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Iraqi Arabic

Nov 11, 2014



Ilinca Nutu

Yasin -Iraqi Arabic, Routledge, 2001
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:obv v x i v~gi ~v~ni c wi :n :v v i i v sDe FactoBoundaryPersianGulf CaspianSeaTigrisEuphratesTigrisEuphratesKUWAITSAUDI ARABIAJORDAN SYRIA TURKEY IRAN IRAQ BAbyloniaakkadS UME RI AA S S Y RI ABaghdad MosulArbil Kirkuk Al Hillah Al Amarah Basra UrNinevehBabylon50 50 0 0 100 Kilometers100 Miles IRAQ Modern Iraqi Arabic with MP3 FilesA TextbookSecond EditionYasin M. Alkalesic v o v c v : o wx u x i v v v s i : v v v v s sw~ s n i x c : o x , b. c .As ol January !, 2007, !1digit !S8N numbcrs will rcplacc thc currcnt !0digit systcm.Papcrback: 978!890!!104Gcorgctown Univcrsity Prcss, Vashington, .C. 2006 by Gcorgctown Univcrsity Prcss. All rights rcscrvcd. No part ol this book may bc rcproduccd or utilizcd in any lorm or by any mcans, clcctronic or mcchanical, including photocopying and rccording, or by any inlormation storagc and rctricval systcm, without pcrmission in writing lrom thc publishcr.AlKhalcsi, Yasin M. Modcrn !raqi Arabic with MP1 lcs / 2d cdition / Yasin M. Alkalcsi. p. cm. !S8N !890!!109 (alk. papcr) !. Arabic languagcialccts!raqGrammar. 2. Arabic languagcTcxtbooks lor lorcign spcakcrsnglish. !. Titlc. PJ6821.A42 2006 492.70967dc22 2006041984Tis book is printcd on acidlrcc papcr mccting thc rcquircmcnts ol thc Amcrican National Standard lor Pcrmancncc in Papcr lor Printcd Library Matcrials.!1 !2 !! !0 09 08 07 06 9 8 7 6 4 1 2First printingPrintcd in thc Unitcd Statcs ol Amcricato the vvoviv of iv~gand to the memory of my v~:nvv"/c o N + v N + sPrclacc xiAcknowlcdgmcnts xiii!ntroduction xvArrangcmcnt ol thc 8ook xviiList ol Abbrcviations and Symbols xxiivssoN + Arabic Alphabet and VowelsARIS WAAHITc !raqi Alphabct .Tc !raqi \owcls Phonctics ol !raqi Arabic: Pronunciation xcrciscs rills ivssoN : Greetings and Courtesy ExpressionsARIS ITHNIIN tahiyyaat wa mujaamalaat8asic ialoguc ..Additional xprcssions .aSomc 8asic Grcctings .a\ocabulary .Grammar and Rcmarks .!ndcpcndcnt Pronouns .Vord Strcss: Strcss Syllablc .!dioms and Common Phrascs .rills .6Crcativc ialogucs .ivssoN Asking for DirectionsARIS TIAATHA ittijaahaat8asic ialoguc a.\ocabulary aaGrammar and Rcmarks aAttachcd Pronouns (Pronoun Suxcs) aTc Articlc il: the a!dioms and Common Phrascs a6rills a,Crcativc ialogucs cvi ] ContentsivssoN Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part IARIS ARBA9A b-mataar Baghdaad8asic ialoguc \ocabulary Grammar and Rcmarks Tc Hclping \owcls: i, u Tc Ncgation !dioms and Common Phrascs ,rills Crcativc ialogucs .ivssoN Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part IIARIS KHAMSA b-mataar Baghdaad8asic ialoguc Additional xprcssions \ocabulary Grammar and Rcmarks Tc Prcposition ma9a: ha.e, .ith Tc Prcposition Prcx b / bi: in, by, at, .ith Tc Noun: ilisim Tc Cardinal Numcrals ..c arqaam 6!dioms and Common Phrascs ,rills cCrcativc ialogucs ivssoN 6 Taking a TaxiARIS SITTA tajiir taksi8asic ialoguc ,\ocabulary Grammar and Rcmarks Tc Adjcctivc: issila Tc Rclativc Adjcctivc 6cNounAdjcctivc Agrccmcnt 6cTc Vord aku: there isare 6.Tc Cardinal Numcrals 6.!dioms and Common Phrascs 6arills 6Crcativc ialogucs 6ivssoN y At the Rashid HotelARIS SA9A b-ndiq ir-Rashiid8asic ialoguc ,.\ocabulary ,aGrammar and Rcmarks ,Nouns ol ccupations with Suxcs chi and chiyya ,Tc Vord abu: father (of ) ,Contents ] viiTc !mpcrativc \crb: 9il ilamur ,Tc Cardinal Numcrals ,!dioms and Common Phrascs ,6rills ,,Crcativc ialogucs ivssoN 8 IntroductionsARIS THMAANYA ta9aaruf8asic ialoguc \ocabulary 6Grammar and Rcmarks ,Tc \crb: il9il ,Tc Past Tcnsc \crb: il9il ilmaadi Tc Rcgular \crb Tc Hollow \crb !dioms and Common Phrascs rills cCrcativc ialogucs ivssoN Speaking ArabicARIS TIS9A il-lugha l-9arabiyya8asic ialoguc ,Additional xprcssions \ocabulary Grammar and Rcmarks Tc Past Tcnsc \crb Tc oublc \crb .ccTc Vcak \crb .ccTc Past Tcnsc \crb with Attachcd Pronoun .cc!dioms and Common Phrascs .c.rills .caCrcativc ialogucs .c6ivssoN +o Telling TimeARIS 9ASHRA is-saa9a8asic ialoguc .cAdditional xprcssions ..c\ocabulary ...Grammar and Rcmarks ..aTimc xprcssions: ilwaqit ..aays ol thc Vcck: ayyaam lisbuu9 ..Months ol thc Ycar: ashhur issana ..Tc Four Scasons: islusuul ilarba9a ..Tc Prcposition wiyya: .ith ..!dioms and Common Phrascs ..rills ..Crcativc ialogucs .acviii ] ContentsivssoN ++ Visiting the Iraqi MuseumARIS A9ASH ziyaara lil-mathaf il-9iraaq8asic ialoguc .aAdditional xprcssions .a\ocabulary .aGrammar and Rcmarks .a6Tc Prcscnt/!mpcrlcct Tcnsc \crb: il9il ilmudaari9 .a6Tc Prcscnt Tcnsc \crb Paradigm .a6!dioms and Common Phrascs .arills .aCrcativc ialogucs .ivssoN +: Trip to BabylonARIS THNA9ASH safra l-Baabil8asic ialoguc .,Additional xprcssions .\ocabulary .Grammar and Rcmarks .cTc Prcscnt Progrcssivc Prcx da -ing .cTc Futurc \crb Prcxcs rah, ha .ill, shall, going to ..!dioms and Common Phrascs ..rills .aCrcativc ialogucs .,ivssoN + At the BankARIS TIAT TA9ASH bil-bank8asic ialoguc ..Additional xprcssions ol Moncy Mattcrs .a\ocabulary .Grammar and Rcmarks .Tc Participlc raayih: going, gone .Tc cmonstrativc Vords: asmaa ilishaara .!dioms and Common Phrascs .6rills .,Crcativc ialogucs .6ivssoN + At the Post OceARIS ARBAATA9ASH bil-bariid8asic ialoguc .6Additional xprcssions .,c\ocabulary .,.Grammar and Rcmarks .,.Tc \crb chaan / ykuun: .as, .ere.ill .,.Tc Vords il, 9ind, maal: ha.e, to .,!dioms and Common Phrascs .,6rills .,,Crcativc ialogucs .aContents ] ixivssoN + In the RestaurantARIS KHMUSTA9SH bil-mat9am8asic ialoguc .Additional xprcssions .6\ocabulary .,Additional \ocabulary Rclatcd to Food .Grammar and Rcmarks .Tc Prcposition 9ala / 9a: on, upon, about .Tc !ntcrrogativc Vords: adawaat listilhaam .c!dioms and Common Phrascs ..rills .aCrcativc ialogucs .ivssoN +6 Family and RelativesARIS SITTA9ASH ahal wa garaayib8asic ialoguc acAdditional Kin Namcs ac\ocabulary acGrammar and Rcmarks ac6Tc Participlc yyaa ac6Tc Fcmininc t nding ac6Tc idaala Construction ac,!dioms and Common Phrascs acrills acCrcativc ialogucs a.ivssoN +y Medical CareARIS SBAATA9AS 9inaaya tibbiyya8asic ialoguc a.,Additional Mcdical xprcssions a.\ocabulary a.Somc Additional 8ody Parts aacGrammar and Rcmarks aa.rdinal Numbcrs First to Tcnth aa.Cardinal Numbcrs Highcr than .cc aa.Counting: hsaab aa!dioms and Common Phrascs aarills aa6Crcativc ialogucs a.ivssoN +8 Media: Radio, Television, and JournalismARIS THMUNTA9ASH i9laam: raadyo, talzyoon w sahaafa8asic ialoguc a\ocabulary a,Additional \ocabulary on Mcdia aGrammar and Rcmarks aComparativc and Supcrlativc aTc Colors acx ] Contents!dioms and Common Phrascs a.rills a.Crcativc ialogucs aivssoN + Telephone ConversationsTSAATA9ASH mukhaabaraat8asic ialoguc a.\ocabulary aAdditional \ocabulary and Phrascs on Tclcphonc aGrammar and Rcmarks aConditional Scntcnccs (il ) aTc Rclativc Pronoun (i)lli a!dioms and Common Phrascs arills a6Crcativc ialogucs a6aivssoN :o Cultural and Folkloric TalesARIS 9ISHRIIN qusas hadaariyya wa sha9biyyaTc Story ol thc Caliph Harun irRashid and Abu Nuwas a66\ocabulary a6Tc Story ol thc Lion and thc Voll a,c\ocabulary a,aGrammar and Rcmarks a,Conjunctions a,!dioms and Common Phrascs a,6rills a,,ciossavv ArabicEnglish a EnglishArabic acv v v v a c vSincc thc publication ol a scrics ol valuablc books on !raqi Arabic by Gcorgctown Univcrsitys School ol Languagc and Linguistics morc than thrcc dccadcs ago, vcry littlc has bccn writtcn on thc spokcn Arabic ol !raq. !raqi Arabic constitutcs an cxtrcmcly important linguistic and sociocconomic rcgion ol thc Arab world. Hcncc, thcrc is an urgcnt nccd lor publications on this dialcct that arc morc currcnt and casy to rcad, such as thc onc ! prcscnt hcrc. Tc urgcncy ol such works has incrcascd tcnlold bccausc ol thc currcnt political and cconomic cvcnts in !raq. Tis book sums up morc than thirty ycars ol cxpcricncc in tcaching Arabic at Yalc Univcrsity, Univcrsity ol Calilornia, Los Angclcs, Calilornia Statc Univcrsity, Fullcrton, and at thc 8crlitz Languagc Ccntcrs, and in tcaching busincss pcoplc working with Arab countrics. uring thosc ycars, ! havc bccn lortunatc to havc thc opportunity ol sharing with my studcnts, collcagucs, and laymcn thc knowlcdgc and bcauty ol Arabic. Tis book is dcsigncd lor pcoplc who havc no prcvious knowlcdgc ol Arabic or who havc alrcady studicd Arabic but wish to lcarn thc !raqi dialcct. !t is organizcd in a mcthod suitablc lor cithcr classroom usc or scllstudy with thc hclp ol thc audio. Tc dialcct that is ocrcd in thc book is spokcn by thc avcragc, middlcclass 8aghdadi. Tc rst cdition ol thc book consistcd ol sixtccn lcssons, thcn lour morc lcssons and Arabic script wcrc addcd to this sccond cdition. Tc lcssons arc bascd on cvcryday situation and arrangcd in a storylikc lormat that lollows a womans activitics as shc travcls lrom thc Unitcd Statcs ol Amcrica to !raq.a c x N o w i v o c x v N + sMy thanks go rst to scvcral hundrcd studcnts ovcr thc ycars, whosc curiosity, cnthusiasm, and dcdication to lcarning Arabic wcrc a grcat motivation in writing this book. Spccial thanks go to my studcnt John Spillman Joncs lor rcading thc rst dralt ol thc tcxt and this rcviscd cdition. My dccp apprcciation gocs to Prolcssor Robcrt 8iggs ol thc ricntal !nstitutc at thc Univcrsity ol Chicago lor his valuablc commcnts. Spccial thanks and gratitudc arc owcd to r. Kristcn 8rustad ol thc Univcrsity ol Tcxas, Austin, lor rcading thc manuscript and lor hcr insightlul suggcstions. ! am indccd gratclul to my lricnd Tamir Aladhami (London) and dclightcd that hc thoroughly rcad thc manuscript and madc important corrcctions. To Laila arwish (Franklurt) who madc thc drawings lor thc book, ! am indcbtcd and thanklul. For this rcviscd cdition ! owc spccial thanks to Michacl Coopcrson, Prolcssor ol Arabic at thc Univcrsity ol Calilornia, Los Angclcs, lor his grcat cort in rcading this tcxt and lor his hclplul commcnts. To r. Richard 