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Jyoti path

Jul 26, 2016

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suvir-hira

Lighting Up Indian Villages

  • Suvir Hira INDD 202-1 Design 4 SP14

    Jyoti Path

  • 2

    Providing Comfortable Personal Environment and Task Lighting

  • 3

    SUVIR HIRA

    SPRING 2015PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITYDESIGN 4 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIOPROFESSOR LYN GODLEYPROFESSOR MARK HAVENS

  • 4

  • CONTENTS 5

    SUSTAINABLE DESIGNRESEARCHPROBLEM FINDINGMIND MAPSDESIGN ITERATIONSMATERIAL EXPLORATIONPROCESS TREEECO-AUDITDESIGN DEVELOPMENTSUMMARYWORKS CITED

    0608141820222426283437

  • 6

    Industrial Design Studio 4

    ASSIGNMENT:

    Choose a market and

    defined need, and

    create a luminaire using

    Sustainable Design

    Practices addressing

    material research, light

    and power source options,

    and environmental impact.

  • SUSTAINABLE DESIGN 7

    WHY SUSTAINABLE DESIGN?

    ENERGY CRISIS

    An energy crisis is any great bottleneck or price rise in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In popular literature, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place, particularly those that supply national electricity grids or serve as fuel for vehicles.

    Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. It can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.

    A landfill is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and are rampant across the world.

    POLLUTION

    LANDFILLS

  • 8 CONTENTS

    Exploring Sustainable Strategies

    The 21st century has provided the opportunity for man to adopt sustainable methods of energy generation, while still remaining in his comfort zone. However, such processes are limiting in comparison to their conventional counterparts and often do not produce the required amount of energy to meet the human demand. In theory, one may claim that solar and wind power strategies can eliminate the worlds dependence on the grid, nevertheless such strategies are limited by climatic conditions, hence have a smaller scope in implementation. While humans continue to look into newer technologies to improve their lifestyle, the science behind such upcoming concepts have great potential to be applied to sustainable energy generation, such as in the case where microorganisms can help generate fuel from readily available renewable sources. Humans are responsible for reducing their

  • RESEARCH 9

    impact on the environment; therefore they must act collectively and orderly. Sustainability requires public participation and constant analysis of human impact on the environment through recorded data. There are many sustainable energy sources that are being implemented around the world. Feldheim, a village in Germany, is a self-sustaining village where renewable energy is local and immediate. In a small village where the electric grid does not reach, a wind farm and a solar energy park are sufficiently providing electricity. (First Self-sufficient Town in Germany). Being less reliable on fossil fuel, this is a sustainable model that can break down the traditional electricity grid. Although not renewable, waste energy is a viable method to sustainability in any part of the world. People have to

    produce wastes every day and it has always been a challenge on disposal. In a campus setting, the Nebraska Innovation Campus renewable energy system helped condition buildings by reusing waste water. It is important to note that people consume energy and produce waste when they are most active. By turning waste back to energy completes the energy cycle. (Hacking Infrastructure). In a national setting, Swedens waste management system has been successful. Its achievement is dependent on the publics access to recycling. When designing for sustainability, designers must always consider peoples participation. (The Swedish Recycling Revolution). Technology provides assistance in sustainable strategies. Lighting, being one of the essential elements of life, may contribute

    to sustainability. Urban lighting design is a major part of infrastructure. Public and certain private lighting play a crucial role in cities and towns, they illuminate public spaces and most importantly, ensure public safety. Urban lighting can contribute more to the area. A digital system that links all lightings together can gather data into a central base. This system will be able to immediately detect any malfunctions and notifies the operators for repair. (LightLink). When the system evolves to acquire a larger scope of data through public and private urban lighting, it may improve the overall infrastructure. The advantage of using lights as data gathering station is their locations. The position of lights in a city is constant and literally reflects the infrastructure. One lighting fixture does not have to be used only for illumination; it can also be

  • 10 RESEARCH

    a sound level meter, a light sensor, and an interactive device. (Smart Illumination). The city of Copenhagen has been utilizing data management to improve energy efficiency and ensure public safety. The system of networks is multi-functional it provides lighting where necessary, spots suspicious activities, eases traffic, prevents road accidents, and even predicts snowstorms. (Copenhagens Smart City Initiative). Urban lighting is one of the most important elements in infrastructural design. Along with technological development, urban lighting will become more than only a source of light. To create a shift towards a more sustainable future, several cities around the world have adopted solar lighting to substitute the conventional sodium halogen lamps on their streets, however this has often resulted in incompletely lit roads on overcast days, causing municipal authorities to rely back on the grid. Solar energy, having a high potential in theory, nonetheless lacks the technology required to light up the worlds streets, and seems to be losing its demand -as Chinas solar panel industry claims. The market has produced such panels in excess, which has only resulted in

    the bankruptcy of large companies such as Suntech. (Discussion on Chinas Solar Panel Industry). The study of microorganisms has been increasing over the years, with the advancement in biotechnology and genetics. Other than solely producing new vaccines to improve human lifestyle, the science has helped provide a better environment for other earthly species. In the case of renewable energy production, microorganisms have been major players in the generation of biofuels, which not only breakdown organic waste matter into manure, but generate fuel for cooking and lighting. The input required to generate biogas is limited to organic waste, making it inexpensive and widely available. (Community Biogas Plant). As a matter of fact, the villages in Uttarakhand, India that depended on bituminous coal for cooking purposes during the late 20th century have adopted the concept of biogas, which has both reduced loads on the national grid and dropped air pollution levels significantly. Through the Appiko movement, farmers have been made aware of the high levels of methane present in cow dung, and utilize it to produce Gobar Gas. Ram

    Bux Singh, the director of the movement mentioned, Uttarakhand comprising of a Hindu majority where farmers worship their cows, made it effortless to implement biogas production within its villages. (Gobar Gas). In the field of lighting, biogas lamps are being developed in order to make the equipment less cumbersome, yet such lamps have significant advantages over incandescent lighting in heating homes and controlling its luminance. Similar to a cooktop, biogas lamps have two color temperatures, which can be set accordingly to provide thermal comfort. As a result, the technology has been made adaptable to cities, where portable biomass pellets can power such lamps, to provide eco-friendly light to regions that do not produce biogas, consequently reducing ones dependency

  • RESEARCH 11

    on fossil fuels. (Possibilities with Biomass Pellets). Another source of energy from microorganisms is by algae. The technology that exists allows the world to reduce its carbon dioxide content through such microorganisms that use the process of photosynthesis to purify the air, and produce fuel. The genetically multiplied algae require carbon dioxide, sunlight and water as inputs to provide fuel and oxygen as outputs, making it ideal to be placed along arterial road networks. (Algae). A project in France in the Village of Champs comprising of a series of bioreactor tubes was placed on the towns viaduct to cultivate algae. The project gathered significant attention and spread awareness amongst the pedestrians, bicyclists, tram and road commuters, bringing about biophilia at the site, which

    many locals refer to as a peaceful haven. (Algae for Energy and a Cleaner World). While biofuels can be obtained from crops such as corn, algae carry out photosynthesis at a significantly higher rate, rendering the efficiency of fuel from cash crops as negligible. Geneticist Venter claims that if one tried to make liquid transportation fuels to replace petroleum in the United States, one would require cornfields that occupy a total area of the North American continent, as opposed to algae requiring an area of the size of Maryland. (Can Algae Feed the World and Fuel the Planet). As the country invests in algae lobbies over the years, there is a high potential for its cars to run on algae powered fuels, eliminating the concept of petroleum in transportation.

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