Electromagnetic Spectrums and their potentialityRadio WavesInfraredVisibleUltravioletX RaysGamma Rays
In sufficient spectrum for increasing dataLow power applicationWhich is not used so far.Dangerous for human bodyUsed for hospitals and security checkingIt is not used generally06-05-201415
How LIFI works?06-05-201416
White LED light bulbs: Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter which normally used for illumination only by applying a constant current.Optical output is varied at extremely high speed: The LEDs can be switched on and off very quickly which gives nice opportunity for data transfer in the form of Binary code. Hence, by fast and subtle variations of the current, the optical output can be made to vary at extremely high speeds. This very property of optical current is used in Li-Fi setup. Operational Procedure: The operational procedure is very simple-, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if its off you transmit a 0. Hence it is possible to encode the data into the LEDs by using a controller ,we just have to vary at which LEDs flicker depending on the data we want to encode to give different strings of 0s and 1s.UK researches say that using a micro-LED light bulb they have achieved a data transmission speed of 10Gbps using LI-FI.
Non technical Perspective10,000 times as broad a spectrum as the radio frequencies which Wi-Fi uses: Visible light has 10,000 times as broad a spectrum as the radio frequencies which Wi-Fi uses, allowing for much more bandwidth, once tapped. Light bulbs are made to flicker at extremely high speed that human eye cant detect: This is accomplished by the flickering of LED light bulbs to create binary code (on = 1, off = 0), and is done at higher rates than the human eye can detect. Shed a couple of extra bucks on the lighting solution and get an incredibly fast internet connection: Which basically means The more LEDs in your lamp, the more data it can process, and by shedding a couple of extra bucks on the lighting solutions of your housing or office youre getting an incredibly fast and secure internet connection.06-05-201418
However a mere side effect of Li-Fi is that your power cord immediately becomes your data stream, so if you have power, you have Internet. The only infrastructure is an equipped light bulb. Your internet provider doesn't even need to bring you a box, they just connect you to their power-grid-mounted signal relays, and you're online.
Properties of LIFILight-based Wi-Fi: LIFI uses light instead of radio waves to transmit information. And instead of Wi-Fi modems, Li-Fi would use transceiver-fitted LED lamps that can light a room as well as transmit and receive information. Since simple light bulbs are used, there can technically be any number of access points.Unutilized electromagnetic spectrum is used: This technology uses a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is still not greatly utilized. The Visible Spectrum.No major ill effect: Light is in fact very much part of our lives for millions and millions of years and does not have any major ill effect.
Major Components of a LIFI Communication System06-05-201420
SourceA high brightness white LED, acts as a communication source Its guided by the PCB and powered by PA and is enclosed in an aluminum enclosure Bulb: The high concentration of energy in the electric field vaporizes the contents of the bulb to a plasma state at the bulbs center; this controlled plasma generates an intense source of light.RF power amplifier circuit (PA): An RF (radio-frequency) signal is generated by the solid-state PA(Power Amplifier) and is guided into an electric field about the bulb. Printed circuit board (PCB): The PCB controls the electrical inputs and outputs of the lamp and houses the microcontroller used to manage different lamp functions.Enclosure: All of these subassemblies are contained in an aluminum enclosure
Solid State-> Solid-stateelectronicsare those circuits or devices built entirely from solid materials and in which theelectrons, or othercharge carriers, are confined entirely within the solid material.
At the heart of LIFI is the bulb sub-assembly where a sealed bulb is embedded in a dielectric material. This design is more reliable than conventional light sources that insert degradable electrodes into the bulb. The dielectric material serves two purposes:-first as a waveguide for the RF energy transmitted by the PA second as an electric field concentrator that focuses energy in the bulb. The energy from the electric field rapidly heats the material in the bulb to a plasma state that emits light of high intensity and full spectrum.
ReceiverA silicon photodiode, which shows good response to visible wavelength region serving as the receiving element.
