Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott Part 1
53

# Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott Part 1.

Dec 25, 2015

## Documents

Mavis Morris

#### scott enrico fermi

Welcome message from author
Transcript

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Part 1

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

How much H2O, in liters, in oceans?

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Enrico Fermi, Physicist• One of the most notable

physicists of the 20th century.• Leading contributions in the

Manhattan Project.• Ingenious ways of approximating

and avoiding long tedious calculations

• Back-of-envelope problems

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Fermi Problems

• Open ended problem solving.• Thought process is more important than calculating

exact answer.• Steps in solving Fermi problems– Determine what factors are important in solving

problem– Estimate these factors– Use dimensional reasoning to calculate a solution

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Fermi Problems

• What do Fermi Problems have to do with engineering– Engineers have to solve open ended problems that

might not have a single right solution– Engineers have to estimate a solution to a

complicated problem– Engineers have to think creatively

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

How much H2O, in liters, in oceans?

In groups of 3…

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Parameters

• Width of United States: 3,000 miles = 4,800 km• Diameter of Earth: 8,000 miles = 12,800 km• Earth Surface Coverage: 71%• Average Depth of Ocean: 12,500 feet = 2.4 mls = 3.84 km• 1 ft3 = 7.5 gallons• 1 gal = 3.8 liters

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Ice breaker

• Knowledge about each other• Getting comfortable

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Design Challenge

• Objective: – Move a water bottle from one point to another 12”

away• Other criteria:

– Arm must extend at least 18” to bottle without support– Only given supplies/tools may be used

18”

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

3

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Part 2

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

What is STEM?

Scientists investigate the natural world

Engineers create the designed world using scientific knowledge

Technologies are the products and processes created by engineers

Society is impacted in various ways

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

What is Mathematics?STEM

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

What is Technology?STEM

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

What is Science?STEM

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

What is Engineering?STEM

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Science vs. Engineering

Science:1. Systematically obtaining knowledge by observation and

experience2. Use the Scientific Method3. Empirical / Objective

Engineering:4. Application of math and science by which matter and

energy are made useful to people5. Use the Engineering Design Process (Designing and

implementing solutions that fulfill an objective, need, or desire)6. Subjective solutions based on objective knowledge

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Dr. Oct – scientist or engineer?NASA – scientists or engineers?

STEM:Science, Technology, Engineering, Math

What is Engineering?

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Fields of Science

Natural Science:1. When we refer to “science,” we mean “natural science”2. Science = Natural science, social science, formal science,

applied science.Physical Science:

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fields_of_science

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Designing a Car – which field of engineering comes to mind?

What’s actually involved:– chemistry– thermodynamics– heat transfer– fluid dynamics– electronic controls– dynamics & vibrations– materials science– mechanical design– Etc.

Fields of Engineering

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Fields of Engineering

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fields_of_engineering

Major Fields:1. Aerospace2. Bioengineering 3. Chemical4. Civil5. Computer Engineering6. Computer Science7. Electrical8. Electronic 9. Material10. Mechanical11. Nuclear12. Process

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

engineering is.……ethics, safety & public service

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

engineering is.……ethics, safety & public service

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

engineering is.……sustainability

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

How does engineering affect your life?

What engineered products do you use daily?

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

The Pendulum Example

• Let’s “prove” whether the equation is accurate.• What would affect period T?• The equation:• How shall we experiment?

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Reports

Objective:Understand and be able to meet lab report requirements and expectations

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Data Collection

• Write all original data on data sheets• Do not color over or erase info on data sheets – put a

line through it• Copying data from lab partner is fine, but analyses

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Reports – Formatting • PRINT IT AND CLIP/STAPLE IT• 1.5 spacing• Times New Roman (12 pt) • Make it all look good – easier to read, understand, trust• Tables, graphs, diagrams, etc.– Captions– Center on page– Refer to them in text, otherwise why have them?– Self-explanatory; reader should understand them without

explanation– Every table column and graph axis should be labeled with Quantity,

Symbol, and Units. Exception: titles of graphs• Make no judgments regarding the data until the Discussion section

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Appendices

ABSTRACT

What you Did

What you’re looking for

Lab Report – Overview

What’s the Significance

What you Observed

Introduction Procedure Results Discussion

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Overview

• What is in your lab report (abstract)• What you were looking to find out (introduction)• What you did (procedure)• What you observed (results)• What your results mean (conclusion)• Giving credit where it’s due

(acknowledgements and references)• Additional information for reference (appendices)

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Contents

Title1. Abstract (Hickam) ……………………............. 12. Introduction (Kilby) …………………….......... 13. Procedure (Hickam) …………………............ 24. Results (Kilby) …………………………………….. 45. Discussion/Conclusion (Hickam) …………. 56. Acknowledgments ……………………………… 67. References ………………………………............. 68. Appendices (Kilby) ……………………………… 7

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Introduction

1. Purpose– What’s your hypothesis? – What are you intending to find out?– What questions will be answered?

2. Background/Theory– Why will your experiment answer your questions?– How will the data you collect, analyze, and interpret

tell you something substantive?

