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IRW Chapter 15

Sep 14, 2014

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Education

 

In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter

Part Four:Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing

Chapter 15:Critical Thinking: Reading and Writing Arguments

PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of EnglishMountain Empire Community College

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.In Concert:

An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach

by Kathleen T. McWhorterChapter 15: Critical Thinking: Reading and Writing ArgumentsIn this chapter, you will learn how to:Goal 1Goal 2Goal 3Goal 5Goal 4Understand the use of argumentRecognize the parts of an argumentRead an argument effectivelyThink critically about argumentsWrite argument paragraphsWrite argument essaysGoal 6Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.2An argument is a line of reasoning intended to persuade a reader or listener to agree with a particular viewpoint or action.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 1: Understand the Use of ArgumentAdvertising can be considered a common type of argumenttrying to sway a viewer to buy a product.

3An Argument Contains:An IssueA ClaimSupportRefutation

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 2: Recognize the Parts of an ArgumentAn issue is the problem or controversy that the argument addresses. It is also the topic of an argument essay or paragraph.A claim is the particular point of view the writer has on the issue. Issues have at least two points of viewpros and cons. However, there are often many points of view about an issue.Support consists of the details that prove a claim is correct and should be accepted. Reasons, evidence, and emotional appeals are all types of support for an issue.Refutation considers opposing viewpoints and attempts to disprove or discredit them.

See the charts and visual idea maps explaining the parts of argument on pages 451452.4Recognizing types of supporting evidence is crucial in reading an argument effectively.

What are some types of supporting evidence?

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 3: Read an Argument EffectivelyTypes of Supporting Evidence:FactsStatisticsQuotations and CitationsExamplesPersonal ExperienceComparisons and Analogies 5What are strategies for reading arguments effectively?

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 3: Read an Argument EffectivelyRead once for initial impression. Try to get a general feel of the argument.Read the argument several more times. Identify the specific claim made by the author, then try to identify reasons or evidence supporting it. Does the author acknowledge or oppose other views?Annotate as you read.Highlight key terms.Diagram or map the argument to analyze its structure.6Critical Thinking Strategies for Argument:Evaluating EvidenceExamining Opposing ViewpointsConsidering Emotional AppealsIdentifying Errors in Reason

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 4: Think Critically About ArgumentsIs the evidence relevant, sufficient, and does it support the claim?Does the author fairly and clearly address opposing viewpoints? Does the author refute the opposing viewpoint with logic and relevant evidence?Emotional appeals are targeted at needs or values the reader is likely to care about. Is the author doing this in an unfair way to attempt to control the readers attitude about the subject?Errors in reasoning are also called logical fallacies.

Activities:Exercises 15-10 and 15-11 (Evaluating an Argument) using the sample argument essay on pages 464466 of the textbook.7Helpful Tips:Review the paragraph writing strategies from Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 of your textbook.

Topic sentences in an argument paragraph should identify the issue and state the authors claim about the issue.

Support your position with evidence and reasons.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 5: Write Argument Paragraphs8Helpful Tip:Review the essay writing techniques from Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 of the textbook.

What are some strategies specifically for writing argument essays?Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 6: Write Argument EssaysStrategies for Writing an Argument Essay:Write a thesis that identifies the issue and states your claim about it. Place the thesis effectively.Provide adequate supporting evidence. Make sure the evidence is recent and from a reliable source. Be sure to define terms and any units of measurement.Analyze the audience. There are three types of audience: those who agree with your claim, those who disagree, and those who are neutral. Think carefully about the approach you take to addressing your respective audience.

For reference, see the sample essay on pages 474477. 9Goal 1: Understand the Use of ArgumentReview QuestionsFill in the Blank:An argument is a line of reasoning intended to _____________ a reader or listener to agree with a particular viewpoint or action.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: persuade (sway or convince would also be acceptable answers)10Goal 1: Understand the Use of ArgumentReview QuestionsFill in the Blank:An argument is a line of reasoning intended to persuade a reader or listener to agree with a particular viewpoint or action.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: persuade (sway or convince would also be acceptable answers)11Goal 2: Recognize the Parts of an ArgumentReview QuestionsWhich of the following does an argument NOT always contain?

A. ClaimB. RefutationC. SupportD. IssueCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: BArguments can have refutation, but they dont always have it.12Goal 2: Recognize the Parts of an ArgumentReview QuestionsWhich of the following does an argument NOT always contain?

A. ClaimB. RefutationC. SupportD. IssueCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: BArguments can have refutation, but they dont always have it.13Goal 3: Read an Argument EffectivelyReview QuestionsTrue or False:Identifying the authors claim and any supporting evidence is not reading the argument effectively.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: False. This is an effective strategy for reading the argument effectively.14Goal 3: Read an Argument EffectivelyReview QuestionsTrue or False:False: Identifying the authors claim and any supporting evidence is not reading the argument effectively.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: False. This is an effective strategy for reading the argument effectively.15Goal 4: Think Critically About ArgumentsReview QuestionsWhich of the following is an effective strategy for thinking critically about arguments?Examining other viewsEvaluating the evidenceFinding errors in logicAll of the aboveNone of the above

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: DAll of the above.16Goal 4: Think Critically About ArgumentsReview QuestionsWhich of the following is an effective strategy for thinking critically about arguments?Examining other viewsEvaluating the evidenceFinding errors in logicAll of the aboveNone of the above

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: DAll of the above.17Goal 5: Write Argument ParagraphsReview QuestionsFill in the Blank:____________ _____________ in an argument paragraph should identify the issue and state the authors claim about the [email protected] 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: Topic sentences18Goal 5: Write Argument ParagraphsReview QuestionsFill in the Blank:Topic sentences in an argument paragraph should identify the issue and state the authors claim about the issue.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: Topic sentences19Goal 6: Write Argument EssaysReview QuestionsWhich of the following is NOT one of the types of audience?Those who agreeThose who disagreeThose who agree and disagree stronglyNeutral audiencesCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: CIt is unlikely someone agrees and disagrees strongly with a claim.20Goal 6: Write Argument EssaysReview QuestionsWhich of the following is NOT one of the types of audience?Those who agreeThose who disagreeThose who agree and disagree stronglyNeutral audiencesCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: CIt is unlikely someone agrees and disagrees strongly with a claim.21