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Life Cycle Assessment as a basis for Sustainability Thinking 2019-03-11آ  Bessemer Masterclass 2014

Jun 27, 2020

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  • Cleveland Institution of Engineers

    March 6th 2019

    Louis Brimacombe

    Chairman, IOM3 Sustainable Development Group

    Visiting Fellow, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sheffield

    Life Cycle Assessment as a basis for Sustainability Thinking

  • 2

    Sustainability ?

    Circular economy ?

    How to make things better, not worse?

    ( but for who, and in what respect ?)

    Life Cycle Thinking ?

  • The high level challenges for a better society …..

    UN Sustainable Development Goals – Launched September 2015

  • Tata Steel Slide

    4

    Materials will be a major contributor to the goal of 9 Bn people ‘living well’

  • Tata Steel Slide

    5

    How to make things better without making things worse…..

    • (2010 forecast) The number of middle class consumers will increase from 1 to 4 Bn in next 20 years

    • More recent estimates at 3 to 6 Bn in next 10 yrs

    • WBCSD aspiration is for 9 bn people ‘living well’ by 2050, without compromise for future generations

    Conventional pathways to 9bn people ‘living well’ will put a strain on Resource Consumption and Climate Change so will require innovation and excellence in materials developments, and a rethink about material and product life cycles.

    ………The Circular Economy …….

    Successful Businesses will position themselves to address this opportunity/threat

  • Usage / Share

    Refurbish / Remanufacture / Recondition

    Closed Loop Recycling

    Open Loop Recycling / Cascading

    Minimal resource loss / waste

    Minimal & responsible virgin resource inputs

    Direct & indirect value creation

    through process & product / service

    efficiency

    Life extension/ Service Support

    Reuse / Redistribute /

    Making the Economy More Circular with Value Optimisation

  • 7

    Life Cycle Thinking

    …. Is increasingly important to consider the wider

    consequences of strategies aimed at making

    improvements, but it requires a methodological

    approach ……

  • 8

    Life Cycle Assessment

    Indicates the scale of environmental and resource

    impacts associated with an activity or function

    from the extraction of raw materials, through to

    ‘end use’ impacts.

  • LCA has a Role in Understanding the Benefits of a Circular Economy

    Is it better to build more robust products (higher LCI), for extended service life ?

    Is it better to use more energy intensive materials (higher LCI), to gain the fuel efficiency benefit from use phase light-weighting ?

    Should we compromise functional efficiency to make products more recyclable ?

    All recycling processes (and transport) have impacts, so what is the value of recycling ? What does recycling/reuse actually offset/avoid ?

    Is it better to design for end-of-life recycling and/or to source material from recycled sources.

    20

  • Tata Steel Slide 10Bessemer Masterclass 2014

    How do we carry out an LCA ?

  • Tata Steel Slide 11Bessemer Masterclass 2014

    The Process

     Set out the Goals/ Define the System

     Clearly describe system function/ set out what is ‘in scope’ and define boundary

     Data Collection

     New data using questionnaires and the rest access existing LCA datasets.

     Modelling

     Linking system datasets, make methodological choices. E.g. allocation for co- products.

     Run the Model, analyse outputs, check and revise

     Generate the Life Cycle Inventory of the system,

     Impact Assessment

     Take Inventory Data and group information to generate Impact datasets, such as ‘Global Warming Potential’

     Interpretation

     Understand sensitivity of results to data and methods. Check data, report conclusion.

  • Tata Steel Slide 12

    Life Cycle Inventory : Lists mass inputs/outputs from Earth, and to the Earth

    LCA begins with generating so called ‘Inventories’ or LCI’s

    This LCI lists all inputs and outputs from earth associated with a defined system

    The LCI list here is for ‘Global production of 1 kg steel product (at factory gate) via BF Route’

    The highlights here included confirmation that 2.128 Kg of CO2 are emitted for 1 kg of steel product.

