Top Banner

Click here to load reader

of 16

John Locke

Jun 21, 2015



History, early life and teachings of John Locke.

  • 1. JOHN LOCKE1634-1704

2. John Locke's Early Lifeand EducationJohn Locke was born in Wrington,Somerset, on Aug. 29, 1632.The father, also named John Locke, wasa devout, even-tempered man.Locke was educated at WestminsterSchool and Oxford. 3. He was interested in meteorology and theexperimental sciences, especially chemistry.He turned to medicine and became knownas one of the most skilled practitioners of hisday.He graduated with a bachelors of medicinein 1674.He was an associate of Robert Hooke,Robert Boyle and other leading Oxfordscientists. 4. John Locke and the Earl ofShaftesburyIn 1667 Locke became confidential secretaryand personal physician to Anthony AshleyCooper, later lord chancellor and the first earl ofShaftesbury. 5. He supervised a dangerous liveroperation on Shaftesbury that likelysaved his patrons life.Shaftesbury was indicted for hightreason. He was acquitted, but Lockewas suspected of disloyalty.In 1683, he left England for Hollandand returned only after the revolution of1688. 6. John Locke's Publications and Final YearsLocke's "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"(1689) outlined a theory of human knowledge, identityand selfhood. 7. An Empirical Theory ofKnowledgeFor Locke, all knowledge comes exclusivelythrough experience.He argues that at birth the mind is a tabularasa, or blank slate, that humans fill with ideasas they experience the world through the fivesenses.Locke defines knowledge as the connectionand agreement, or disagreement andrepugnancy, of the ideas humans form. 8. The "Two Treatises of Government" (1690)offered political theories developed and refinedby Locke during his years at Shaftesbury's side.In his "Thoughts Concerning Education" (1693),Locke argued for a broadened syllabus andbetter treatment of studentsideas that were anenormous influence on Jean-Jacques Rousseau'snovel "Emile" (1762).In three "Letters Concerning Toleration"(1689-92), Locke suggested that governmentsshould respect freedom of religion except whenthe dissenting belief was a threat to publicorder. 9. Locke spent his final 14 years in Essexat the home of Sir Francis Masham andhis wife, the philosopher Lady DamarisCudworth Masham. He died there onOctober 24, 1704, as Lady Damaris readto him from the Psalms.Locke never married nor had a children. 10. Lockes otherthemes,arguments andideas 11. The moral role of governmentLocke was very critical of the BritishMonarchyLocke believed that Government wasneeded to protect everyone's natural rights.The reason why men enter into society isthe preservation of their property. 12. Locke uses a state of nature to explain what life would belike without a GovernmentALL MEN ARE LIABLE TO ERROR; AND MOST MEN ARE,IN MANY POINTS, BY PASSION OR INTEREST, UNDERTEMPTATION TO IT.What will happenwithout a government?LOOTING 13. A Natural Foundation of ReasonLocke argues that God gave us ourcapacity for reason to aid us in the searchfor truth.God created in us a natural aversion tomisery and a desire for happiness.Lockes belief in separation of church andstate. 14. Political leaders do not have the rightto impose beliefs on people.Locke insists that if men were to followthe government blindly, they would besurrendering their own reason and thusviolating Gods law, or natural law. 15. The Right to PrivatePropertyThe right to private property is the cornerstoneof Lockes political theory, encapsulating howeach man relates to God and to other men.Locke explains that man originally exists in astate of nature in which he need answer only tothe laws of nature. 16. The beginnings of amodern outlookLocke has been described as havingthe first modern mind.Locke believed that languages shouldbe learned not via grammar but throughpractice and example.