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INT 252 Explorations Studio: Fabrication & Development Assignment 9 : Metal summary Samira Hanafi swilim Id NUMBER: 201310025 Instructor: Dr. Adnan Husnein Date of submission: 28-4-2016
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lathe tools and drilling machine

Apr 16, 2017

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  • INT 252 Explorations Studio: Fabrication & Development

    Assignment 9 : Metal summary Samira Hanafi swilimId NUMBER: 201310025 Instructor: Dr. Adnan HusneinDate of submission: 28-4-2016

  • - Lathe is a machine, which removes the metal from a piece of work to the required shape &size. - Single point tool : is the cutting tool used on lathe and it has only a single cutting edge or point at one end of its body. The point is wedge shaped portion, forms the cutting part of the tool.

    4/30/2016Lathe tools 6.4.9

    Lathe Tools

  • 4/30/2016Lathe tools 6.4.9

    Nomenclature of a lathe tool

    Solid Forged tool

    - The single point cutting tool has only one cutting point or edge. - These tools used for turning, boring, shaping or planning

    operations. These tools used on lathe, boring and shaper machines.

    - Made from high carbon steel or high speed.

    - made of high speed steel, stellite or cemented carbide , which can be brazed on high carbon steel shank and tools this made

    called brazed tools

    Cutting bits or tips or inserts

  • 4/30/2016Lathe tools 6.4.9

    Types of lathe tools

    Generating external surfaces Generating internal surfaces

  • 4/30/2016Lathe tools 6.4.9

    Nomenclature of single point cutting tool

    A single point cutting tool consists of a sharpened cutting part and the shank and main parts or elements which are:

    Single point cutting tool

    Cutting EdgerakeNose

    BaseHeelFlankFACEshank

    It is the main body of the tool.

    The surface on which the chip slides is called the face of the tool.

    The surface or surfaces below the adjacent to the cutting edge is called flank of the tool.

    The surface or surfaces below the adjacent to the cutting edge is called flank of the tool.

    The surface or surfaces below the adjacent to the cutting edge is called flank of the tool.

    It is the point where the side cutting edge and end cutting edge intersect.

    It is the edge on the face of the tool which removes the material from the work piece. The cutting edge consists of the side cutting edge(major cutting edge) and cutting edge(minor cutting edge) and the nose.

    refers To the slope of the tool top away from the cutting edge.

  • 4/30/2016Lathe tools 6.4.9

    Nomenclature of single point cutting tool

    A single point cutting tool consists of a sharpened cutting part and the shank and main parts or elements which are:

  • 4/30/2016Lathe tools 6.4.9

    Cutting tool materials

    Ideal Characteristics

    Hot hardnessWear

    resistanceToughness

    Coefficient of friction

    Cost

    Keeps the tool material hard enough even at higher temperature.

    The material tool should withstand wear due to the rubbing of chips on the tool.

    Should withstand to shocks and vibration during cutting of metals.

    Should remain low at the chip tool interface to minimize tool wear.

    Should remain low at the chip tool interface to minimize tool wear.

  • 4/30/2016Lathe tools 6.4.9

    Tool LIFE

    Is the time for which a tool will operate satisfactorily until it gets dulled or blunt.

    Types of tool wears

    Creating crumbling of the cutting

    edge

    Hardness loss or

    fracture of the tool

    Reasons of tool fail

    Cutting speed

    Feed depth of cut

    Use of cutting fluids or coolants.

    Factors affecting tool life

    Note : proper coolants, lower cutting speed, feed and depth of cut help increasing the tool life.

  • 4/30/2016Cutting fluids 6.4.10

    Cutting Fluids

    Essential in metal-cutting operations to reduce heat and friction

    Sources of heat generation in metal cutting

    Friction heat Heat of chip distortion Heat of deformation

    Slipping of metal grains under pressure of cutting.

    Internal friction due to the curling of chips during cutting.

    Generates between chip and tool interface.

    PURPOSE OF USING

    Reducing friction between tool and job.

    Reducing various types of wears.

    Increasing tool life.

    Help easy removal of chips away from tool tip.