8rown, dircctor, and Gail Grclla, associatc dircctor, and to thc cntirc sta ol Gcorgctown Univcrsity Prcss, ! would likc to cxprcss my apprcciation lor thcir hclp and cnthusiasm.: N + v o o u c + : o NTc Arabic languagc is charactcrizcd by thc socallcd diglossia. Tis mcans thc cxistcncc ol two lorms ol thc languagc, classical and colloquial, sidcbysidc with varying lcvcls ol dicrcnccs. Scvcral uropcan and nonuropcan languagcs sharc such charactcristics. Classical Arabic, thc languagc ol rcading and writing, is also callcd litcrary, writtcn, lormal, and Modcrn Standard Arabic (MSA). !t is thc samc languagc in all Arab countrics. !t is uscd in lormal situations: ncwspapcrs, magazincs, books, schools and univcrsitics, radio and T\, conlcrcncc discussions, lccturcs, and in most writtcn matcrials. Arabs havc to go to school to lcarn thc MSA lorm, and, thcrclorc, not cvcry Arab can rcad and writc. Colloquial Arabic, on thc othcr hand, is thc spokcn languagc ol cvcryday activitics at homc, at work, on thc strcct, and in social occasions. !t varics not only lrom onc Arab country to anothcr but also within thc samc country dcpcnding on cducation, sociocconomic lcvcl, and rcligion. Howcvcr, thcrc is in cach Arab country onc standard and prcdominant colloquial vcrnacular bascd on thc dialcct spokcn in thc capital city or a major commcrcial city. Tc dicrcnccs bctwccn MSA and colloquial Arabic arc basically phonological and morphological, whcrcas thc dicrcnccs bctwccn thc dialccts arc in pronunciation, cvcryday cxprcssions, and idiomatic phrascs. Tc problcm ol thc Arabic diglossia has always raiscd thc qucstion ol which lorms ol Arabicmodcrn standard, colloquial, or which dialcct ol thc colloquialis to bc lcarncd or to bc taught by cducational institutions. !t is not an casy choicc, but thcrc arc critcria and ways that hclp thc lcarncr ol Arabic to makc that choicc.Vc advisc thc bcginning studcnt and travclcr to conccntratc on studying and stick with a singlc lorm or dialcct until it is lcarncd lairly wcll. Tc lcarncr will thcn bc ablc to usc that knowlcdgc ol Arabic in adapting himscll or hcrscll (tonguc and cars) to anothcr dialcct. !t is salc to statc hcrc that an avcragc pcrson with rm control ol onc dialcct should bc ablc to communicatc with anothcr pcrson who spcaks a dicrcnt dialcct. Tc communication lcvcl would bc thc samc bctwccn a pcrson spcaking Amcrican nglish and anothcr spcaking 8ritish nglish. Tcrc arc thrcc major gcographical groups ol dialccts in modcrn !raq that can bc idcnticd in gcncral tcrms as northcrn, southcrn, and ccntral. Tc northcrn dialcct is ccntcrcd around thc city ol Mosul (thc largcst city in thc north), and thc southcrn dialcct is ccntcrcd around thc city ol 8asra (thc largcst city in thc south). Tc ccntral dialcct is spokcn in thc capital city ol 8aghdad and its surroundings.Although this book is titlcd Modern Iraqi rabic, thc tcxt prcscntcd is thc dialcct spokcn by !raqis who livc in 8aghdad. 8aghdad, as a grcat capital and mctropolitan ccntcr, ocrs a dialcct that is thc most widcly uscd and undcrstood throughout !raq. Tc modcrn !raqi Arabic introduccd in this book is spokcn by an avcragc, middlcclass 8aghdadi.xvi ] Introductiona v v a N c v x v N + o v + n v n o o xTis tcxt is writtcn to scrvc thc communication nccds ol studcnts, travclcrs, and busincss pcoplc whosc objcctivc is to spcak rathcr than rcad or writc thc languagc. To achicvc that objcctivc, a translitcration systcm ol phonctic writing is uscd to cxprcss thc sounds ol !raqi Arabic. Tc sclcction ol thc transcription symbols is bascd on thc systcm uscd in thc Ency-clopedia of Islam, p. 7, by C. Glassc. Tc lcarncr should mastcr thcsc transcriptions bclorc procccding to lcarn thc structurc ol thc languagc. !n this rcviscd cdition Arabic script has bccn addcd, so thosc who can rcad and writc Arabic may bc ablc to lcarn thc dialcct ol !raq without abandoning thc Arabic writing. Tosc who arc lamiliar with thc writing convcntion ol Modcrn Standard Arabic will noticc ccrtain modications to thc script madc lor thc purposc ol cxprcssing ccrtain sounds or combinations ol sounds that arc lound only in colloquial Arabic. Lcsson ! ocrs thc rcadcr a dctailcd discussion ol consonants, vowcls, and othcr charactcristics ol !raqi phonctics, including a comprchcnsivc list ol pronunciation cxcrciscs on thc audio. Makc surc to listcn to thc audio lrcqucntly and practicc by rcpcating thc sounds. Tc tcxt is dcsigncd lor pcoplc who havc no prcvious knowlcdgc ol Arabic as wcll as thosc who havc alrcady studicd somc Arabic but wish to lcarn thc !raqi dialcct. !t is organizcd in a mcthod suitablc cithcr lor usc in thc classroom or lor scllstudy with thc hclp ol thc audio. Tc bcst way to lcarn a spokcn languagc is to hcar it spokcn and to practicc spcaking it. Tc csscntial lactors ol lcarning spokcn Arabic arc rcpctition, mcchanical cxcrciscs, and mcmorization, in addition to practicing with a partncr. Tis book contains twcnty lcssons bascd on cvcryday situations. Tc lcssons arc arrangcd in a storylikc lormat that lollows a woman namcd 8asma travcling lrom thc Unitcd Statcs to !raq and hcr activitics within thc country. 8cginning with lcsson 2, cach lcsson is dividcd into thc lollowing main parts:8asic ialoguc\ocabularyAdditional xprcssions (as nccdcd)Grammar and Rcmarks!dioms and Common PhrascsrillsCrcativc ialogucsBasic DialogueTc basic dialoguc is prcccdcd by a vcry bricl dcscription cxplaining thc lcsson subjcct mattcr, which always involvcs a lcmalc (8asma), a malc, and somctimcs morc pcoplc. Tc basic dialoguc is a convcrsation modulc usually bctwccn two pcoplc (malc and lcmalc) about daytoday mattcrs. Tc dialoguc is dcsigncd to bc simplc and practical, introducing thc subjcct mattcr ol thc lcsson and its grammatical structurc. Tc studcnt should mcmorizc thc vocabulary and thc cxprcssions in thc dialoguc. Tc samc or similar scntcnccs and cxprcssions will rccur in subscqucnt dialogucs and drills to rcinlorcc thc lcarning proccss.VocabularyTis scction contains thc ncw words that occur in thc lcsson listcd in thc ordcr in which thcy appcar in thc basic dialoguc. Somc vocabulary itcms may bc listcd in morc than onc lcsson bccausc ol thcir importancc to thc lcarning rcinlorccmcnt proccss. !n addition to thc mcaning ol thc vocabulary, othcr lorms ol thc words (with variation bascd on gcndcr, numbcr, and typcs ol vcrb stcms) arc also includcd with a cultural cxplanation whcncvcr it is appropriatc. Crossrclcrcnccs arc also madc to thc rclcvant discussions or cxprcssions.Additional ExpressionsTis is a list ol additional vocabulary or cxprcssions rclatcd to thc subjcct ol thc lcsson. Most ol thc vocabulary itcms will rccur in subscqucnt drills and lcssons.Grammar and RemarksTc cxplanations ol ncw grammatical structurcs arc givcn in a simplc and systcmatic way. Tc structurc points arc always illustratcd with cxamplcs lrom thc prcscnt lcsson or thc prcvious oncs. Tc studcnt nccds only to grasp thc basic knowlcdgc ol thc structurc. His or hcr cort will morc wiscly bc spcnt on mcmorizing ncw vocabulary and drill cxamplcs. An attcmpt has bccn madc to includc no morc than two main grammatical structurcs in cach lcsson.Idioms and Common PhrasesArabic is rich in idiomatic phrascs, provcrbs, sayings, and rcligious and cultural cxprcssions. Tcy constitutc an important clcmcnt ol cvcryday spokcn Arabic. Tcrc arc two to thrcc idioms in cach lcsson with cultural cxplanations and rclcvant drills. Tcsc idiomatic phrascs and thcir drills will rccur in latcr lcssons. Tc lcarncr should mcmorizc thc idioms and thcir drills, thus cnriching his or hcr communication skills.DrillsTc purposc ol thc drills is to hclp thc studcnt dcvclop a lacility lor rccombining thc vocabulary itcms hc lcarncd in thc dialoguc as wcll as to rcinlorcc thc grammatical structurcs ol xviii ] rrangement of the Bookcach lcsson. All thc drills, with thc cxccption ol thc translation, arc in Arabic in ordcr to makc thc studcnt usc Arabic morc oltcn and to lcarn to think in thc languagc. Tc most lrcqucntly uscd drills arc rcplying, substitution, translormation, changing, rcpcating, translation, and lormation ol scntcnccs with ccrtain wordings. Most ol thc drill compositions arc takcn with littlc changcs lrom thc basic dialogucs or thc grammar scctions. Tcrc arc also many morc lormcd by combining ncw and prcvious vocabulary itcms.Creative DialoguesTcsc arc opcncndcd crcativc activitics that studcnts can do with a partncr. Tc objcctivcs arc to invitc lcarncrs to bc crcativc within a givcn lcsson, to introducc ncw vocabulary, ncw scntcnccs, and to cnlorcc oral mcmorization.GlossaryMuch cort and attcntion havc bccn givcn to this list ol Arabicnglish and nglishArabic vocabulary and othcr itcms that occur in this book in ordcr to hclp thc uscr maximizc its usc and obtain good rcsults. For morc inlormation on thc arrangcmcnt and thc usc ol thc glossary, plcasc rclcr to thc glossary.AudioTc audio matcrial includcd with thc book is closcly intcgratcd with thc tcxt. Tc studcnt should usc thc audio togcthcr with thc book in ordcr to gct lull usc ol thcm. !t is also important to thc proccss ol lcarning to rcad thc rclcvant cxplanations that accompany cach scgmcnt on thc audio. Tc rccordcd scgmcnts arc dcsignatcd as Audio or xamplcs, Audio. ach word, idiom, and scntcncc is rccordcd twicc. Tc studcnt is askcd to rcpcat cach timc in a loud voicc. Howcvcr, thc studcnt should play thc audio as many timcs as hc or shc lccls ncccssary to mcmorizc thc scntcnccs and thcir mcanings. A pcrson lcarning on his or hcr own can conduct a rccording tcst to scc il thc pronunciation is corrcct by comparing it with thc audio.rrangement of the Book ] xixi : s + o v a n n v v v : a + : o N s a N o s v x n o i sadj. adjcctivcadv. advcrbcol. collcctivc dual\ doublc vcrbF lcminincFP lcmininc pluralH\ hollow vcrbimp. impcrativclit. litcrallyM masculincMP masculinc pluralMS masculinc singularN nounP pluralpart. participlcprcp. prcpositionR\ rcgular vcrbS singular\ vcrbV\ wcak vcrb~ dcrivcd lromIraqi popular handicraftsi v s s o N 1ARIS WAAHI Arabic Alphabet and Vowels The Iraqi Alphabet !raqi Arabic has thirtyonc consonant sounds. About ltccn ol thcm havc cquivalcnt sounds in nglish. Tc othcr sounds will rcquirc morc attcntion and practicc by studcnts lrom thc bcginning. Studcnts ol Arabic in gcncral must kccp in mind that thcir ability to communicatc with !raqis will dcpcnd cntircly on thc ability to producc thosc sounds or to writc thcm. Tc bcst way to lcarn any lorcign languagc is to hcar it spokcn by a nativc and imitatc it as closcly as possiblc. !t is important lor thc studcnt to imitatc vcry closcly thc pronunciation ol his/hcr instructor, or thc audio whcn a nativc spcakcr is not availablc. Sincc this book is dcsigncd to tcach studcnts how to spcak !raqi Arabic, thc transcription systcm is uscd in addition to thc Arabic script. Tc lollowing list ol !raqi Arabic alphabct sounds and thcir cquivalcnts in nglish, and in somc cascs othcr languagcs, arc approximatc. Tc cmphasis should, thcrclorc, bc on imitating thc pronunciation ol thc instructor and thc audio.The Iraqi Alphabet (Audio)Script Name Transcription Example Equivalent hamza lala uhoh! (a glottal stop sound) bcc b bcct boy pa p parda pcncil (uscd only in borrowcd words) tcc t tiin takc thcc th thalij third: ] i v s s o x +The Iraqi Alphabet (continued)Script Name Transcription Example Equivalent jiim j jaab job cha ch cham chair hcc h haal / (strongly whispcrcd dccp in thc throat, similar to thc sound produccd by somconc who has just burncd his mouth on hot cocc) khcc kh khaal auch (Gcrman) daal d dall dip dhaal dh dhill this rcc r naar hurry (approx.) zcc z zcct zinc siin s samm sit shiin sh shaal ship saad s sa / (cmphatic s, similar to thc s in sum with thc ccntral part ol tonguc dcprcsscd and thc back part slightly raiscd) daad d daal / (this sound is not produccd in !raqi Arabic, thc sound z is uscd instcad, scc bclow) ta t batt / (sound is madc with thc lront part ol thc tonguc touching thc uppcr palatc bchind thc tccth) za z zill / (sound is produccd with thc tip ol thc tonguc slightly touching thc back ol thc tccth) 9ccn 9 9aali / (almost silcnt ah, pronounccd dccp in thc back ol thc throat) ghccn gh ghaali Parisian (Frcnch) (similar to thc sound ol gargling and as dccp) ga g gaal go lcc l lariid t qaal q qaas / (likc thc c in cool but madc lurthcr back in thc throat) kaal k kilma kitchcn laam l lccla likc laam l walla bcll (cmphatic l appcars mostly with ccrtain cmphatic consonants or words that invokc thc namc ol alla, God)rabic lphabet and !o.els ] The Iraqi Alphabet (continued)Script Name Transcription Example Equivalent miim m maal mothcr nuun n nahar ncvcr hcc h hilaal hot waa w walad wcll ycc y yoom yctNotes on the Iraqi Arabic Consonants !. Tc hamza (), glottal stop, is a consonant and as such it appcars in thc bcginning (initial), middlc (mcdial), or cnd (nal) ol thc word. Howcvcr, in this tcxtbook, thc hamza is not rcndcrcd in thc initial position. Tis is donc lor two rcasons: to makc thc transcription writing systcm morc practical, and also bccausc nglish words bcginning with vowcls arc pronounccd with glottal stop, although it is not writtcn. !n Arabic, thcrc is no word that bcgins with a vowcl. Tc rcadcr, thcrclorc, must always assumc that thcrc is a hamza with cvcry initial vowcl. Vords with initial vowcls arc listcd undcr thc hcading () in thc glossary. 2. Tc consonant p, is a sound particular to !raqi Arabic. !t sccms to occur mostly in loanwords soopa, poskaart (heating sto.e and post card, rcspcctivcly). 1. Tc consonants ch, and k, : Tc sound ch is a nonclassicalArabic consonant. !n many cxamplcs this sound rcplaccs thc sound k as in chibiir lor kabiir (big), and chalib lor kalb (dog). Scc thcsc two hcadings in thc glossary. 4. Tc consonants g, and q, : Tc classical sound q is oltcn uscd in !raqi Arabic, although it is usually rcplaccd by thc sound g, such as giriib lor qariib (close), and gaal lor qaal (to say). Tc g also occurs in somc loanwords as geemar (cream) and glaas ( glass). . Tc consonants d, and z, : Tc classical sound d has almost complctcly disappcarcd and has lallcn togcthcr with thc sound z in !raqi Arabic, abyaz lor abyad (.hite), and khazz lor khadd (to shake). Howcvcr, wc havc rctaincd thc consonant d in thc book lor practical rcasons conncctcd with thc Arabic script. 6. Tc cmphatic l, : Tis sound is limitcd in numbcr and usc mainly in thc words that invokc thc namc ol God, alla. !t also occurs in cxamplcs that contain somc ncighboring cmphatic consonants such as t, s, and z, (sultaan, tall, zall ) (scc cxcrcisc !2).The Iraqi Vowels Arabic vowcls arc ol two typcs, long and short. Tc !raqi dialcct has vc long vowcls aa, ee, ii, oo, and uu, and lour short vowcls a, i, o, and u. !n thc cxamplcs givcn bclow thc nglish cquivalcnts arc only approximatc. Tc long vowcls arc simply thc lcngthcncd countcrpart ol thc short vowcls. For cxamplc, thc long vowcl aa is pronounccd as in thc word had and not as in thc word bat. !n othcr words, thc vowcl aa is longcr in duration than thc vowcl a. ] i v s s o x + Tc pronunciation lcngth ol thc Arabic vowcls is vcry important bccausc thcrc arc many words ol quitc dicrcnt mcanings that arc distinguishcd only by thc lcngth ol thcir vowcls, as in thc words alam (ag) and aalam (.orld), shimal (to include) and shimaal (north) (scc cxcrcisc !4). Anothcr dicrcncc bctwccn thc two typcs in Arabic script is that thc long vowcls arc writtcn within thc body ol thc script, whcrcas thc short vowcls appcar as symbols abovc or bclow thc consonants (scc bclow).1. The Long Vowels (Audio) Vowel Equivalent Example aa ham naam (to sleep) cc bait bcct (house) ii bcct jiib (bring) oo dog zooj (husband) uu root kuub (cup) 2. The Short Vowels (Audio) Vowel Equivalent Example a bct jamal (camel ) i hit sinn (tooth) u put kunt (I .as) o radio raadyo (radio) Notes on the Vowels !. Tc sound quality ol thc short vowcls arc acctcd by thc surrounding cmphatic consonants such as s, t, z, and l (scc cxcrciscs !, 1, 4, 6, 8, and !2). Tcy havc morc sound variations than thosc ol thc long vowcls, dcpcnding on thc surrounding consonants and thcir position in thc word. Tcy also havc lcss sonority than thc long vowcls. 2. Tc short vowcl a has a rangc ol sound qualitics dcpcnding on thc surrounding consonants (whcthcr cmphatic or simplc). For cxamplc, in thc middlc ol thc word it may havc thc sound e as in gct, a as in car, or u as in but. Howcvcr, its prccisc quality rarcly accts thc mcaning ol thc word. 1. Tc vowcls i and u at thc cnd ol thc word havc a sound likc that ol thcir long vowcl countcrparts ii and uu as in shuu (look, F) and shuufu (look, P). Tus, in Arabic script thc nal vowcls i and u arc writtcn with thcir long vowcl countcrparts ii, and uu, . 4. Tc vowcl o sounds likc thc long vowcl oo but shortcr. Tc vowcl sccms to appcar mostly in loanwords at thc cnd ol thc words, as in raadyo, byaano, and maayo (radio, rabic lphabet and !o.els ] piano, and bathing suit, rcspcctivcly). 8ut it also occurs in thc mcdial position as in paasbort and poskaart (passport and postcard, rcspcctivcly). Although o is a short vowcl it is traditionally writtcn with in Arabic script (MSA), sincc it appcars mostly in thc cnd ol loanwords, such as maayo . . Tc long vowcls ee and oo arc, in most cascs, rcgardcd as rccxcs ol thc classical Arabic diphthongs ay and aw as in zooj lor zawj (husband) and heel lor hayl (strength). Tcy appcar also in loanwords: sooda (soda), maatoor (motor), meez (table), and heel (cardamom). Tc long vowcl oo occurs in somc typcs ol thc wcak vcrb as in yoogaf (to stand) and yoosal (to arri.e). 6. Tc two vowcls ee and ii arc both cxprcsscd in Arabic script by thc vowcl . Similarly, thc two vowcls uu and oo arc writtcn with thc vowcl . Tis is bccausc thc ee and oo arc vowcls pcculiar to thc colloquial Arabic only. To dicrcntiatc bctwccn sounds ol ee and ii, and sounds uu and oo, rcadcrs arc adviscd to consult thc phonctic transcription.Phonetics of Iraqi Arabic: Pronunciation Exercises (Audio) : Tc lollowing arc a comprchcnsivc list ol cxcrciscs intcndcd to covcr ccrtain sounds ol !raqi Arabic, cspccially thosc sounds that arc ncw lor nonnativc spcakcrs ol Arabic. Tc words in thc cxcrciscs arc arrangcd in pairs bascd on thc similarity ol sounds with thc cxccption ol onc dicrcnt sound, cithcr a consonant or a vowcl. 8ut noticc thc dicrcnt mcanings ol thosc othcrwisc closc sounds. Tc rcadcr nccds only to noticc thc dicrcnt mcanings ol thc horizontally paircd words without mcmorizing thcm. Tc cxcrciscs arc lor thc rcadcr to practicc aloud with thc hclp ol thc audio. Tc instructor may nd it usclul to go ovcr thcm in thc classroom in rcpctition tcchniquc, cspccially using thc ncw sounds. n thc audio wc shall rcad horizontally cach word ol thcsc cxcrciscs twicc. Plcasc rcpcat altcr thc voicc. !. Contrast bctwccn h and h :hamal to neglect hamal to carryhajar to abandon hajar stonehalhal to rejoice halhal to loosenhabb to blo. habb to likehanna to congratulate hanna to dye .ith hennanahar nahar to slaughterlaham to s.allo. up laham meatharam pyramid haram forbiddenshabah resemblance shabah ghosthoosh cattle hoosh house6 ] i v s s o x + 2. Contrast bctwccn kh and gh :khaali empty ghaali expensi.ekhaab to fail ghaab absentkhccma tent ghccma cloudkhccr goodness ghccr otherkhalat to mix ghalat .rongkhilaal dierence ghilaal co.ershakhar to snore shaghar to be .acant 1. Contrast bctwccn s and s :saad to dominate saad to huntsaar to .alk saar to becomesaam poisonous saam to fastsabb to curse sabb to pourkhass lettuce khass to specifysccl s.ord sccl summernasiib relati.e-in-la. nasiib lotsi9ad to be happy si9ad to go up 4. Contrast bctwccn t and t :batt to decide batt geesetall hill tall to looktaab to repent taab to become goodtiin gs tiin claytuub repent tuub brickstamur palm dates tamur to .ith