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Sep 12, 2014





1Presented by:Shivi

2What is Leadership?The ability of a superior to influence the behaviour of subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action.


Managers VS LeadersManagerLeaderManages.Innovates.Manager is a copy.Leader is original.Manager maintains.Leader develops.Manager focuses on system and structure.Leader focuses on people.Manager does things right.Leader does right things.A person becomes manager by virtue of his position.A person becomes a leader on basis of his personal qualities.All managers are leaders.Not all leaders are managers.5

6Leadership stylesAutocratic (Authoritarian)Participative (Democratic)Laissez faire (Delegative/ Free-rein)7Leadership stylesAutocratic:Strict & close control over followers.Gives orders, which must be followed by the subordinates.

8Leadership stylesDemocratic:Shares ideas with subordinates.Motivates Guides and controlsOne of the most effective leadership style

9Leadership stylesLaissez Faire:A free rein leader doesnt lead; leaves the group to fend for itself.Subordinates decide policies and methods on their own.Beneficial if the subordinates are skilled.

10Theories of LeadershipTrait theory

Behavioural theories:Ohio State studiesUniversity of Michigan studiesManagerial Grid

Contingency theories:Fiedler modelSituational Leadership Theory (SLT)Leader participation modelPath-goalLeader-member exchange theory

11Trait Theory12Trait theoryAcc. to this theory, a LEADER has a specific set of personal traits, which distinguish him from NON-LEADER.

Leaders are Born, not made.

13Trait theoryPopular traits:

14Behavioral Theories15Ohio State studiesStarted shortly after World War II. (late 1940s)

Identified two dimensions of leader behaviour:

Initiating structure: refers to leader behaviour that defines and organises the group task, assigns the tasks to employees and supervise their activities.

Consideration: refers to leader behaviour that can be characterised by friendliness, respect, supportiveness, openness, trust and concern for welfare of employees.16University of Michigan studiesTwo dimensions of leader behaviour:Employee-oriented: Emphasis on interpersonal relations; personal interest in the needs of employees.Production-oriented: Emphasis on completion of the task.

Findings: Employee-oriented leaders were associated with higher productivity and job satisfaction.

17Managerial GridDeveloped by Blake and Mouton, its a Graphical portrayal of 2 dimensions of leadership style:

Concern for PeopleConcern for Production

18Managerial Grid

19Contingency theories20Fred Fiedlers modelEffective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leaders style of interacting with followers and demand of the situation.Assumptions:A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.

21Fred Fiedlers modelLeast Preferred Coworker (LPC) questionnaire:Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives.High score: a relationship-oriented leadership styleLow score: a task-oriented leadership style

Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:Leader-member relations: The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader.Task structure: The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.Position power : Influence derived from ones formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.

22Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)By Hersey and Blanchard.Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers readiness.Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader.Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.23Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)FollowersLeadersUnable & Unwilling to do a taskNeed to give clear directionsUnable & WillingDisplay high task and high relationship orientationAble & UnwillingUse a supportive and Participative styleBoth Able & WillingDoesnt need to do muchSLTs findings:24Leader participation modelDeveloped by Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton

A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.

25Path Goal theoryLeaders job to provide followers with the information, support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals.

Leaders assume different leadership behaviours:DirectiveSupportiveParticipativeAchievement oriented26Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)LMX theory argues that because of time pressures, leader establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers.

The creation by leaders of in-groups and out-groups; subordinates with in-groups status will have a higher performance rating, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.27Modern TheoriesTransactional and Transformational Leadership Transactional leadership involves exchange relationship between the leader and follower.

Features of Transactional Leader

Contingent RewardManagement by Exception (Active)Management by Exception (Passive)Laissez Faire28Transformational LeadershipLeaders who inspires followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization.One who is capable of having a extraordinary effect on his or her followers.

Features of Transformational Leaders

CharismaInspirationIndividual ConsiderationModern Theories (Cont...)Visionary Leadership : The ability to create a realistic, credible, attractive vision for the future for an organization that grows out of and improves on the present.

Charismatic Leadership: According to Platos and Confucius a leader is born not made. Charisma is a god-gifted attribute in a person which makes him a leader.Famous leaders in the world

Mahatma Gandhi was a major political and spiritual leader of India who led the country in the various movement during its struggle for independence.Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party and a notorious dictator of Germany. As a leader of the Nazi party, Hitler promoted nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-communism by establishing a Fascist dictatorship in Germany

Dhirubhai Ambani has not only been a great leader but also an inspirational story for several youngsters hailing from small towns to make it big in their respective fields.Mother Teresawas very humble and never cared about her own image, a rare quality that could hardly be seen in anyleaderaround the world.

Steve Jobs was an unconventional leader. His management style wasn't the stuff of university textbooks - he wasn't known for his consultative or consensus building approach.George Washington was the first President of the United States who led the Continental Army to victory in the American Revolutionary War against the Kingdom of Great Britain and saved the nation from the threat of collapse during its most crucial time.

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States who led the country to victory during the American Civil War.10 Business Leaders Who Failed Before They Succeeded1. Akio Morita Morita co-founded Sony, a multi-billion dollar company. But the companys beginnings were not so rosy.2. Bill Gates Before building his empire, Gates started a business called Traf-O-Data which went no-where and he dropped out of Harvard.3. Colonel Sanders Surprisingly, the Colonels famous secret chicken recipe was rejected over a 1,000 times before a restaurant accepted it. He founded KFC in age of 65.4. Evan Williams Before co-founding the social media giant Twitter, he founded a company called Odeo. But Apple announced iTunes store, making Odeo obsolete.5. Fred Smith While studying at Yale University, Fred Smith presented a business idea to his business management class that received a nearly failing grade. The idea was for a parcel service that could deliver packages overnight. Smith ignored the grade and founded FedEx.

336. Henry Ford Fords first two car companies failed and left him broke. But that didnt stop him from founding Ford Motor Company.7. Mark Cuban Before making billions selling his company to Yahoo, Cuban failed at a variety of jobs. He failed as a carpenter, as a cook, as a waiter.8. Soichiro Honda Honda initially applied for a job at Toyota as an engineer, but was turned down. Being jobless, he started making scooters at home, which he sold to neighbors. With the support of his family, he founded Honda.9. Thomas Edison Edison, one of the most prolific inventors in history , was told as a boy by his teacher that he was too stupid to learn anything and suggested he go into a field that did not require intelligence. He tried more than 9,000 experiments before he created the first successful light bulb.10. Walt Disney Disney was fired by an editor because, he lacked imagination and had no original ideas. His first animation company went bankrupt and its said that he was turned down hundreds of times when he sought financing for Disney World. Now The Walt Disney company builds an entertainment empire.345 Attributes Of The Worlds Greatest Business LeadersBe of the people People usually identify with leaders from within. Because they believe there is a get me feeling, When you lead by being part of the crowd.Be humble Great leaders know that no one, including themselves, is better or worse. Everyone brings t