    Major Articles* Units Average

    11 sites

    Inputs: (r) Coal (in ground) kg 0.643398982

    (r) Dolomite (CaCO3.MgCO3, in ground) kg 0.01626926

    (r) Iron (Fe) kg 1.748361164

    (r) Limestone (CaCO3, in ground) kg 0.011457251

    (r) Natural Gas (in ground) kg 0.030582934

    (r) Oil (in ground) kg 0.047137374

    (r) Zinc (Zn) kg 2.15E-09

    Ferrous Scrap (net) kg 1.45E-01

    Water Used (total) litre 17.92589455

    Outputs: (a) Cadmium (Cd) g 6.33E-05

    (a) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) g 2128.117309

    (a) Carbon Monoxide (CO) g 33.00088145

    (a) Dioxins (unspecified, as TEq) g 3.60E-08

    (a) Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) g 0.044157425

    (a) Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) g 0.068293481

    (a) Lead (Pb) g 3.69E-03

    (a) Methane (CH4) g 0.527704385

    (a) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx as NO2) g 2.973955418

    (a) Nitrous Oxide (N2O) g 0.112232902

    (a) Particulates (Total) g 1.74E+00

    (a) Sulphur Oxides (SOx as SO2) g 2.582408291

    (w) Chromium (Total) g 9.36E-05

    (w) COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) g 0.331073716

    (w) Iron (Fe++, Fe3+) g 0.030940552

    (w) Lead (Pb++, Pb4+) g -4.88E-04

    (w) Nickel (Ni++, Ni3+) g 2.16E-04

    (w) Nitrogenous Matter (unspecified, as N) g 0.015650293

    Non-allocated byproducts (See Table Below) kg 5.22E-02

    Waste (total) kg 1.564155491

  • Bessemer Masterclass 2014 13

    LCA and Impact Assessment

    Inventory

    GWP CO2

    CF4

    CH4

    N2O

    NOx

    AP SO2

    NOx

    HCl

    HF

    H2S

    PCOP CH4

    Styrene

    NMVOC

    Classification

    GWP CO2

    CF4

    CH4

    N2O

    NOx

    AP SO2

    NOx

    HCl

    HF

    H2S

    PCOP CH4

    Styrene

    NMVOC

    Classification

    Airborne Emissions Carbon Dioxide, CO2

    Carbon Tetrafluoride, CF4

    Methane, CH4

    Nitrous Oxide, N2O

    Other Nitrogen Oxides, NOx

    Sulphur Dioxide, SO2

    Hydrogen Chloride, HCl

    Hydrogen Fluoride, HF

    Hydrogen Sulphide, H2S

    Styrene

    Non-methane VOCs

    Waterborne Emissions

    Waste …

    Characterisation

    x 1

    x 6300

    x 21

    x 310

    x 7

    x 1

    x 0.7

    x 0.88

    x 1.6

    x 1.88

    x 0.466

    x 0.007

    x 0.766

    Characterisation

    x 1

    x 6300

    x 21

    x 310

    x 7

    x 1

    x 0.7

    x 0.88

    x 1.6

    x 1.88

    x 0.466

    x 0.007

    x 0.766

    Acidification Potential Photo- chemical Oxidation Potential

    Global Warming Potential

    Category Definition

    Acidification Potential Acidification Potential Photo- chemical Oxidation Potential

     Photo- chemical Oxidation Potential

    Global Warming Potential

    Category Definition

  • Tata Steel Slide 14Bessemer Masterclass 2014

    14

    2050 Scenarios for Global Steel Manufacture

    2010

    Low Carbon

    Process routes:

    ULCOS, higher

    recycling and

    operational

    efficiency

    ….and focus on the product benefits

    2050

    Reduce,

    Reuse/Remanufacture

    1 BtCO2

    Post Kyoto

    aspiration

    50-80%

    reduction

    Global Steel

    CO2 emissions

    2 BtCO2

    4 BtCO2

    BAU 2050

    2.4 Bt Steel

    1.2 Bt Steel

  • Tata Steel Slide 15

    Life Cycle Assessment Profile for Steel Products

    15

    Use Phase Dominates

    Vehicles / Buildings / Engineering

    Raw material

    extraction

    Material

    Production

    Assembly &

    Distribution

    Use End of life

    E n

    v ir

    o n

    m e

    n ta

    l Im

    p a

    c t

    Change footer via View menu/Header & Footer

    9

  • Bessemer Masterclass 2014 18

    Life Cycle Assessment of Railway Sleepers

    • Wood – renewable resource

    • Concrete – low energy material (per kg)

    • Steel – recyclable

    • Which is the more

    sustainable of these

    systems?

    ….and the importance of System

    Definition in LCA

  • 19

    Sleeper Systems

    Steel

    Concrete

    Timber

  • Bessemer Masterclass 2014 20

    Model

    Railway system

    Installation End of lifeProduction

  • Bessemer Masterclass 2014 21

    System Definition and Project Scope

    • Product system:

    • Steel/concrete/timber intensive rail systems

    • BS113 rail

    • Type 436 steel sleepers/F41 concrete sleepers

    • Ballast

    • Function: straight, mainline track