    PREMIT THE USE OF HIGHER CUTTING SPEED AND DEPTH WITHOUT AFFECTING TOOL LIFE

    REDUCING MACHING TIME AND COST.

  • 4/30/2016Cutting fluids 6.4.10

    Cutting Fluids

    Heat find its way into one of three places

    Act as disposableheat sink

    Too much, cutting edgewill break down rapidly, reducing tool life

    Too much, workwill expand

  • 4/30/2016Cutting fluids 6.4.10

    Cutting Fluids

    Heat Dissipation

    Ideally most heat taken off in chips

    Indicated by change in chip color as heat causes chips to oxidize

    Cutting fluids assist taking away heat

    Can dissipate at least 50% of heat created during machining

  • 4/30/2016Cutting fluids 6.4.10

    Cutting Fluids

    Characteristics of a Good Cutting Fluid

    Good cooling capacityGood lubricating

    qualitiesResistance to

    rancidityRelatively

    low viscosity

    Stability (long life) Rust resistance Nontoxic TransparentNon-

    flammable

  • 4/30/2016Cutting fluids 6.4.10

    Cutting Fluids

    Essential in metal-cutting operations to reduce heat and friction

    Are available in various types

    Gaseous type cutting fluidsSoluble oils or emulsionsCutting oils

    Cutting oils

    For machining ferrous metals.

    Active Inactive

    For machining Non-ferrous metals.

  • 4/30/2016Cutting fluids 6.4.10

    Cutting Fluids

    Essential in metal-cutting operations to reduce heat and friction

    Are available in various types

    Gaseous type cutting fluidsSoluble oils or emulsionsCutting oils

    Soluble oils or emulsions

    Mineral oils containing soap like material that makes them soluble in water and causes them to adhere to work piece.

    Good cooling and lubricating qualities Used at high cutting speeds, low cutting pressures

  • 4/30/2016Cutting fluids 6.4.10

    Cutting Fluids

    Essential in metal-cutting operations to reduce heat and friction

    Are available in various types

    Gaseous type cutting fluidsSoluble oils or emulsionsCutting oils

    Gaseous type cutting fluids

    Air or carbon-di-oxide are more common.

    Air Carbon-di-oxide

    under pressure is quite effective when used in {subzero cooled state}.

    use in machining low machinable and high strength thermal rsistance.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine 6.5

    Drilling machine

    Drilling is the operation of producing circular hole in the work-piece by using a rotating cutter called DRILL.

    The machine used for drilling is called drilling machine.

    The drilling operation can also be accomplished in lathe, in which the drill is held in tailstock and the work is held by the chuck.

    The most common drill used is the twist drill.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine 6.5

    Drilling machine

    Drills types

    Flat or spade drill Straight fluted drill Twist drill

    Flat or spade drill

    Spade drills or flat drills are similar to gun drills in that the cutting end is a flat blade with two cutting lips.

    Spade drills are usually clamped in a holder and are easily replaced or re sharpened.

    They are available in a wide range of sizes from very small micro drills to drills up to 300mm in diameter.

    Some of the smaller spade drills have replaceable carbide inserts.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine 6.5

    Drilling machine

    Drills types

    Flat or spade drill Straight fluted drill Twist drill

    Straight fluted drill

    Recommended in drilling soft materials such as brass, coper , aluminum , bronze and other softer plastic materials.

    Straight flute prevent drill from drawing itself into material while cutting.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine 6.5

    Drilling machine

    Drills types

    Flat or spade drill Straight fluted drill Twist drill

    Twist drill

    The twist drill is made from High Speed Steel, tempered to give maximum hardness throughout the parallel cutting portion.

    Flutes are incorporated to carry away the chips of metal and the outside surface is relieved to produce a cutting edge along the leading side of each flute.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine operations 6.5.1

    Drilling machine Operations

    Operations include

    Reaming Boring Counter boring Counter sinking Spot facing Tapping

    Reaming

    It is a process of smoothing the surface of drilled holes with a tool.