earthtooba repentance tooba ballrutab ranks rutab fresh dateslatar to abate latar to break fasting . Contrast bctwccn and 9 :saal to ask sa9al to coughsuaal question su9aal coughinglala to shine la9la9 to roarnaba ne.s naba9 to o.amm or 9amm unclebaaid perished baa9id to cause separationimaara emirate 9imaara multistory buildingalam pain 9alam agayyad to support 9ayyad to celebraterabic lphabet and !o.els ] maa .ater maa9 to meltshaa to .ant shaa9 to spreadaali mechanical 9aali high 6. Contrast bctwccn k and q :kaas cup qaas to measurekaad to .ork hard qaad to leadkiis bag qiis measureshakk doubt shaqq cutsalak to follo. salaq to cook in .aternakar to deny naqar to diglalak orbit lalaq to splittakriir repetition taqriir report 7. Contrast bctwccn d and d :9add to count 9add to bitekhadd cheek khadd to shakedarb road darb hittingdaar house daar harmfulhadam to destroy hadam to digestlaad to benet laad to o.ero.marduud rejected marduud bruisedridaa dress ridaa satisfaction 8. Contrast bctwccn dh and z :dhall to humiliate zall to get lostmadhalla humiliation mazalla umbrellanadhar to dedicate nazar to seeladhiidh delicious laziiz burningaldhaadh alone alzaaz rudedhaliil zaliil shadedmudhaakara muzaahara demonstration 9. Contrast bctwccn gh and g :ghuul demon guul sayghass to choke gass to cutghashsh to cheat gashsh to s.eepghidar to decei.e gidar to be ableyilghi to cancel yilgi to nddaghdagh to tickle dagdag to pound8 ] i v s s o x +gharram to ne garram to crippleghisab to force gisab reeds !0. Contrast bctwccn j and ch :Jammal make beautiful chammal to addjaara neighbor chaara remedyjaarak your neighbor chaarak one-fourthjaal to tour chaal to measurejuub tra.el chuub rubber tubejaay coming chaay teajiis touch chiis baglajj .ay lachch ja.rija to request richa to support !!. Contrast bctwccn h and kh :hoosh house khoosh goodhaal condition khaal unclehccl strength khccl horseshatt to put khatt linetahat under takhat bedhirza amulet khirza beadhimad to thank khimad to subduehall solution khall .inegarrahiim kind rakhiim soft (.oice)saahir magician saakhir mockerbuhuur seas bukhuur incense !2. Contrast bctwccn l and l :walla to lea.e walla by Godgalla to tell galla to fryballa to make .et balla by Godilla except alla Godkhaali empty khaali my uncledakhla entering dakhla .eddingdakhal to enter dakhal incomekhalli lea.e khalli my .inegar gilab to turn galub heart inshaalla God .illingrabic lphabet and !o.els ] !1. Contrast bctwccn singlc and doublc consonants:9alam ag 9allam to teachjama9 to add jamma9 to collectsharal honor sharral to honordaras to study darras to teachkhabar ne.s khabbar to telljamal camel jammal to decorate9aral to kno. 9arral to introducesalam to be safe sallam to greetbana to build banna buildermathal pro.erb maththal to act !4. Contrast bctwccn short and long vowcls:khabar ne.s khaabar to telephone9alam ag 9aalam .orldkatab to .rite kaatab to correspondnalas breath naalas to compete9id count 9iid festi.aljidd grandfather jiid necksadd to shut saad to dominateshaahid .itness shahiid martyrnabil arro.s nabiil noblejurr pull juur oppressionjarr to pull jaar neighborDrills tamaariin !. Listcn to thc audio and idcntily thc dicrcnt consonants. 2. Listcn to thc audio and idcntily thc short and thc long vowcls. 1. Listcn to thc audio and idcntily thc singlc and doublc consonants.D R I L L SSheiks guest house built of reeds in the marshes of southern Iraqi v s s o N 2ARIS ITHNIIN Greetings and Courtesy Expressionstahiyyaat wa mujaamalaat 8asma, an Amcricanborn !raqi woman, mccts Kamaal (a man), and cxchangcs thc lollowing grcctings. Noticc that in contcxt ol a grccting onc can almost always usc thc samc cxprcssion in rcply.Basic Dialogue (Audio)!. 8asma: marhaba.Hello..2. Kamaal: marhaba.Hello..1. 8asma: shloonak:Ho. are you: 4. Kamaal: aani zccn, ilhamdu lillaah. winti shloonich:I am .ell, praise God. nd ho. are you? . . 8asma: aani zccna, ilhamdu lillaah. tladdal istariih.I am .ell, praise God. Please sit do.n.. . 6. Kamaal: shukran.Tank you..7. 8asma: allaa bilkhccr.God bless (idiom).. +: ] i v s s o x :8. Kamaal: allaa bilkhccr.God bless (in rcply).. 9. 8asma: shloon lahal:Ho. is the family? !0. Kamaal: zccniin, ilhamdu lillaah. shloon wildich:!ell, praise God. Ho. are your children? . !!. 8asma: bkhccr, nushkur alla.!ell, thank God.. !2. Kamaal: 9an idhnich.Excuse me.. !1. 8asma: tladdal.Please (in this contcxt mcaning: you arc cxcuscd).. !4. Kamaal: ma9a ssalaama.Goodbye.. !. 8asma: ma9a ssalaama.Goodbye.. Additional Expressions (Audio)Feminine Formshloonich: Ho. are you? inti shloonich: Ho. are you yourself? tladdali stariihi. Please sit do.n. .Plural Formshloonkum: Ho. are you? intu shloonkum: Ho. are you tladdalu stariihu. Please sit do.n. .shloon wilidkum: Ho. are your children? 9an idhinkum. Excuse me. tladdalu Please (P) .Some Basic Greetings (Audio)marhaba Hello (inlormal, uscd any timc ol thc day).marhaba (in rcply) Hello. assalaamu 9alaykum. Peace be upon you. wa 9alaykum issalaam (rcply)nd peace be upon you (lormal, uscd any timc ol thc day). Greetings and Courtesy Expressions ] +sabaah ilkhccr Good morning. sabaah innuur (rcply) Good morning. masaa ilkhccr. Good afternoone.ening. masaa innuur (rcply) Good afternoone.ening. ma9a ssalaama Goodbye. ma9a ssalaama (rcply) Goodbye. tisbah 9ala khccr Goodnight (to a man). tisbah 9ala khccr (rcply) Goodnight. tisbahiin 9ala khccr Goodnight (to a woman). tisbahiin 9ala khccr (rcply) Goodnight. tisbahuun 9ala khccr Goodnight (to a group). tisbahuun 9ala khccr (rcply)Goodnight. ahlan wa sahlan !elcome. ahlan wa sahlan (rcply) !elcome. allaa bilkhccr God bless (scc bclow). allaa bilkhccr (rcply) God bless. tsharralna Pleased to meet you. wilna shsharal (rcply) Pleased to meet you. Vocabulary (Audio)tahiyya / tahiyyaat (S/P) greetings / marhaba Hello. shloon: ho.? shloonak / shloonich / shloonkum:(M/F/P)Ho. are you? zccn / zccna / zccniin (M/F/P).ell, ne, good (adj.) / / ilhamdu lillaah praise be to God (invariablc standard cxprcssion to a qucstion about how onc is doing, scc lcsson ). w/wa and aani I (M and F) inta / inti / intu (M/F/P) you / / tladdal / tladdali / tladdalu (M/F/P)Please (uscd whcn somconc ocrs somcthing to anothcr, varics dcpcnding on thc contcxt). / / stariih / stariihi / stariihu (M/F/P)Sit do.n (imp. vcrb). / / + ] i v s s o x :shukran thanks, thank you (invariablc).allaa bilkhccr God bless (idiom, scc bclow). ahal / lahal familythe family / walad / wilid (S/P) childchildren, boys. / bkhccr .ell, good, ne. nushkur alla Tank God. 9an idhnak / 9an idhnich / 9an idhinkum (M/F/P)Excuse me, .ith your permission. / / ma9a .ith (prcp.) salaama safety ma9a ssalaama goodbye tamriin / tamaariin (S/P) drills, exercises / ta9baan / ta9baana / ta9baaniin (M/F/P)tired (adj.) / / Grammar and RemarksIndependent Pronouns (Audio)English Arabic Examples Meaning! aani (M/F) aani zccn (M) I am .ell. aani zccna (F) I am .ell. you inta (M) inta zccn You are .ell. you inti (F) inti zccna You are .ell. hc huwwa huwwa zccn He is .ell. shc hiyya hiyya zccna She is .ell. wc ihna (M/F) ihna zccniin (M) Vc arc wcll. ihna zccnaat (F) !e are .ell. you intu (M/F) intu zccniin (M) You are .ell. intu zccnaat (F) You are .ell thcy humma (M/F) humma zccniin (M) Tey are .ell. humma zccnaat (F) Tey are .ell. Tcrc is no pronoun corrcsponding to thc nglish pronoun it in thc Arabic languagc. Tc pronoun it is cxprcsscd in Arabic by thc pronoun lor hc, huwwa, or shc, hiyya, dcpcnding on whcthcr thc it is rclcrring to somcthing lcmininc or masculinc. hiyya can also bc uscd to rclcr to groups ol things (scc bclow). Tc !raqi indcpcndcnt pronouns arc uscd much lcss oltcn than thcir countcrparts in nglish. Tcy arc uscd in scntcnccs without vcrbs. Tcy arc mainly uscd with adjcctivcs and advcrbs, to add cmphasis, or whcn changing Greetings and Courtesy Expressions ] +thc dircction ol thc spccch. Tc indcpcndcnt pronoun is always thc subjcct ol thc scntcncc or thc statcmcnt.Te chair (M) is ne.; it is ne..ilkursi jidiid, huwwa jidiid Te ne.spaper (F) is ne.; it is ne..ijjariida jidiida, hiyya jidiida Te ne.spapers (P) are ne.; they are ne..ijjaraayid jidiida, humma jidiida Note: Arabic statcmcnts havc no words cquivalcnt to thc vcrb to bc in nglish (am, is, arc). Vords lor was, wcrc, will, and shall will bc discusscd in lcsson !1.aani zccn I am .ell. (lit., I .ell.) ihna zccniin !e are .ell. (lit., !e .ell.) humma juu9aaniin Tey are hungry. (lit., Tey hungry.) Word Stress: Stress SyllableArabic words havc onc strcss sound that stands out abovc thc othcrs, whcthcr thc words havc onc or morc syllablcs. Vc call this a strcss syllablc. Tc strcss syllablc is automatic and prcdictablc according to ccrtain rulcs. Tcrc arc cxccptions, howcvcr. Tc Arabic strcss syllablc is thc syllablc that contains a long vowcl lollowcd by a consonant (\\C) as, in thc word raah, or a short vowcl lollowcd by two consonants or morc (\CC) as in thc word sadd. !n words with two strcss syllablcs, thc strcss is on thc sccond syllablc toward thc cnd ol thc word, in words with thrcc strcss syllablcs, thc strcss is on thc third syllablc, and so on. Listcn lor thc shilt in thc strcss and cmphasis in thc lollowing words on thc audio.mirtaah mirtaahiin zccn zccniin raayih raayhiin juu9aan juu9aaniin !l thcrc is no strcss syllablc ol thc typcs mcntioncd abovc, thc strcss lalls on thc rst syllablc in thc word, as in kitab, inta, ihna .Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)1. allaa bil-kheer God bless (lit., God has brought goodness.)!t is onc ol thc most common idiomatic cxprcssions uscd by !raqis. !raqis usc it whcn somconc (malc, lcmalc, or a group) comcs in. As soon as thc pcrson sits down, hc is grcctcd with allaa bil-kheer. Tc rcply is thc samc, allaa bil-kheer. Tis is an invariablc idiom.