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Jan 03, 2016
Life at the Turn of the 20th CenturyNew technologies improve urban living, and a modern mass culture emerges. Reforms in public education raise literacy rates. African Americans work to end legal discrimination.NEXT
NEXTLife at the Turn of the 20th Century
Advances in science and technology help solve urban problems, including overcrowding.NEXT
Technology and City LifeSkyscrapers1890, 58 cities have 50,000 people; 1900, 4 of 10 people in citiesInvention of elevators, internal steel skeletons lead to skyscrapers - Louis Sullivan designs Wainwright BuildingSkyscrapers solve urban problem of limited, expensive space- Daniel Burnham designs Flatiron BuildingScience and Urban LifeNEXTContinued . . .
Electric TransitBefore Civil War, horse-drawn streetcars run on iron railsBy 1900, electric streetcars (trolleys) run from suburbs to downtownSome cities build elevated trains or subwaysNEXTcontinued Technology and City LifeContinued . . .
Engineering and Urban PlanningSteel-cable suspension bridges link city sectionsNeed for open spaces inspires science of urban planningFrederick Law Olmstead spearheads movement for planned urban parks- 1857, helps design Central ParkNEXTcontinued Technology and City LifeCity PlanningChicagos population growth results in unregulated expansionDaniel Burnham draws plan for city with parks along Lake Michigan- designs White City for 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition
New TechnologiesA Revolution in PrintingBy 1890, U.S. literacy rate almost 90%Growing demand for newspapers, magazines, booksMills produce cheap paper that withstands high-speed pressesFaster production, lower costs make periodicals more affordableNEXTContinued . . .
continued New TechnologiesAirplanesOrville, Wilbur Wright use engines to fly heavier-than-air craft- first successful flight Dec. 1903By 1920, first transcontinental air mail establishedNEXTPhotography ExplosionPre-1880s, photography requires heavy equipment, time George Eastman develops light-weight equipment, studio processing1888, introduces Kodak camera, easy to operate- millions use Kodak camera- helps create field of photojournalism
Reforms in public education lead to a rise in national literacy and the promotion of public education.NEXT
Expanding Public EducationSchools for Children18651895, states pass laws requiring school attendance for childrenKindergartensoriginally childcare for working womenbecome popular1880, 62% white children, 34% black children in elementary schoolExpanding Public EducationNEXTThe Growth of High SchoolsIndustrial economy demands technical, managerial skills1900, more than half a million students in high schoolExpanding education changes American society
Continued . . .
continued Expanding Public EducationRacial DiscriminationSmall percentage of black teenagers attend high schoolMost attend private schools that get no government supportNEXTEducation for ImmigrantsImmigrants encouraged to attend school, be AmericanizedSome resent suppression of their native languagesMany public school systems have readings from Protestant Bible- Catholics have parochial schoolsAdults attend night school, some day programs at work- unionists object to employer programs
Expanding Higher EducationChanges in UniversitiesBy turn of century, 2.3% of youth attend college18801920, college enrollment more than quadruplesResearch universities emerge, offer new curriculumProfessional law, medical schools establishedPrivate universities have entrance exams - some state colleges want high school diplomaNEXTContinued . . .
continued Expanding Higher EducationHigher Education for African AmericansNot enough black college graduates to meet needs of communitiesBooker T. Washingtonracism will end if blacks get labor skillsHeads Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, now a universityW. E. B. Du Bois, first African American to get Harvard doctorate - disagrees with WashingtonFounds Niagara Movement to encourage liberal arts study - believes well-educated future leaders neededNEXT
NEXTAfrican Americans lead the fight against voting restrictions and Jim Crow laws.
NEXTAfrican Americans Fight Legal DiscriminationVoting RestrictionsFor at least 10 years after Reconstruction, Southern blacks can voteBy 1900, all Southern states restrict voting, deny equalitySome limit vote to those who can read; officials give literacy testsSome have poll tax that must be paid annually to voteSome add grandfather clause to constitution to let poor whites vote- can vote if self, father, grandfather voted before 1867Segregation and DiscriminationContinued . . .