    Tool is called as reamer. Initially a hole is drilled slightly

    smaller in size. Drill is replaced by reamer. Speed is reduced to half that of the

    drilling.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine operations 6.5.1

    Drilling machine Operations

    Operations include

    Reaming Boring Counter boring Counter sinking Spot facing Tapping

    Boring

    It is process carried on a drilling machine to increase the size of an already drilled hole.

    Initially a hole is drilled to the nearest size and using a boring tool the size of the hole is increased.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine operations 6.5.1

    Drilling machine Operations

    Operations include

    Reaming Boring Counter boring Counter sinking Spot facing Tapping

    Counter boring

    This process involves increasing the size of a hole at only one end.

    Cutting tool will have a small cylindrical portion called pilot.

    Cutting speed = two-thirds of the drilling speed for the same hole.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine operations 6.5.1

    Drilling machine Operations

    Operations include

    Reaming Boring Counter boring Counter sinking Spot facing Tapping

    Counter sinking

    This is an operation of making the end of a hole into a conical shape.

    Cutting speed = half of the cutting speed of drilling for same hole.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine operations 6.5.1

    Drilling machine Operations

    Operations include

    Reaming Boring Counter boring Counter sinking Spot facing Tapping

    Spot facing

    It is a finishing operation to produce flat round surface usually around a drilled hole, for proper seating of bolt head or nut.

    It is done using a special spot facing tool.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine operations 6.5.1

    Drilling machine Operations

    Operations include

    Reaming Boring Counter boring Counter sinking Spot facing Tapping

    Tapping

    Process of cutting internal threads with a thread tool called as tap.

    Tap is a fluted threaded tool used for cutting internal thread

    Cutting speed is very slow.

  • 4/30/2016Drilling Machine operations 6.5.1

    Drilling machine Operations

    Operations include

    Reaming Boring Counter boring Counter sinking Spot facing Tapping

  • 4/30/2016Types of Drilling Machine 6.5.2

    Types of Drilling machine

    It is the simplest and accurate machine used in production shop.

    The work piece is held stationary ie. Clamped in position and the drill rotates to make a hole.

    Types :-a) Based on construction:

    Portable, Sensitive,Radial, up-right, Gang, Multi-spindle

    b)Based on Feed:Hand and Power driven

  • 4/30/2016Types of Drilling Machine 6.5.2

    Types of Drilling machineCutting Fluids

    Based on construction

    Portable drilling machine

    Is a handy powered drilling tool capable of being easily taken to work sites. It has the capability and flexibility of drilling holes in odd situations. These are usually available up to 15mm drill capacity.

  • 4/30/2016Types of Drilling Machine 6.5.2

    Types of Drilling machineCutting Fluids

    Based on construction

    Bench or Sensitive Drilling Machine

    These are light duty machines used in small workshops. called Sensitive drilling machines because of its accurate and well balanced

    spindle. Drill holes from 1.5 to 15mm (up to 13 to 16 mm)

  • 4/30/2016Types of Drilling Machine 6.5.2

    Types of Drilling machineCutting Fluids

    Based on construction

    Bench or Sensitive Drilling Machine

    Vertical main column

    Base

    Moving drill head

    Work table

    Electric motor

    Variable speed gear box

    and spindle feed

    mechanism.

  • 4/30/2016Types of Drilling Machine 6.5.2

    Types of Drilling machineCutting Fluids

    Based on construction

    Up-Right Drilling Machine

    Drill holes up to 40mm

    Similar to bench drilling except

    that it is larger in size, robust in

    design and it is used for heavier

    work.

  • 4/30/2016Types of Drilling Machine 6.5.2

    Types of Drilling machineCutting Fluids

    Based on construction

    Radial Drilling Machine

    These are heavy duty and versatile

    drilling machine used to perform

    drilling operate on large and heavy

    work piece.

    Holes up to 50 mm are easily drilled

    on theses machines.

  • 4/30/2016Types of Drilling Machine 6.5.2

    Types of Drilling machineCutting Fluids

    Based on construction

    Radial Drilling Machine

    Heavy base

    Vertical column

    Horizontal arm

    Drilling head