+6 ] i v s s o x :2. shaku maaku? Whats happening? Whats going on? Whats new? (lit., Whats there and whats not there?)Tis is a vcry common idiomatic cxprcssion uscd among lricnds.8asma: shaku maaku ilyoom:Basma: !hats ne. today? :Kamaal: maaku shii lyoom.Kamaal: Nothings ne. today. :shaku maaku 9arraadyo: !hat is the ne.s on the radio? shaku maaku bissuug: !hat is happening in the market? Drills tamaariin 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions:marhaba 9an idhinkum shloonak ilyoom: intu shloonkum: tladdal istariih shloon wildich: allaa bilkhccr 9an idhnak ma9a ssalaama shloon lahal: 2. Change orally the following masculine forms to feminine and plural forms:shloonak ilyoom: tladdal istariih aani zccn, ilhamdu lillaah inta juu9aan min ladlak inta zccn huwwa ta9baan shloon wildak: 3. Decline orally the independent pronouns with the following adjectives or participles:xamplc: aani zccn, aani zccna, inta zccn, inti zccna, huwwa zccn, hiyya zccna, ihna zccniin (MP), ihna zccnaat (FP), intu zccniin (MP), intu zccnaat (FP), humma zccniin (MP), humma zccnaat (FP).mirtaah contcnt, nc larhaan happy juu9aan hungry ta9baan tircd 9at shaan thirsty kaslaan lazy msaar travcling raayih going D R I L L SGreetings and Courtesy Expressions ] + D R I L L S4. Read the following statements aloud:shloon ahal 8asma ilyoom: shloon ahal Kamaal ilyoom: shloon ahal Samiir ilyoom: shloon ahal Jamiila ilyoom: shloon ahal Mahmuud ilyoom: shloon ahlak ilyoom: shloon ahlich ilyoom: shloon ahalkum ilyoom: 5. Complete and read aloud:a. Kamaal ta9baan ilyoom Samiir juu9aan ilyoom 8asma 8asma hiyya hiyya humma (M) huwwa inta humma (F) inti inta intu intu ihna ihna 8asma wa Kamaal Mahmuud wa Samiir . 8asma wa Layla Jamiila wa Samiira b. allaa bilkhccr 8asma Kaamil Mahmuud Jamiila Jamiil +8 ] i v s s o x : D R I L L S Samiir Samiira c. shaku maaku ilyoom: 9arraadyo: bissuug: bil9iraaq: b8aghdaad: bilbcct: bishshaari9: Creative DialoguesStudcnt !: masaa ilkhccr Jamiila Studcnt 2: masaa innuur Kamaal Studcnt !: shloona Mahmuud: Studcnt 2: huwwa zccn, ilhamdu lilaah Studcnt !: wishloonha 8asma: Studcnt 2: hiyya ta9baana Studcnt !: wccn hiyya: Studcnt 2: hiyya bilbcct Studcnt !: ma9a ssalaama Studcnt 2: ma9a ssalaama holy shrine in Baghdadi v s s o N 3ARIS TIAATHA Asking for Directionsittijaahaat 8asma is looking lor somc placcs. Shc mccts Samiir (a man) and asks him lor dircctions.Basic Dialogue: (Audio)!. 8asma: sabaah ilkhccr.Good morning.. :2. Samiir: sabaah innuur.Good morning.. :1. 8asma: min ladlak, wccn issalaara lAmriikiyya:Please, .here is the merican Embassy? :4. Samiir: hiyya bilKarrada.It is in Karrada.. :. 8asma: min ladlak, wccn ilbariid:Please, .here is the post oce? :6. Samiir: ilbariid qariib mnissuug.Te post oce is near the market.. :7. 8asma: tu9rul wccn ndiq irRashiid:Do you kno. .here is the Fashid Hotel? :8. Samiir: na9am, ndiq irRashiid yamm ilbariid.Yes, the Fashid Hotel is near the post oce.. . ::: ] i v s s o x 9. 8asma: shukran.Tanks.. :!0. Samiir: 9alwan.!elcome.. :!!. 8asma: wccn suug isSalaair:!here is the Safaar market? :!2. Samiir: i shaari9 irRashiid.On Fashid Street.. :!1. 8asma: bi9iid loo qariib:Is it far or near? :!4. Samiir: laa, muu bi9iid. mnccn hadirtich:No, it is not far. !here are you from? . :!. 8asma: aani min Los Angclcs.I am from Los ngeles.. :!6. Samiir: ahlan wa sahlan i 8aghdad!elcome to Baghdad.. :!7. 8asma: shukran. ma9a ssalaama.Tank you. Goodbye.. . :!8. Samiir: ma9a ssalaama.Goodbye.. :Vocabulary (Audio)sabaah morning ilkhccr the good sabaah ilkhccr. good morning innuur the light sabaah innuur. good morning (in rcply) min from (prcp.) min ladlak / min ladlich (M/F)please (cxprcssion uscd to dircct a rcqucst toward a malc and lcmalc, rcspcctivcly) / wccn: .here? issalaara the embassy lAmriikiyya the merican (adj.) Karraada an auent district in Baghdadilbariid the post oce sking for Directions ] :qariib, giriib near, close by bi9iid far loo or issuug the market suug isSalaair one of the oldest markets in Baghdad for metal craftsmanship tu9rul / tu9urin / tu9urluun (M/F/P)you kno. / / ndiq hotel, motel na9am yes yamm next to, adjacent to, near 9alwan (invariablc) .elcome, dont mention it, sorry mnccn, immccn: .here from? (scc lcsson !) min wccn: from .here? hadra presence hadirtak / hadirtich / hadratkum (M/F/P)your presence (a politc way ol addrcssing somconc) / / shunu: .hat? shukran (invariablc) thanks, thank you ahlan wa sahlan .elcome isim name ismi my name (scc attachcd pronouns bclow) tsharralna (invariablc) Pleased to meet you (lit. .e are honored, always plural lorm). wilna shsharal (in rcply to abovc)Pleased to meet you too (lit. the honor is ours). Grammar and RemarksAttached Pronouns (Pronoun Suxes)1. Pronouns Attached to Nouns: ktaab book (Audio)i my (M/F) ktaabi my book na our (M/F) ktaabna our book ak your (M) ktaabak your book ich your (F) ktaabich your book kum your (P) ktaabkum your book : ] i v s s o x a his ktaaba his book ha her ktaabha her book hum their (M/F) ktaabhum their book Vith nouns only.2. Pronouns Attached to Verbs: ygaabul he meets (Audio)ni me (M/F) ygaabulni he meets me na us (M/F) ygaabulna he meets us ak you (M) ygaablak he meets you ich you (F) ygaablich he meets you kum you (P) ygaabulkum he meets you a him ygaabla he meets him ha her ygaabulha he meets her hum them (M/F) ygaabulhum he meets them Vith vcrbs only.!raqi Arabic has a sct ol attachcd pronouns (also callcd pronoun suxcs) that appcar as suxcs at thc cnd ol nouns, vcrbs, and somc othcr words such as prcpositions and intcrrogativcs. Vhcn thcy arc attachcd to nouns thcy havc thc mcaning ol posscssion (scc group !, abovc). Vhcn thcy arc attachcd to vcrbs, thcy arc thc objccts ol thc vcrbs (scc group 2, abovc). Noticc thc dicrcnccs in thc mcaning bctwccn thc two groups. Also noticc that thc vcrb ol thc rst pcrson singular takcs thc pronoun ni instcad ol i as is thc casc with thc noun. Pronouns attachcd to prcpositions and intcrrogativc words arc thc subjccts (!, you, hc, ctc.). Attachcd pronouns occur much morc oltcn than thc indcpcndcnt pronouns.minnak minnich minnkum from you (M/F/P)9alcck 9alccch 9alcckum on you (M/F/P)shloonak: shloonich: shloonkum: ho. are you? (M/F/P)The Article il- theTc dcnitc articlc thc in nglish is cxprcsscd in !raqi Arabic by thc prcx il-. Tis invariablc prcx is uscd with nouns and adjcctivcs. A word prcccdcd by thc articlc il- is dcnitc and that is how you makc dcnitc words in Arabic, by adding this prcx. (Audio)sking for Directions ] :walad a boy ilwalad the boy baab a door ilbaab the door bcct a house ilbcct the house qalam a penpencil ilqalam the penpencil Propcr nouns and nouns with attachcd pronouns arc also dcnitc, as inbcctak your house bccthum their house qalamha her pen !l thc prcx il- is uscd in a word that bcgins with onc ol thc consonants, thc socallcd sun lcttcrs: t, t, th, j, ch, d, dh, d, r, z, s, sh, s, and n, thc l ol thc articlc is assimilatcd, rcsulting in doublc consonants in thc bcginning ol thc word. (Audio)taalib a student |iltaalib| ~ ittaalib the student nuur a light |ilnuur| ~ innuur the light saa9a a .atch [ilsaa9a| ~ issaa9a the .atch jariida a ne.spaper |iljariida| ~ ijjariida the ne.spaper daar a house |ildaar| ~ iddaar the house !l a word bcgins with a clustcr ol any two consonants, thcn thc il bccomcs li. Tis is donc lor casicr pronunciation. (Audio)uus money |iluus| ~ liuus the money hmaar a donkey |ilhmaar| ~ lihmaar the donkey ktaab a book |ilktaab| ~ liktaab the book stiikaan a tea glass |isstiikaan| ~ listiikaan the tea glass qmaash textile |ilqmaash| ~ liqmaash the textile Vhcn thc prcx il- occurs in a word procccdcd by a word cnding in a vowcl, thc vowcl i ol thc prcx drops out. (Audio)ma9a ilbint ~ ma9a lbint .ith the girl wara ilbaab ~ wara lbaab behind the door haadha ilqalam ~ haadha lqalam this penpencil haadhi issayyaara ~ haadhi ssayyaara this car :6 ] i v s s o x Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)1. 9ala keef + attached pronoun + as someone likes; take it easy with, be careful with, slow down9ala kcc as I like 9ala kcclna as .e like 9ala kccla as he likes 9ala kcclha as she likes 9ala kcclhum as they like 9ala kcclak as you (M) like 9ala kccch as you (F) like 9ala kcclkum as you (P) like 9ala kcclak bissiyaaqa. Take it (you, M) easy .ith the (be careful). 9ala kcclkum bilakil. Take it (you, P) easy .ith the food (dont eat too much). Also:9ala kccl 8asma as Basma likes 9ala kccl Samiir as Samiir likes 2. haay ween + pronoun? + Where have (you) been?haay wccn inta / haay wccnak:!here ha.e you (M) been? / haay wccn inti / haay wccnich:!here ha.e you (F) been? / haay wccn intu / haay wccnkum:!here ha.e you (P) been? / haay wccn huwwa / haay wccna:!here has he been? / haay wccn hiyya / haay wccnha:!here has she been? / haay wccn humma / haay wccnhum:!here ha.e they been? / Also:haay wccnha 8asma: !here has Basma been? haay wccna Kamaal: !here has Kamaal been? haay wccna Samiir: !here has Samiir been? haay wccnha Jamiila: !here has Jamiila been? sking for Directions ] : D R I L L SDrills tamaariin 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions:sabaah ilkhccr shunu isim hadirtich: tu9urin wccn ilbariid: wccn issalaara lAmriikiyya: wccn issuug: ahlan wa sahlan allaa bilkhccr min wccn 8asma: mnccn hadratkum: suug isSalaair bi9iid loo qariib shaku maaku 9arraadyo: shaku maaku ilyoom: ma9a ssalaama shukran 2. Change orally the following masculine form to feminine and plural forms:min ladlak tladdal listiikaan mnccn hadirtak: min wccn huwwa: min wccn inta: haay wccn inta: tladdal istariih 9ala kccla 9ala kcclak huwwa bi9iid loo qariib: 3. Complete and read the following aloud:aani 8asma min Amriika haay wccnak: huwwa Kamaal haay (you F): inti Jamiila haay (you P): inta Valiid haay (hc): hiyya Layla haay (shc): humma haay (thcy): :8 ] i v s s o x D R I L L S4. Make the following nouns denite with the article il-:baab taalib saa9a sayyaara walad wilid binit uus hmaar ktaab suug bariid tamriin salaara jariida tayyaara daris tamaariin 5. Conjugate orally the following nouns with the attached pronouns:qalam bcct stikaan ktaab suug hmaar bariid uus nuur 