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It 2 - Pengantar Kartilago, Otot, Dan Tulang (Irw)

Jul 18, 2016



  • Introduction to musculoskeletal systemdr. Irwan

  • Content:Vignette BoneLearning objectives Functions of bones Bone structure Bone Development Types of bones Muscle

  • A 45-year-old man with:Experience sciaticaContinuous pain at thighNumbness in the toe. DermatomeSymptom are experienced only on left side of the bodyCharacteristic postureUsing your knowledge of anatomy, make the diagnosis.Vignette

  • After studying this section you should be able to:list five types of bones and give an example of eachoutline the general structure of a long bonedescribe the structure of compact and cancellous bone tissuedescribe the development of bonestate the functions of bones.Learning objectives

  • Support - framework that supports body and cradles its soft organsProtection - for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brainMovement - bones act as levers for muscles Mineral storage - calcium & phosphateBlood cell formation - hematopoiesisFunction of the Skeletal System

  • There are 206 bones in the adult human body. The largest bones in the adult human body is the femur.There are about 300 bones in a newborn baby but they grow together to make 206 when an adult.


  • One function of spongy bone is to produce red blood cells.The smooth, flexible layer of tissue covering the ends of bones is called cartilage.The hard, strong layer of bone is called compact bone.Minerals make bones strong.The human skeleton has 206 bones of various sizes and shapes.The Facts About Bones.

  • Bone enclosed in periosteum, which is continuouswith tendons and ligamentsblood vessels in periosteum Fig. 1Epiphysis- endsspongy bone contains red marrowcompact bone, articular cartilageDiaphysis- middlecompact bonemedullary cavity- contains yellow marrow (fat)lined with endosteum (squamous epithelium)

    Bone Structure

  • Compact boneosteocytes within lacunaearranged in concentric circles called lamellaeThis surround a central canal; complex is calledHaversian system Fig. 2Canaliculi connect osteocytes to central canal andto each other

  • skeleton is mostly cartilaginous Fig. 3Cartilage cells and then osteoblasts start to deposit mineralsCartilaginous disk (epiphyseal disk) remains in epiphysisCells eventually stop dividing

    Prenatal development

  • Initial skeleton of cartilage in infants Fig. 3Replaced with bone by osteoblastsMore than 300 bones at birth fuse to 206Always growing and breaking downOsteoblasts form new bone cellsOsteoclasts break bone cells downOsteocytes mature bone cells

    Bone Development

  • Adults continually break down and build up boneOsteoclasts remove damaged cells and release calcium into bloodOsteoblasts remove calcium from blood and build new matrix. They become trapped osteoclasts

  • Red marrow produces blood cells and clotting factorsFound in humerus, femur, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, pelvisProduces RBC 2 million per second

    Yellow marrow stores fatFound in many bones

    Bone Marrow

  • Broken BonesFracture is a break of the bone Fig. 4Simple or Complex fractureRegrowth of bone:Spongy bone forms in first few daysBlood vessels regrow and spongy bone hardens Full healing takes 1-2 months

  • Fracture repair Fig. 4Hematoma- blood clot in space between edges of breakFibrocartilage callus - begins tissue repairBony callus - osteoblasts produce trabeculae (structural support) of spongy bone and replace fibrocartilageRemodeling - osteoblasts build new compact bone, osteoclasts build new medullary cavity

  • Long Bones - metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibulaShort Bones - carpals, tarsalsFlat Bones - rib, scapula, skull, sternumIrregular Bones - vertebrae, some facial bonesSesamoid patella Fig. 5Types of bones

  • Axial skeleton (Fig. 6)Forms the long axis of the body80 bones in three major regionsskullvertebral columnbony thoraxRibsSternum

    Appendicular Bones of upper & lower extremities and girdles126 bones in three major regionsGirdlesShoulder girdlePelvic girdleupper extremitylower extremity

  • both bone and cartilage tend to deterioratecartilage: chondrocytes die, cartilage becomes calcifiedosteoporosis; bone is broken down faster than it can be builtbones get weak and brittle; tend to fracture easily

    Aging and bones

  • Skin makes vitamin D which enhances calcium absorptionSkeleton stores calcium for muscle contraction, nervous stimulation, blood clot formationRed marrow - site of blood cell formationCalcium levels regulated byparathyroid hormone and calcitoninkidneys (can help provide vitamin D)digestive system (can release calcium into blood

    Skeleton and other systems

  • Growth hormone regulates skeletal growth stimulates cell division in epiphyseal disks in long bonesGrowth stops when epiphyseal disks are converted to boneWhen excess growth hormone is produced in childhood gigantismIn adulthood acromegaly. Bones cant grow but soft tissue can Fig. 21

  • There are three types of muscle tissueSkeletal muscleCardiac muscleSmooth muscleThese muscle tissues differ in the structure of their cells, their body location, their function, and the means by which they are activated to contract

    Overview of Muscle Tissue

  • Muscle Tissue

  • Muscle Tissue

  • Patellar tendon reflex (knee jerk): L2, 3, and 4 (extension of the knee joint on tapping the patellar tendon) Achilles tendon reflex (ankle jerk): S1 and S2 (plantar flexion of the ankle joint on tapping the Achilles tendon)Segmental Innervation of Muscle

  • Segmental Innervation of Muscle

  • Created by:dr. IrwanBagian AnatomiFK UnsriPalembang

  • Fig. 1 Bone structure

  • Fig. 2 Haversian system

  • Fig. 3 Bone development

  • Fig. 4 Remodeling

  • Fig. 5 Bone Classification

  • Fig. 6 Axial skeleton

  • Fig. 7 Skull

  • Fig. 8 Cranial base

  • Fig. 9 Skull posterior view

  • Fig. 10 Suture

  • Fig. 11 Suture & fontanelle

  • Fig. 12 Orbita

  • Fig. 13 Nasal cavity

  • Fig. 14 Sinuses

  • Fig. 15 Fontanelle

  • Fig. 16 Vertebra & curvature

  • Fig. 17 Deviasi vertebra

  • Fig. 18 Curvature development

  • Fig. 19 HNP

  • Fig. 20 Thoracic cage

  • Fig. 21 Acromegaly & gigantisme


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