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Lake Whatcom Watershed - Washington Lake Whatcom is the source of drinking water for nearly 100,000 people. Most of those people depend on the city of Bellingham’s water treatment

Jul 07, 2020

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  • Lake Whatcom Watershed

    Total Phosphorus and Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Loads Volume 2. Water Quality Improvement Report

    and Implementation Strategy

    November 2014 (revised February 2016) Publication No. 13-10-012

  • Publication and Contact Information This Water Quality Improvement report is published in two parts: This report is available on the Department of Ecology’s website at https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/summarypages/1310012.html The companion report, Lake Whatcom Watershed Total Phosphorus and Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Loads: Volume 1. Water Quality Study Findings, is available on the Department of Ecology’s website at https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/SummaryPages/0803024.html For more information contact: Washington State Department of Ecology Bellingham Field Office Water Quality Program 1440 10th Street, Suite 102 Bellingham, WA 98225 Phone: 360-715-5200 Washington State Department of Ecology - www.ecy.wa.gov o Headquarters, Olympia 360-407-6000 o Northwest Regional Office, Bellevue 425-649-7000 o Southwest Regional Office, Olympia 360-407-6300 o Central Regional Office, Yakima 509-575-2490 o Eastern Regional Office, Spokane 509-329-3400 Cover photo: Lake Whatcom courtesy of Tore Oftness

    Project Codes and 1996 303(d) Water-body ID Numbers Data for this project are available at Ecology’s Environmental Information Management (EIM) website at www.ecy.wa.gov/eim/index.htm. Search Study ID, WHATCOM. Activity Tracker Code (Environmental Assessment Program) is 02-051. TMDL Study Code (Water Quality Program) is WhaL01MP. Water Resource Inventory Area for this study: 01 (Nooksack)

    Any use of product or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the author or the Department of Ecology.

    Accommodation Requests: To request ADA accommodation including materials in a format for the visually impaired, call Ecology at 360-407-6600. Persons with impaired hearing may call Washington Relay Service at 711. Persons with speech disability may call TTY at 877-833-6341.

    https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/summarypages/1310012.html https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/SummaryPages/0803024.html http://www.ecy.wa.gov/eim/index.htm

  • Lake Whatcom Watershed Total Phosphorus and Bacteria

    Total Maximum Daily Loads

    Volume 2. Water Quality Improvement Report and

    Implementation Strategy

    by Steve Hood

    Water Quality Program Bellingham Field Office

    Washington State Department of Ecology Bellingham, Washington

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  • Lake Whatcom Watershed Total Phosphorus and Bacteria TMDLs Page iii

    Table of Contents

    Page

    List of Figures and Tables.................................................................................................. iv Acknowledgements ..............................................................................................................v Executive Summary .......................................................................................................... vii

    Why did we develop a total maximum daily load (TMDL)? ..................................... viii Watershed description ................................................................................................ viii

    Water Quality Improvement Report ....................................................................................1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................1 Why Ecology conducted a TMDL study in this watershed ...........................................5 Applicable water quality standards ................................................................................7 Ecology study methods ................................................................................................11 Information and data from sources outside of Ecology ...............................................11

    Ecology Study Results and Discussion ..............................................................................15 Study approach.............................................................................................................15 Conclusions and recommendations ..............................................................................15 TMDL analysis ............................................................................................................16 Loading capacity ..........................................................................................................22 Load and wasteload allocations ...................................................................................28 Seasonal variation ........................................................................................................36 Margin of safety ...........................................................................................................36 Reasonable assurance ...................................................................................................37

    Implementation Strategy ....................................................................................................41 Introduction ..................................................................................................................41 What needs to be done? ...............................................................................................41 Who needs to participate in implementation? ..............................................................45 What is the schedule for achieving water quality standards? ......................................45 Monitoring progress .....................................................................................................46 Adaptive management .................................................................................................47 Potential funding sources .............................................................................................48 Summary of public involvement methods ...................................................................50

    Conclusions ........................................................................................................................51 References ..........................................................................................................................52 Appendices .........................................................................................................................53

    Appendix A. Glossary, acronyms, and abbreviations .................................................55 Appendix B. Record of public participation ...............................................................61 Appendix C. Response to public comments ...............................................................63 Appendix D. Lake Whatcom Reservoir Management Program 2010-2014 Work Plan ............................................................................................................................135

  • Lake Whatcom Watershed Total Phosphorus and Bacteria TMDLs Page iv

    List of Figures and Tables Figures

    Page Figure 1. Lake Whatcom watershed showing tributary basins and monitoring sites .........3 Figure 2. Cross-section of Lake Whatcom with vertical exaggeration to show

    stratified layers. ...................................................................................................8 Figure 3. New development in Lake Whatcom watershed by new land cover classes. ...14 Figure 4. Comparison of Existing Conditions Scenario to Full Rollback Scenario .........20 Figure 5. Comparison of Existing Conditions Scenario with 87% reduction in

    development to Full Rollback Scenario in terms of cumulative volumes of . ....21 Figure 6. Overlay of HSPF reach number with WRIA 1 Watershed Management

    Program Basins ..................................................................................................25 Figure 7 Differentiation between flows to MS4 and flows to receiving water. ................29 Figure 8 Mapped Areas of WLA, proposed WLA and LA ..............................................31 Figure 9. Feedback loop for determining need for adaptive management. ......................48

    Tables Table 1. Study area water bodies on the 2012 303(d) list for dissolved oxygen, total

    phosphorus, and fecal coliform addressed by this TMDL. ...................................6 Table 2. New residential land classes with fraction dedicated to existing HSPF land

    covers. .................................................................................................................13 Table 3. Total acres per reach by land use category – Existing Conditions Scenario. .....18 Table 4. Percentages per reach by land use category – Existing Conditions Scenario.. ...19 Table 5. Areal loading by HSPF reach number for forest and developed areas. ..............24 Table 6. Scenarios showing effective developed acres, undeveloped (forest and

    wetland) acres, and total phosphorus loading by tributary. ................................26 Table 7. Wasteload Allocations and Proposed Wasteload Allocations for municipal

    stormwater dischargers in the watershed covered by NPDES permits. ..............32 Table 8. Wasteload Allocations for construction stormwater dischargers in the

    watershed covered by NPDES permits. ...........

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