Introduction Procedure Results Discussion

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Good Example – Introduction

• “A pendulum is slowed on its upswing and accelerated on its downswing by gravity. In an ideal, frictionless [vacuum] environment, a pendulum would never cease to swing.”

Good Example – Introduction

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Good Example – Introduction

• “A pendulum is slowed on its upswing and accelerated on its downswing by gravity. In an ideal, frictionless [vacuum] environment, a pendulum would never cease to swing.”

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Procedure 1. Equipment and Materials– List all equipment and materials used in lab, including

instrument #’s, model and serial numbers (if known)– Diagram of experimental setup (label variables if possible)– Notes on setting up the equipment

2. Experimental Procedure– Paragraph summary of procedure taken– Include info relevant to your lab (e.g. if you used 0.811 m

Introduction Procedure Results Discussion

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Goo

d Ex

ampl

e –

Proc

edur

e

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Results The results section should summarize the data from the

experiments without discussing their implications. Do not duplicate data provided in one format (e.g. table) by including in another format (e.g. graph)

1. Data– Original (raw) data only is displayed in this section– Introduce all tables/graphs prior to displaying them (this does

not mean you need to analyze them prior to displaying them)– If tables are large, provide only a sample in report and refer to

full table in appendix– Graphs are a much better communication than tables

2. Data Analysis3. Uncertainty and Error

Introduction Procedure Results Discussion

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Results 2. Data Analysis– Sample of each calculation performed on data– Graphs of calculations (e.g. log-log plots)

3. Uncertainty and Error– No conclusions can be drawn without uncertainty/error– Informs you of data trustworthiness, repeatability, bias,

external effects– Give calculations and estimation reasons for uncertainty for

all measurements– Error (% error is best) should be calculated when

true/accepted value is known– Must show error from measurements propagated through

calculations and graphs

Introduction Procedure Results Discussion

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Key:Passive vs. Active – Be Consistent1 Sig Fig for Uncertainty Period uncertainty should be the sameExplain how you got uncert.Quantify!

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Discussion/Conclusion

The meat of the lab report:1. Give a brief recap of your question and hypothesis.2. Was your hypothesis correct?3. What happened and why?4. Were there any difficulties with the experiment? Is

there any reason to disbelieve your results?5. How could you improve the experiment?6. Do these results suggest any follow-up experiments?7. Answer all lab questions.

Be Specific and Quantitative – back it up with numbers, or else you probably shouldn’t say it

Introduction Procedure Results Discussion

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Good Example – Disc./Concl.

• See example 2:• http://homepage.smc.edu/gallogly_ethan/sample_la

b_reports.htm

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Abstract

Lab Report – Abstract • Completed after the four main sections• One-paragraph (100-200 words)• Summarizes:– Purpose– Procedure– Significant results

Introduction Procedure Results Discussion

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Good Example – Abstract

• 65 words, and it just about says it all• Missing specific relationship between period and length,

mass, and amplitude

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Lab Report – Other Stuff• Acknowledgments

– Only required when using someone else’s data– Acknowledged in body of report and here as well

• References– Cite using Council of Science Editors (CSE)– http://www.sourceaid.com/

report; reader should not be referred to appendix in order to understand the conclusions you draw or the graphs you make

– Each appendix begins with a description of its contents

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Indent these notes

Good Example – Appendix

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Good Lab Report Examples

1. 2nd Example on page: http://homepage.smc.edu/gallogly_ethan/sample_lab_reports.htm

2. Great example, including error/uncertainty under analysis section

http://www.physics.unc.edu/labs/sample_report.php

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Group Work

• What are some effective group strategies?• Be responsible for all of it• Planning is important!• Be clear up front about who’s doing what• Get work done on time• Schedule proofreading time• Be honest with each other and your instructor• Get work in on time

Johns Hopkins University Engineering Innovation 2012 M. Scott

Success in EI• What do you think?• Have fun, and be serious• Be confident

– This is nerd boot camp, and you wouldn’t be here if you couldn’t handle it

• Ask lots of questions of instructors, each other, the internet, etc.– You are not alone in your difficulties

• Be a good group member• Stay focused – work when it’s time to work, play when it’s time

to play• Plan plan plan plan, then work your plan