LIFI NetworkA few additional features required to provide the same qualities as an RF-based wireless network: A wireless local area network based on Li-Fi technology needs some additional features to provide the same qualities as an RF-based wireless network, without losing the main advantages Li-Fi technology is able to provide. The missing links for a fully developed Li-Fi WLAN are elaborated in the next few slides
The Li-Fi room connectorOptical signals cant penetrate walls: Optical signals, obviously they cant penetrate walls. How to the offence of many this is an advantage (relation to security issues). However, in order to provide an optical wireless local area network, rooms needs to be connected with each other. This is achieved via the Li-Fi room connector. Li-Fi room connector is a replicator who sends the data stream from one side of the wall to the other side of the wall via an optical fibre cable: The Li-Fi room connector is a replicator who sends the data stream from one side of the wall to the other side of the wall via an optical fibre cable, which is connecting the two room connectors on each side of the wall. With smaller rooms, the Li-Fi room connector might be sufficient as the only Li-Fi hotspot in the room.06-05-201425
The LIFI RouterServes as connection to the external link: The Li-Fi router is the networks connection to the external link (fibre optic cable, DSL, GigE, etc.). Useful for small office or home use with cloud & server functions: The application is mainly useful for small office or home use with cloud & server functions. Covers a radius of 20 meters with a 100 Mbps transmission speed: It connects office and/or entertainment equipment and covers a radius of 20 meters with a 100 Mbps transmission speed. The product is however developed to a proof-of-concept stage.
Aproof of concept(POC) or aproof of principleis a realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility,or a demonstration in principle, whose purpose is to verify that some concept or theory has the potential of being used. A proof of concept is usually small and may or may not be complete.27
An Implementation of LIFI technologyLIFI Cloud06-05-201428
Software solutions enabling the user of controlling all the features within a data centric Li--Fi environment: The Li-Fi cloud is a software solutions enabling the user of controlling all the features within a data centric Li--Fi environment. Part of this software has been developed already in connection with the developments of the Li-Fi applications we offer per today.Local optical communication networkwith local data cloud structure and in house server/router: Its basically local optical communication networkwith local data cloud structure and in house server/routerData rates: It includes "on the move" data transfer at 100 Mbit/s, including Giga Speed data transfer and reception up to10 Gbit/sIt includes security featuresEnergy saving/environmental features: It includes energy saving/environmental features, controlled, for example, by optical smart phone
FeaturesConnects all office and entertainment equipmentControls all data and entertainment equipment via smartphoneDisplays all files on any screen (TV,PC, etc.)Supports file access from any point + and via any deviceStores all data in one central server/computerSupports data transfer and reception at 10 Gbit/sSupports"on the move" data transfer at 100 Mbit/sMonitors the entire optical network areaDetects motion in the entire optical network area if wantedControls all security features via smart phone Controls lighting via smart phoneSupports control of heatingSupports control of any connected electrical equipmentSupports energy saving/environmental features via smart phoneBridges disparate data formatsConnects your local cloud to external line (fiberoptic, GigE, ADSL, etc.)06-05-201430
UsesPrivate home wireless data network with local cloud & server function:It can be used in private home wireless data network with local cloud & server functionCorporate wireless data network with local cloud & server function:It also has wide applications in corporate wireless data network with local cloud & server function06-05-201431
A Typical block diagram of LIFI Cloud
Technical ComparisonLIFI and other leading networking technology06-05-201433
TechnologySpeedData DensityWiredFire Wire800Mbps*****USB 3.05 Gbps*****Thunderbolt2x 10Gbps*****Wireless(Current)WIFI (IEEE 802.11N)150 Mbps*Bluetooth3 Mbps*IrDA4 Mbps***Wireless(Future)Wi-Gig2 Gbps**Giga-IR1Gbps***LIFI>10 Gbps*****
Applications of LIFI06-05-201435
HospitalsPlaces where Wi-Fi isnt allowed due to radiation concerns: LIFI can be used in operating rooms where Wi-Fi isnt allowed due to radiation concerns.In invasive bio medical instruments: It may also be used in invasive bio medical instruments where its not safe to use other radio frequencies
Avoidance of Street Accidents
In Vehicles and Traffic LightsAvoidance of Accidents: LIFI is sensors can be implanted in street lights, possible sending your car info about road conditions other warnings: One of the smartest application of LIFI is sensors can be implanted in street lights, possible sending your car info about road conditions, warning you about the guy you cant see speeding towards the intersection, or instantly transmitting his plate number to the cops when he does.Sensors implanted in front and rear bumpers could receive data transmitted from rear lights of other car: Sensors implanted in front and rear bumpers could receive data transmitted from rear lights of the car just veered into your lane while you were texting. Both drivers are warned (or may be the car takes over) and the accident is averted.