6. Complete and read the following aloud:a. tu9rul wccn ilbarrid: tu9urin wccn ilbariid: wccn issalaara: wccn bcct Samiir: wccn issuug: wccn bcct Laylaa: wccn 8asma: wccn Kamaal: sking for Directions ] : D R I L L Sb. 9ala kcclak bissiyaaqa 9ala kccch 9ala kcclkum 9ala kccla 9ala kcclha 9ala kcclhum 9ala kcc 9ala kcclna haay wccna ilyoom: haay wccnha : haay wccnhum : haay wccnak : haay wccnich : haay wccnkum : 7. Translate the following into Arabic:Good morning. Good morning (in rcply). Tanks. Hcllo. Goodbyc Samiir. o ] i v s s o x D R I L L SAs hc likcs. Vhcrc is thc post occ: How is thc lamily: How arc you (P) today: Plcasc, sit down (P). Vhcrc havc thcy bccn: Vhcrc havc you (M) bccn: Vclcomc to 8aghdad. Plcasc sit (P) down. Takc it casy with thc driving. Vhat is happcning today: Creative Dialoguesa. taalib !: aani min 8aghdaad. mnccn inti: . :! taaliba 2: aani min Los Angclcs :2 taalib !: shunu ismich: :! taaliba 2: ismi Kariima, shunu ismak: . :2 taalib !: ismi Kariim. :! taaliba 2: tsharralna. :2 taalib !: wilna shsharal :! b. taalib !: haadha ktaabich loo ktaabi: :! taaliba 2: haadha ktaabi. :2 taalib !: wccn ktaabi: :! taaliba 2: ktaabak bilbcct. :2 taalib !: ilbcct bi9iid loo qariib: :! taaliba 2: ilbcct bi9iid. :2 Te Unkno.n Soldier monument, Baghdadi v s s o N 4ARIS ARBA9A Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part Ib-mataar Baghdaad 8asma just landcd at 8aghdad Airport and must go through thc passport ocial ( mu wazzal ) and customs inspcctor (mulattish).Basic Dialogue (Audio)!. 8asma: masaa ilkhccr.Good afternoon.. :2. muwazzal: masaa innuur. mnccn hadirtich:Good afternoon. !here are you from? . :1. 8asma: aani Amriikiyya jaayya min Los Angclcs.I am an merican coming from Los ngeles. :4. muwazzal: ilbaasbort, min ladlich.Te passport, please.. :. 8asma: tladdal haadha ilbassbort.Here is the passport.. :6. muwazzal: shukran. shgadd baaqya hnaa:Tanks. Ho. long are you staying here? . : ] i v s s o x 7. 8asma: usbuu9ccn, inshaallaT.o .eeks, God .illing.. :8. muwazzal: shunu sabab izziyaara:!hat is the reason for the .isit? :9. 8asma: liziyaarat ilaathaar.To .isit antiquities.. :!0. muwazzal: tayyib, tladdali lbaasport.Fine, here is the passport.. :!!. 8asma: shukran, imaanilla.Tanks, goodbye.. :!2. muwazzal: salra sa9iida.(Ha.e) a good trip.. :(Airport customs inspcction continucs in lcsson .)Vocabulary (Audio)muwazzal / muwazzala / muwazzain (M/F/P)ocials, employees / / masaa afternoon, e.ening masaa ilkhccr Good afternoone.ening. masaa innuur Good afternoone.ening (in rcply). mnccn: !here? !here from? Amriiki /Amriikiyya /Amriikaan (M/F/P)mericans / /baasbort, paasbort passport jaay / jaayya / jaayyiin (M/F/P)coming (participlc) / /haadha / haadhi / hadhoola (M/F/P)this, thatthese (scc lcsson !4) / / shgadd: Ho. long? ho. much? (dcpcnding on contcxt)baaqi / baaqya / baaqiin (M/F/P)staying (part.) / /hnaa here usbuu9 / usbuu9ccn / asaabii9 (S//P).eekt.o .eeks.eeks / / sabab / asbaab (S/P) reasons / ziyaara / ziyaaraat (S/P) .isits / li- to, for, in order to (scc lcsson !4) at Baghdad irport, Part I ] liziyaarat to .isit athar / aathaar (S/P) antiquityantiquities, ruins / tayyib okay, all right, good, delicious (dcpcnding on contcxt)imaanillaa goodbye (lit., in Gods salcty, scc lcsson )salra / salraat (S/P) trips / sa9iida happy (adj.) salra sa9iida (Ha.e) a good trip Grammar and RemarksThe Helping Vowels: i, u - -Tc hclping vowcl in thc !raqi Arabic is thc short vowcl i and in somc rarc cascs thc vowcl u. Tc vowcl i appcars within onc word or across words to hclp pronouncc a scqucncc ol thrcc or morc consonants. Vithin onc word thc prcscncc ol thc hclping vowcl i is complctcly prcdictablc. !n a clustcr ol thrcc consonants in a row, thc hclping vowcl i is addcd automatically bctwccn thc rst and thc sccond consonants and in bctwccn thc sccond and thc third ol a clustcr ol lour consonants. (Audio)min ladlkum ~ min ladilkum isim hadrtak: ~ isim hadirtak: ariid stiikaan ~ ariid istiikaan shgadd saarlkum: ~ shgadd saarilkum: qariib min ilbariid ~ qariib mnilbariid Tc hclping vowcl i may also occur in uttcrancc ol a word that has initial two consonants, as in:hnaa or ihnaa herehwaaya or ihwaaya muchmnccn: or imnccn: .here from? Tc prcscncc and thc abscncc ol thc initial hclping vowcl i with two consonants is random and has no ccct on thc mcaning. !t is a mattcr ol a spcakcrs habit. Vc prclcr to lcavc it to thc studcnts to dccidc lor thcmsclvcs thc casicr way ol pronouncing such lorms. !n this book, thc hclping vowcl i will not bc indicatcd in transcription with thc twoconsonant clustcr, with thc cxccption ol somc vcry common cxamplcs.The NegationTcrc arc lour basic ncgation words in !raqi Arabic. Tcy arc usually morc strcsscd than thc words thcy ncgatc. Tcy arc thc lollowing:6 ] i v s s o x 1. muu notTc ncgativc word muu is uscd to ncgatc adjcctivcs and advcrbs only. (Audio)inta muu 9iraaqi You are not an Iraqi. hiyya muu hnaa She is not here. ilbariid muu yamm issalaaraTe post oce is not near the embassy. aani muu juu9aan I am not hungry. 2. maa / ma- / notTc word maa and its short lorm ma- arc uscd to ncgatc vcrbs (cxccpt impcrativc vcrbs) and a lcw vcrblikc words. !t morc occurs as a prcx, ma-, than as an indcpcndcnt maa.With Verbs (Audio)mayu9rul He does not kno.. matu9rul She does not kno.. mayriid He does not .ant. matriid She does not .ant. With Verb-Like Words (indicating the meaning of possession or there is/are) (Audio)9indi I ha.e maa 9indi I dont ha.e aku there isare maaku there isntarent ma9ak .ith you (M) maa ma9ak not .ith you 3. laa / la- / no, notTc ncgativc word laa and its short lorm la- arc uscd in thrcc contcxts:a. !t prcccdcs impcrativc vcrbs in thc lorm ol thc prcx la- cxprcssing thc mcaning not (scc lcsson 7). (Audio)saar Tra.el! (M) latsaar Do not tra.el! saalri Tra.el! (F) latsaalriin Do not tra.el! saalru Tra.el! (P) latsaalruun Do not tra.el! b. !t is uscd with a qucstion that rcquircs a ycs or no answcr, and it convcys thc mcaning no. (Audio)triid chaay: Do you (M) .ant tea? laa, shukran No, thank you. zccna, inshaalla: !ell, God .illing? laa, ta9baana shwayya No, a little tired. at Baghdad irport, Part I ] c. !t is uscd with thc ncgativc word wala (scc bclow).4. wala and not, nor, orTc ncgativc word wala consists ol two clcmcnts: wa (and) and la (not). Tcrclorc, it litcrally mcans and not. Tc word wala docs not appcar by itscll, but with onc ol thc abovcmcntioncd ncgativc words whcn two or morc itcms arc to bc ncgatcd. Tc rst itcm is ncgatcd by onc ol thc procccding ncgativcs (maa, muu, laa) and thc sccond and any subscqucnt itcms may bc ncgatcd by wala. Tc nglish cquivalcnt ol such a construction may bc ncithcr . . . nor, not . . . and not, or not . . . or. (Audio)maa aji wala aruuh I do not come or go. muu zccn wala mirtaah I am neither .ell nor content. laa ahmar wala aslar wala aswad not red, yello., or black laa ghaali wala rikhiis neither expensi.e nor cheap laa juu9aan wala 9at shaan neither hungry nor thirsty Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)1. laa ghaali wala rikhiis neither expensive nor cheapilmat9am laa ghaali wala rikhiisTe restaurant is neither expensi.e nor cheap. issayyaara laa ghaalya wala rikhiisaTe car is neither expensi.e nor cheap. ilbcct laa ghaali wala rikhiisTe house is neither expensi.e nor cheap. ilakil laa ghaali wala rikhiisTe food is neither expensi.e nor cheap. 2. laa shiish wala kabaab not bad, okay, so-so (lit., neither the skewer nor the meat, referring to the shish kebab food)ilakil laa shiish wala kabaab Te food is okay. ilmat9am laa shiish wala kabaab Te restaurant is not bad. ishshughul laa shiish wala kabaab Te .ork is okay. iddinya laa shiish wala kabaab Life is so-so. 3. shmadrii + attached pronoun? + How does (he) know?shmadriik aani juu9aan: Ho. do you (M) kno. that I am hungry? shmadriich huwwa 9iraaqi: Ho. do you (F) kno. that he is an Iraqi? 8 ] i v s s o x D R I L L Sshmadriikum ilmat9am ghaali:Ho. do you (P) kno. that the restaurant is expensi.e? shmadriihum inta msaar: Ho. do they kno. that you are tra.eling? shmadriini intu Amriikaan:Ho. do I kno. that you are mericans? shmadrii ilakil tayyib: Ho. does he kno. the food is good? Drills tamaariin 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions:masaa ilkhccr tladdali ilbaasbort imaanillaa mnccn hadirtak: shloon ilakil bilmat9am: shunu sabab izziyaara: shloon ishshughul: inta Amriiki loo 9iraaqi: shunu ismak: wccn issalaara lAmriikiyya: 2. Negate orally the following expressions using the correct negative word:aani Amriiki inti 9iraaqiyya ilbariid yamm issuug aku salaara Amriikiyya intu juu9aaniin tu9rul ndiq 9ishtaar hiyya zccna, ilhamdu lillaah humma min 8aghdaad huwwa taalib ilmat9am ghaali loo rikhiis: 3. Decline orally the following words by adding the attached pronouns:isim hadra hmaar ktaab baab wilid saa9a tayyaara mataar qalam sayyaara ndiq salaara baasbort stiikaan at Baghdad irport, Part I ] D R I L L S4. Make the words between the parentheses plural:(huwwa baaqi) usbuu9 ( )(muwazzal ) bilmataar ( )(anni) muu (juu9aan) () ()(inti) muu (9iraaqiyya) () ()mnccn (hadirtich): () mnccn (huwwa): () wccn (issayyaara): ( ) hiyya (jaayya) mnilbcct () (tu9rul ) wccn issuug: ()(tladdal istariih) ( )5. Complete and read the following aloud:a. ilmat9am laa ghaali wala rikhiis. liktaab issayyaara issuug ilakil issalar 8aghdaad il9iraaq b. shmadrii aani na9saan: shmadriiha : shmadriihum : shmadriik : shmadriich : shmadriikum : o ] i v s s o x D R I L L Sc. ishshughul laa shiish wala kabaab. ilmat9am ilakil issuug ichchaay ilgahwa 6. Translate the following into Arabic:Shc is an Amcrican. Tc rcstaurant is okay. Vc arc not wcll today. Plcasc sit down (P). Hc is an !raqi. Tcy arc in thc airport. ncithcr cxpcnsivc nor chcap thc rcason lor thc visit thc post occ ncar thc cmbassy Vhat is your (F) namc: Tc car is not ncxt to thc hotcl. No, wc arc not hungry. You (F) arc in thc Rashid Hotcl. at Baghdad irport, Part I ] + D R I L L STcrc is no post occ hcrc. ncithcr lrom 8asra nor 8aghdad. Vhat is happcning: Creative Dialogues:a. taalib !: wccn Sa9ad: :! taaliba 2: Sa9ad msaar :2 taalib !: wccn msaar: :! taaliba 2: huwwa msaar lLubnaan. :2 taalib !: shgadd baaqi bLubnaan: :! taaliba 2: huwwa baaqi usbuu9. :2 taalib !: shunu sabab izziyaara: :! taaliba 2: liziyaarat ahla b8ccrut. :2 b. taaliba !: aani raayha azuur Samiira. :! taalib 2: wccn hiyya: :2 taaliba !: hiyya b bcctha. :! taalib 2: bcctha qariib loo bi9iid: :2 taaliba !: bcctha laa qariib wala bi9iid. :! taalib 2: hiyya shloonha: :2 taaliba !: laa shiish wala kabaab. :! For ncw words, scc Glossary.Ishtar Gate in the ancient city of Babyloni v s s o N SARIS KHAMSA Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part IIb-mataar Baghdaad 8asma movcs on to thc customs inspcctor mulattish.Basic Dialogue (Audio)!. mulattish: min ladlich, iltahi jjunta.Please, open the luggage.. : 2. 