NEXTcontinued African Americans Fight Legal DiscriminationJim Crow Laws1870s, 1880s, Supreme Court allows poll tax, grandfather clause Racial segregation laws separate races in private, public placesSegregation laws called Jim Crow laws after old minstrel songPlessy v. Ferguson1896 Plessy v. Fergusonsegregation legal in public placesAllows separate but equal doctrine if provide equal service
NEXTOpposing DiscriminationRacial etiquetteinformal rules for black-white relations- enforce second-class status for blacksModerate reformers, like Booker T. Washington, get white supportW. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells think problems too urgent to postponeBorn a slave, Ida B. Wells becomes teacher, newspaper editor- campaigns for racial justiceTurn-of-the-Century Race RelationsContinued . . .
NEXTViolenceAfrican Americans who do not follow etiquette are punished, lynched- more than 1,400 killed 18821892continued Turn-of-the-Century Race RelationsDiscrimination in the NorthMany blacks migrate North for better paying jobs, social equalityAre forced into segregated neighborhoodsRejected by labor unions; hired last, fired first by employersCompetition between blacks, working-class whites sometimes violent
NEXTMexican WorkersMore Mexicans build railroads in Southwest than other ethnic groups- forced to work for less than other groupsMexicans major force in Southwest agricultural industriesSome Southwest Mexicans, African Americans forced into debt peonage:- system of slavery to work off debt to employer- 1911, Supreme Court declares unconstitutionalDiscrimination in the WestExcluding the ChineseWhites fear job competition, push Chinese to separate areas, schoolsOpposition to Chinese immigration leads to Chinese Exclusion Act
NEXTAs Americans have more time for leisure activities, a modern mass culture emerges.
NEXTAmerican LeisureAmusement ParksCities begin setting aside green space for recreationAmusement parks built on outskirts with picnic grounds, ridesThe Dawn of Mass CultureBicycling and TennisEarly bicycles dangerous; at first, bicycling is male-only sportSafety bicycle increases popularity of sport; women ride tooTennis imported from Britain; becomes popularContinued . . .
NEXTSpectator SportsAmericans become avid fans of spectator sportsBy turn of century, boxing, baseball become profitable businessescontinued American LeisureBaseball1845, Alexander J. Cartwright organizes club, sets down rulesNational League forms 1876; American League forms 1900Discrimination leads to Negro National, Negro American Leagues
NEXTMass Circulation NewspapersNewspapers use sensational headlines, stories to capture readers Joseph Pulitzer buys New York World, pioneers popular innovationsWilliam Randolph HearstNY, San Francisco papers exaggerate storiesThe Spread of Mass CulturePromoting Fine ArtsArtists like Thomas Eakins promote realismportray life as it isAshcan School paints urban life, working peopleEuropean abstract art introduced; many find difficult to understandContinued . . .
NEXTPopular FictionBy 1900, thousands of free circulating libraries in countryMost people like dime novelsglorified adventure tales of the WestSome want more serious, realistic portrayal of ordinary people, lifeNovelist, humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens, or Mark Twain: - rejects high culture yet writes American classicsGalleries, libraries try to raise cultural standardscontinued The Spread of Mass Culture
NEXTUrban Shopping1890, first shopping center opens in Cleveland glass-topped arcadeRetail shopping districts form near public transportation New Ways to Sell GoodsThe Department Store1865, Marshall Field opens first U.S. department store in Chicago- stresses personal service- pioneers bargain basementContinued . . .
NEXTcontinued New Ways to Sell GoodsThe Chain StoreChain stores offer same merchandise under same owners for less- buy in quantity, limit personal serviceAdvertisingAdvertising explosion: $10 million spent 1865, $95 million 1900Advertising in periodicals, billboards, sides of buildingsCatalogs and RFDMontgomery Ward, Sears Roebuck catalogs bring goods to small townsRural free delivery (RFD)post office delivers direct to every home
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