Product RetailingHigh speed web access through lighting in malls a customer can passively gather data about reviews and pricing of any product on display: With high speed web access through lighting in malls a customer can passively gather data about reviews and pricing and ultimately walk out the door with the item they might otherwise paused at for a moment. Service of secure high speed connection to simulate your experience researching and purchasing at home: Not only is Li-Fi able to make the process less intrusive than say, QR codes, but it provides you the service of secure high speed connection to simulate your experience researching and purchasing at home.
Shopping retailers now-a-days often complain a lot about people coming into their store, browsing, gathering data and ultimately buying online. Here as why: there is more data online about each and every item in every store than any store clerk can muster. Okay, but what happens when you add high speed Web Access to say, display lighting? A customer can passively gather data about reviews and pricing and ultimately walk out the door with the item they might otherwise paused at for a moment. Not only is Li-Fi able to make the process less intrusive than say, QR codes, but it provides you the service of secure high speed connection to simulate your experience researching and purchasing at home.
OfficesAlternative to Optical Fibres: A common problem within offices is that fiber optic cable cant afforded yet high speed internet is required. Li-Fi cheaply solves the office Internet woes and adds a layer of security to boot. 100 Mbps connections. Encoded Transmissions: Plus, added encoded transmissions.06-05-201443
Web Access in Flights
Airlines Airline Wi-Fi. Ugh. Nothing says captive audience like having to pay for the "service" of dial-up speed Wi-Fi on the plane. And dont get me started on the pricing. The best Ive heard so far is that passengers will "soon" be offered a "high-speed like" connection on some airlines. United is planning on speeds as high as 9.8 Mbps per plane. Uh, I have twice that capacity in my living room. And at the same price as checking a bag, I expect it. Li-Fi could easily introduce that sort of speed to each seat's reading light. Ill be the guy WoWing next to you. Its better than listening to you tell me about your wildly successful son, maam.
Lecture Halls/ SeminarsDownloading notes from blogs of respective teachers: Often we encounter teachers telling us to download lecture notes from their blog in my time. With LIFI the notes could be downloaded by the students in the hall itself, so that they could follow along as the lecture progressed. Interactive classroom with interconnected devices: Imagine how interactive the classroom could be with real-time interconnectivity between 500 devices.Sharing questions not only with teachers but the entire class: Sharing questions with not only the teacher but the entire class, and no one need be left behind.
The entire lecture can be streamed in HD, downloaded and played back on every individual device in the room. Suddenly a slow lecture on a difficult subject can be a synergistic, adaptive learning experience, merely because you now have the bandwidth.
Incorporation of LIFI Sensors in Light Posts
Incorporation of LIFI Sensors in Light PostsNews UpdatesUpdates about Natural Calamity: It could keep us informed & save lives. Say theres an earthquake in Kolkata or a cyclone. The average people of Kolkata may not know what the protocols are for those kinds of disasters. Until they pass under a street light, that is has a LIFI transmitter making them aware of the necessary details through their smart phones.Emergency Communication in Subway stations and tunnels, and other common dead zones: With Li-Fi, if theres light, one can be online. Subway stations and tunnels, common dead zones for most emergency communications, pose no obstruction. Cheap high-speed Web access to every street corner: In times less stressing cities could opt to provide cheap high-speed Web access to every street corner.
Smart MuseumsDeliver much more information on pieces in their collection than those tiny cards they paste: Li-Fi could enable a museum to deliver much more information on pieces in their collection than those tiny cards they paste to the walls could ever dream of. Learn about the artists history, listen to an audio tour, peruse recent auctions of their work, etc: It would be possible to learn about the artists history, listen to an audio tour, peruse recent auctions of their work.06-05-201450
Peruse ExamineSmart Museums Another area where communications and radiation levels are intensely monitored, museums have strict rules about the environments where they store their treasures. What they do allow , all together now, is light. Li-Fi could enable a museum to deliver much more information on pieces in their collection than those tiny cards they paste to the walls could ever dream of. You could learn about the artists history, listen to an audio tour, peruse recent auctions of their work, and maybe even stream The Thomas Crown Affair. Extend this concept to art galleries and you can purchase the art right off the walls-- digitally.