8asma: bikull suruur.!ith pleasure. :1. mulattish: ma9ich ashyaa mamnuu9a:Do you ha.e .ith you any illegal items? :4. 8asma: laa walla, kullha malaabis shakhsiyya.No, all are personal clothes. :. . mulattish: shgadd ma9ich uus:Ho. much money is .ith you? :6. 8asma: ma9i hawaali alil duulaar.!ith me are about one thousand dollars.. :7. mulattish: ma9ich kaamira aw jigaayir:Do you ha.e .ith you a camera or cigarettes? :8. 8asma: 9indi kaamira bass.I ha.e a camera only.. :9. mulattish: tayyib.Fine. : ] i v s s o x !0. 8asma: min ladlak, wccn ittaksi:Please, .here is the taxi? :!!. mulattish: ittaksi hnaak giddaam ilmataar.Te taxi is there in front of the airport.. :!2. 8asma: shukran, ma9a ssalaama.Tanks, goodbye.. :!1. mulattish: salra sa9iida, inshaalla.Ha.e a good trip, God .illing.. :Additional Expressions (Audio)aku taliloon bilmataar: Is there a telephone in the airport? hadiyya / hadaaya (S/P) gifts / lim / aaam (S/P) lms / lim kaamira camera lm ma9i aaam kaamira I ha.e camera lms. majalla / majallaat (S/P) maga.ines / maa 9indi majallaat I do not ha.e maga.ines. mulattish gamaarig customs inspector daabut jawaazaat passport ocer Vocabulary (Audio)iltah / iltahi / iltahu (M/F/P) you open (imp. vcrb) / / junta / junat (S/P) luggages, suitcases, purses / bikull .ith all (scc bclow) suruur pleasure bikull suruur .ith (all) pleasure ma9a attachcd pronoun ha.e, .ith (scc bclow) 9ind attachcd pronoun, 9indi ha.e (scc lcsson !4), I ha.e shii / ashyaa (S/P) things, somethings / mamnuu9 / mamnuu9a (M/F) illegal, forbidden (adj.) / kullha e.erything, all malaabis clothes shakh si / shakh siyya (M/F) personal, pri.ate (adj.) / shgadd: Ho. much? Ho. long? uus money hawaali about, approximately alil one thousand duulaar / duulaaraat (S/P) dollars / kaamira / kaamiraat (S/P) cameras / at Baghdad irport, Part II ] aw or jigaara / jigaayir (S/P) cigarettes / bass only, enough, but taksi taxi giddaam in front, before, ahead wara behind, in the back inshaalla God .illing (scc bclow) raqam / arqaam (S/P) numbers, numerals / Grammar and RemarksThe Preposition ma9a have, with (see also lessons 10 and 14)Tc proposition maa is conjugatcd with thc attachcd pronouns as lollows:ma9i I ha.e (.ith me) ma9aana .e ha.e (.ith us) ma9ak you (M) ha.e (.ith you) ma9ich you (F) ha.e (.ith you) ma9aakum you (P) ha.e (.ith you) ma9aa he has (.ith him) ma9aaha she has (.ith her) ma9aahum they ha.e (.ith them) The Preposition Prex b- / bi- / in, by, at, withTc prcposition prcx b- mostly corrcsponds to thc nglish mcanings in or by, though in somc contcxts it also mcans at or with. !t occurs as a prcx with dcnitc or indcnitc nouns. Vhcn thc prcx b- prcccdcs a dcnitc noun with thc articlc il- (thc), it takcs thc lorm bi- and thc i ol il drops. (Audio)hiyya bmataar She is in an airport. hiyya bilmataar She is in the airport. huwwa bndiq He is in a hotel. huwwa bilndiq He is in the hotel. misha bsayyaara He .ent by a car. misha bissayyaara He .ent by the car. saa9idni bijjunta Help me .ith the luggage. The Noun: il-isim Arabic nouns havc two grammatical gcndcrs, masculinc (M) and lcmininc (F). !n othcr words, things to Arabs arc cithcr masculinc or lcmininc. Tcrc is no it as in nglish. Tcsc tcrms usually dcnotc a natural gcndcr, although inanimatc (nonhuman) oncs (book, library, ctc.) must also bc cithcr masculinc or lcmininc. (Audio)6 ] i v s s o x taalib (M) student taaliba (F) student khaal (M) uncle khaala (F) aunt ktaab (M) book maktaba (F) library As you can scc lrom thc abovc cxamplcs, thc two gcndcrs arc usually dicrcntiatcd by thc occurrcncc or thc abscncc ol thc sux a, at thc cnd ol thc noun or thc adjcctivc. Almost all masculinc words cnd in a consonant, and most lcmininc oncs cnd with thc sux a . Tc studcnt, thcrclorc, can changc thc gcndcr ol most words that rclcr to pcoplc by simply adding or omitting thc lcmininc cnding a . Most nouns havc thrcc numbcrs, singular (S), dual () lor two pcrsons or objccts, and plural (P). (Audio)diinaar (S) (onc dinar) diinaarccn () (two dinars) danaaniir (P) (dinars)taalib (S) (onc studcnt M) taalbccn () (two studcnts M) tullaab (P) (studcnts M)taaliba (S) (onc studcnt F) taalibtccn () (two studcnts F) taalibaat (P) (studcnts F) All nouns arc cithcr dcnitc or indcnitc. A noun is dcnitc il it is prcccdcd by thc dcnitc articlc il- (the), has an attachcd pronoun, or is a propcr namc. thcrwisc, it is indcnitc. (Audio)bcct a house ilbcct the house sayyaara a car issayyaara the car bcctna our house sayyaaratna our car The Cardinal Numerals 110: arqaam (Audio) ! waahid / wihda (M/F) / 2 thnccn / thintccn (M/F) / 1 tlaatha 4 arba9a khamsa 6 sitta 7 sab9a 8 thmaanya 9 tis9a !0 9ashra 0 sir at Baghdad irport, Part II ] Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)Tc Arab pcoplc invokc alla (God) in thcir daily communication vcry oltcn. Tc word alla is uscd in dicrcnt contcxts that do not ncccssarily rccct a rcligious signicancc but rathcr a cultural cxprcssion. !diomatic phrascs containing thc word alla arc uscd by sccular and rcligious pcoplc alikc, including nonMuslims. Tcsc invocations rccct thc idca that hcalth, sickncss, succcss, lailurc, and othcr occurrcnccs arc thc will ol God. 8clow arc somc ol thc most common ol thcsc cxprcssions. Noticc that thc word alla is almost always pronounccd with cmphatic l.1. inshaalla God willing, by the will of God, I hope.Tis idiomatic cxprcssion is onc ol thc most commonly uscd in thc Arabic languagc. !t is uscd by spcakcrs to cxprcss thc hopc that somcthing has turncd out or will turn out lavorably. Nonnativc spcakcrs ol Arabic must bc vcry carclul not to usc this cxprcssion sarcastically. Pcoplc who travcl to thc Middlc ast may scc inshaalla donc in bcautilul Arabic calligraphy in homcs, storcs, cars, ctc. (Audio).salra sa9iida, inshaalla Ha.e a happy trip, God .illing. ashuulak baachir, inshaalla I .ill see you tomorro., God .illing. aani raayih l8aghdaad ba9ad usbuu9, inshaallaI am going to Baghdad in one .eek, God .illing. shloon shughlich: inshaalla zccn:Ho. is your (F) .ork? Good, God .illing? shloonkum ilyoom: ishaalla zcniin:Ho. are you (M) today? !ell, God .illing? 2. ilhamdu lillaah Thanks be to God.Tis is onc ol thc standard rcplics to a qucstion about how a pcrson is doing or how things arc going (Audio).shloon wildak: Ho. are your (M) children? zccniin, ilhamdu lillaah. !ell, praise be to God. shloonak ilyoom : Ho. are you (M) today? zccn, ilhamdu lillaah, or just !ell, praise be to God. ilhamdu lillaah Praise be to God. 3. alla ykhallii + attached pronoun May God preserve.Somctimcs this phrasc is uscd to rcqucst somcthing lrom anothcr pcrson likc min ladlak (please). !t may also bc uscd as a rcsponsc to a complimcnt (Audio).8 ] i v s s o x min ladlak, wccn ittaksi: or alla ykhalliik, wccn ittaksi :Please, .here is the taxi?Please, .here is the taxi? min ladlich, iltahi ijjunta or alla ykhalliich, iltahi jjuntaPlease, open the luggage.Please, open the luggage. min ladlich, wccn ilbariid: or alla ykhalliich, wccn ilbariid:Please, .here is the post oce?Please, .here is the post oce? min ladlak, saa9idni bijjunta or alla ykhalliik, saa9idni bijjunta Please, help me .ith the luggage.Please, help me .ith the luggage. 4. yaa alla Oh God.An cxclamation said by somconc who is about to bcgin somcthing such as work, a trip, cating, sitting down, ctc. (Audio).5. yalla Hurry up.!dioms lour and vc arc basically thc samc words, but noticc thc dicrcncc in pronunciation bctwccn thcm (Audio).yalla, khalliina nruuh lilbcctHurry up, let us go to the house. yalla, jiibi lkursi Hurry up, bring (F) the chair. yalla, rahyimshi lqitaar Hurry up, the train .ill be yalla, khalliina naakul Hurry up, lets eat. 6. walla Really, denitely (lit., I swear by God, emphatic oath) (Audio).mulattish: ma9ich ashyaa mmanuu9a:Do you ha.e .ith you illegal items? :8asma: laa, walla No, denitely not. :walla, mashit 8aabil Feally, I did not see Babylon. at Baghdad irport, Part II ] walla, maaruuh ma9ak Denitely not, I .ill not go .ith you (M). 7. balla? Is it so? Is it true? Please (with request) (lit., in the name of God).ilndiq daraja uulaa Te hotel is rst class. balla: Is it true? ujrat ittaxi hwaaya Taxi fare is expensi.e. balla: Is it so? balla, lad jigaara cigarette please (.ould you gi.e me...). 