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Life at the turn of the 20th Century Immigration Urban Life Politics Discrimination

Apr 01, 2015

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Life at the turn of the 20th Century Immigration Urban Life Politics Discrimination Slide 2 Immigration Statistics Between 1800-1880: about 10 million immigrants came to U.S. these are the old immigrants Mainly western Europe Between 1880-1910:about 18 million immigrants arrive in U.S-these are the new immigrants Mainly from southern and eastern Europe and some from Asia Slide 3 Immigrants 1880-1910: Where did they come from? Ellis Island (NY): opened 1892 Came from southern and eastern Europe Greece, Italy, Poland, Russia Angel Island (California): opened 1910 for Asian immigrants Slide 4 Why did immigrants come to America? Better life Jews fled Russia and eastern Europe to escape Religious persecution Southern and eastern Europe had poverty and little economic opportunity Found better life but also met hardships (tenements, low-paying, unskilled jobs) Slide 5 Reactions to Immigration Nativists: immigrants are a threat Blamed immigrants for increased crime, poverty, and high unemployment West Coast- prejudice directed towards Asians Americanization some wanted immigrants to blend and helped them Slide 6 State and Federal Laws State California restricted Chinese against holding jobs and where they could live San Francisco made Japanese students attend different schools Federal Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: banned immigration for 10 years and stopped Chinese immigrants from becoming citizens Congress passed a literacy test in opposition to Wilson Slide 7 Where did they live? Most immigrants moved to the cities for job opportunities Created neighborhoods that were similar in religion, language and cultural beliefs Helped each other through the difficult times Slide 8 Urban Life Space became crowded so they built upwards (skyscrapers) Invention of Elevators made it possible to get to upper floors Concern for green space in cities Solution: Designed city parks (Central Park, etc.) Slide 9 Lifestyles of the classes The wealthyThe middle class The working class -made money in industry and business -showed off wealth in homes (5 th Ave) -corporate employees and professionals -most city residents -Lived in tenements -most women worked Slide 10 Attempt to overcome poverty Settlement house volunteers helped teach English and job skills to immigrants Hull House (Chicago) founded by Jane Adams and Ellen Gates Starr Henry Street Settlement (New York) 1910 over 400 settlement houses in U.S. Slide 11 Political Scandals City Scandals Machine bosses won support by giving jobs expected votes Tammany Hall (NYC) Boss Tweed convicted of fraud and sent to prison Federal Scandals U.S.Grant Credit Mobilier scandal funneled money from Union Pacific to Credit Mobilier stockholders Pendelton Civil Service Act required promotion be made on merit not political connections Slide 12 Farmers Reform Movements Crop prices falling Order of Patrons of Husbandry (National Grange) Persuade state legislatures to regulate railroad rates Supreme Court ruled that federal government should regulate this Interstate Commerce Act 1887 reasonable railroad rates (1 st time Fed. Gov. regulated industry) Slide 13 Silver vs. Gold Pro Silver Farmers wanted more paper money to circulate - thought more money would help their debt Pro Gold 1873 Congress put the U.S. dollar on the gold standard reduced the amount of money in circulation Slide 14 Why is gold vs. silver a problem? Gold and silver do not have the same $ value. Paper money purchased with silver is technically worth less than paper money purchased with gold Slide 15 Politics for Silver Populist Party called for bank regulation, government ownership of RR, and free (unlimited coinage of silver) Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan (D) wanted free coinage of silver lost election Slide 16 Politics for Gold Sherman Silver Purchase Act(1892) required government to purchase silver with paper money redeemable in either gold or silver possibly caused stock market crash and loss of jobs Election of 1896 William McKinley supported gold standard backed by business leaders won election Slide 17 Discrimination Wanted to keep African Americans from voting poll tax, literacy test Jim Crow Laws legislature passed to create and enforce segregation in public places 1 st law passed in Tennessee separate rail cars Slide 18 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Homer Plessy (African American) tested law in Louisiana and sat in a whites-only train Arrested and case went to U.S. Supreme Court Ruled separate but equal facilities did not violate the 14 th amendment Slide 19 Approaches to fight racism Booker T Washington: born into slavery said to accept segregation for the moment Acquire farming and vocational skills Tuskegee Institute W.E.B. Du Bois: should strive for full rights immediately Founded the Niagara Movement Niagara Movement founded NAACP Slide 20 Others face discrimination Hispanic Americans Asian Americans Native Americans - Mexican Immigrants debt peonage: is a method of debt repayment in which an individual makes his payments to a creditor by physical labor. -Limited where they can live -outlawed marriages with whites Americanization Policy -lived on reservations -Indian Citizenship Act of 1924