8. muu balla? Isnt it so? Isnt it?il9iraaq balad qadiim, muu balla:Iraq is an ancient country. Isnt it? Amriika balad chibiir, muu balla:merica is a large country. Isnt it? 8asma Amriikiyya, muu balla:Basma is an merican. Isnt it so? 9. imaanillaa goodbye (lit., in Gods safety)8asma: imaanillaa Basma: Goodbye :Mulattish: imaanillaa Inspector: Goodbye :10. maashaalla Praise be to God (lit., whatever God wills).!diom ol admiration uscd along with or instcad ol a dircct complimcnt to avcrt thc cvil cyc.maashaalla, wildak kbaar Praise be to God, your children are big. maashaalla, 9ccltak chibiira Praise God, your family is large maashaalla, shughulkum zccnPraise be to God, your .ork is good. 11. allaa(h)! ! How nice! (Expression of admiration and the origin of the Spanish word ol.)allaah! shgadd hilu shaari9 Abu Nuwaas billccl:Ho. nice is bu Street at night! ! allaah! shgadd hilu nahar ijla billccl:Ho. nice is the .ie. of Tigris at night! !allaah ismich hilu! Ho. nice your (F) name is! ! o ] i v s s o x D R I L L SDrills tamaariin 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions:min ladlich iltahi jjunta wccn ittaksi, alla ykhalliik: shgadd ma9ich uus: salra sa9iida, inshaalla aku taliloon bilmataar: shgadd baaqi bLubnaan: ma9akum ashyaa mamnuu9a: 9indkum kaamira wa aaam: ilmulattish 9iraaqi loo Amriiki: shloonkum: zccniin inshaalla: 2. Change the following masculine forms to feminine (F) and plural (P) forms:iltah ijjunta, min ladlak F: P: ma9ak kaamira wa lim F: P: huwwa mulattish bilmataar F: P: shgadd inta baaqi hnaa: F: P: bcctak yamm issuug F: P: at Baghdad irport, Part II ] + D R I L L Sinta muu ta9baan F: P: aani muu zccn ilyoom F: P: huwwa muu juu9aan F: P: 3. Read the following aloud:a. ittaksi giddaam ilmataar ijjunta giddaami ittaksi giddaam ilndiq ijjunta giddaamna ittaksi giddaam ilbariid ijjunta giddaamak ittaksi giddaam issalaara ijjunta giddaamich ittaksi giddaam ilbcct ijjunta giddaamkum ittaksi giddaam ilbank ijjunta giddaama ittaksi giddaam bccthum ijjanta giddaamha ittaksi giddaam bcctna ijjunta giddaamhum b. issayyaara wara issalaara ittayyaara waraaya issayyaara wara ilbank ittayyaara waraana issayyaara wara ilbcct ittayyaara waraak issayyaara wara ilbariid : ] i v s s o x D R I L L S ittayyaara waraach issayyaara wara bcctkum ittayyaara waraakum issayyaara wara bccta ittayyaara waraa issayyaara wara bcctha ittayyaara waraaha issayyaara wara bccthum ittayyaara waraahum c. ma9i malaabis wiuus ma9aa jigaayir hwaaya ma9aana malabis wiuus ma9aaha jigaayir hwayya ma9ich junta chibiira ma9aakum junta chibiira ma9ak junta chibiira ma9aahum jigaayir hwaaya 4. Say the following in Arabic: aruuh I go! go to your (M) homc by car.! go homc by train.! go to thc markct today.! go to Lcbanon by an airplanc, God willing.! go to 8abylon lrom thc hotcl.cnitcly, shc is in thc airport.cnitcly, thcy arc in thc Amcrican cmbassy in 8aghdad.cnitcly, you (P) arc in thc !raqi cmbassy in Vashington.cnitcly, wc arc in thc Saudi cmbassy in Jcddah.cnitcly, thcy arc not lrom Jcddah.cnitcly thcy arc ncithcr !raqis nor Amcricans.Hurry up, opcn (M) thc book.Hurry up, opcn (M) thc luggagc.Hurry up, opcn (F) thc camcra.Hurry up, opcn (F) thc lm.Hurry up, opcn (P) thc door.Hurry up, opcn (P) thc at Baghdad irport, Part II ] D R I L L S5. Complete and read the following aloud:a. alla ykhalliik, wccn ittaksi: alla ykhalliich, : alla ykhalliikum, : alla ykhalliik, wccn ndiq irRashiid: alla ykhalliich, : alla ykhalliikum, : b. yalla, khalliina nruuh lissalaara lissuug lilndiq lilbariid il8aghdaad lil9iraaq lilmataar lilbcct c. maashaalla shughlak zccn shughlich shughulkum shughli shughulna shughla shughulhum ] i v s s o x D R I L L S6. Translate the following into English:humma bilndiq intu Amriikaan min Los Angclcs aani aruuh il8aabil bissayyaara aani maa ruuh il8aabil bilqitaar aani hnaa liziyaarat ilaathaar ma9ich ashyaa mamnuu9a: walla, maa ma9i aaam bijjunta yalla, iltahu ijjunat issayyaara giddaam issalaara ilqitaar muu giddaam ilbcct ilakil laa ghaali wala rkhiis ilmat9am laa shiish wala kabaab shloon shughlak: zccn inshaalla: yalla, rahyimshi lqitaar Creative Dialoguesa. taalib !: wccn sayyaartich: :! taaliba 2: haadhi sayyaarti :2 taalib !: allaah, sayyaartich hilwa hwaaya :! taaliba 2: shukran :2 taalib !: yalla, khalliina nruuh lilmat9am. :! taaliba 2: wccn ilmat9am: :2 taalib !: yamm ndiq irRashiid :! at Baghdad irport, Part II ] D R I L L Sb. taalib !: shloona ibnich, yaa Samiira: :! taaliba 2: zccn, ilhamdu lillaah :2 taalib !: bcctich bi9iid, muu balla: :! taaliba 2: laa, muu bi9iid hwaaya :2 taalib !: shughlich zccn, inshaalla: :! taaliba 2: laa shiish wala kabaab :2 taalib !: imaanillaa :! taaliba 2: imaanillaa :2 For ncw words, scc Glossary.T.o bull men guard the gate of the ancient ssyrian city of Nimrud in northern Iraqi v s s o N 6ARIS SITTA Taking a Taxitajiir taksi 8asma walks to thc lront ol thc airport to takc a taxi to thc Rashid Hotcl, shc approachcs a drivcr (saayiq) and says to him:Basic Dialogue (Audio)!. 8asma: marhaba.Hello. . :2. saayiq: marhaba.Hello.. :1. 8asma: ariid aruuh ilndiq irRashiid.I .ant to go to the Fashid Hotel.. :4. saayiq: 9ala 9ccni, tladdali is9adi bissayyaara.!ith pleasure, please get in the car. :. . 8asma: aku 9addaad bissayyaara:Is there a meter in the car? :6. saayiq: laa, maaku 9addaad.No, there is no meter.. :7. 8asma: shgadd ilujra:Ho. much is the fare? :8. saayiq: 9ashir danaaniir.Ten dinars.. :8 ] i v s s o x 69. 8asma: haadhi hwaaya, antiik sitt danaaniir.Tis is too much, I gi.e you six dinars.. . :!0. saayiq: maykhaalil, tladdali.Fine, please (get in.) . :!!. 8asma: ilndiq giriib loo bi9iid mnilmataar:Is the hotel near or far from the airport? :!2. saayiq: laa giriib wala bi9iid.Neither near nor far.. :!1. 8asma: shloona lndiq:Ho. is the hotel? :!4. saayiq: daraja uulaa. wisalna, haadha huwwa lndiq.First class. !e.e arri.ed, this is the hotel.. . :!. 8asma: shukran, haak ilujra.Tanks, take the fare.. :Vocabulary (Audio)saayiq / saayqa (M/F) / ariid I .ant (scc vcrbs, lcsson !!)aruuh I go (scc vcrbs, lcsson !!) 9ala / 9a on, upon, about (scc lcsson !) / 9ccni my eye 9ala 9ccni .ith pleasure (scc bclow) aku there isare (scmi vcrb word) maaku there isntarent (scc bclow) is9ad / is9adi / is9adu (M/F/P)get in, go up (imp. vcrb) / / 9addaad meter (car), gauge ujra fare, fee, rate dinaar / danaaniir (S/P) dinars (!raqi currcncy) / haadha / haadhi / hadhoola (M/F/P)this, that (dcmonstrativcs, scc lcsson !4) / / hwaaya much, many, a lot (invariablc) antiik / antiich / antiikumI gi.e you (M/F/P) / / Taking a Taxi ] maykhaalil ne, okay, it doesnt matter (scc lcsson !4)giriib, qariib near, close by (adj.) bi9iid, ba9iid far a.ay (adj.) loo or mni min from (prcposition. min bccomcs mni lor phonctic rcasons whcn it prcccdcs thc articlc il-) ~ daraja / darajaat (S/P) le.els, degrees / uulaa / awwal (F/M) rst (ordinal numcral) / wisalna .e arri.ed, .e ha.e arri.ed. haak / haach / haakum (M/F/P)take (imp. vcrb) / / Grammar and RemarksThe Adjective: is-sifa Arabic has thrcc adjcctivc lorms: masculinc, lcmininc, and plural. Tc masculinc adjcctivc is thc simplcst lorm with no addcd cnding. Tc lcmininc has thc cnding a, likc thc lcmininc noun, somctimcs with somc changcs in thc undcrlying word, spccically thc dropping ol thc stcm vowcl, i or u, that prcccdcs thc last consonant in thc word. Tcrc arc two main lorms ol plural adjcctivcs, a masculinc plural lormcd by adding thc sux -iin and lcmininc plural lormcd by adding thc sux -aat. A lcss common adjcctivc lorm ol thc pattcrn C\C\\C (kabiir, large) is usually madc plural in thc pattcrn CC\\C (kbaar). For both noun and adjcctivc agrccmcnt, scc thc scction bclow. To dccidc thc adjcctivc lorm, thc studcnt must rccognizc thc dircction ol thc spccch and dctcrminc whcthcr thc adjcctivc is dcscribing/modilying a malc, a lcmalc, or a plural, and thcn sclcct thc appropriatc lorm. 8clow is thc dcclcnsion ol thc adjcctivc zeen (.ell) with thc indcpcndcnt pronouns (Audio).! aani zccn / aani zccna (M/F) I am .ell / you inta zccn (M) you are .ell you inti zccna (F) you are .ell hc huwwa zccn he is .ell shc hiyya zccna she is .ell wc ihna zccniin / ihna zccnaat M/F) .e are .ell / you intu zccniin / intu zccnaat (M/F) you are .ell / thcy humma zccniin / humma zccnaat (M/F) they are .ell / 6o ] i v s s o x 6The Relative AdjectiveTis is a spccial lorm ol adjcctivc that rcccts thc mcaning ol, pcrtaining to, or rclatcd to thc noun lrom which it is usually dcrivcd. !t is an important and common construction in Arabic. !t has thrcc lorms: masculinc, lcmininc, and plural, just likc thc rcgular adjcctivcs.1. Masculine Singular and Plural: Tc masculinc rclativc adjcctivc is lormcd by adding thc sux i, (singular) and thc sux iyyiin, (plural) to thc noun (Audio).Lubnaan Lebanon 9iraaq Iraq Lubnaani Lebanese 9iraaqi Iraqi Lubnaaniyyiin Lebanese 9iraaqiyyiin Iraqis Tuunis Tunis 8aghdaad Baghdad Tuunisi Tunisian 8aghdaadi Baghdadi Tuunisiyyiin Tunisians 8aghdaadiyyiin Baghdadis also: 8ghaada Baghdadis 2. Feminine Singular and Plural: Tc lcmininc rclativc adjcctivc is lormcd by adding thc sux iyya, (singular) and thc sux iyyaat, (plural) (Audio).Lubnaan Lebanon 9iraaq Iraq Lubnaaniyya Lebanese 9iraaqiyya Iraqi Lubnaaniyyaat Lebanese 9iraaqiyyaat Iraqis gharb .est sharq east gharbiyya .esterner sharqiyya eastern gharbiyyaat .esterners sharqiyyaat easterners Tcrc arc somc cxccptions to thc gcncral rulcs outlincd abovc.NounAdjective AgreementTc adjcctivc agrccs with thc noun it modics in gcndcr, numbcr, and dcnitcncss. !l thc noun is indcnitc or dcnitc, thc adjcctivc must also bc indcnitc or dcnitc, rcspcctivcly. (Audio)bcct jidiida ne. house ilbcct lijdiidthe ne. house bcctna lijdiidour ne. house ndiq rikhiisa cheap hotel ilndiq lirkhiisthe cheap hotel Altcr a masculinc or a lcmininc noun thc adjcctivc must bc masculinc or lcmininc, rcspcctivcly. (Audio)Taking a Taxi ] 6+maktab jidiida ne. oce maktaba jidiidaa ne. library walad chibiira big boy bint chibiiraa big girl Vith a masculinc or lcmininc plural animatc noun thc adjcctivc is also plural. Vith a nonhuman (inanimatc) plural noun thc adjcctivc is usually lcmininc singular. (Audio)tullaab 9iraaqiyyiin (M) Iraqi students taalibaat 9iraaqiyyaat (F) Iraqi students kulliyya chibiira a large college kulliyyaat chibiira large colleges miltaah jidiid a ne. key malaatiih jidiida ne. keys The Word aku there is / areTc word aku (there isare) is not a vcrb in !raqi Arabic in spitc ol its mcaning. !t is madc ncgativc with thc prcx ma-.aku sayyaara Tere is a car maaku sayyaara Tere isnt a car aku mayy haar Tere is hot .ater maaku mayy haar: Tere isnt hot .ater aku sayyaaraat Tere are cars maaku sayyaaraat Tere arent cars The Cardinal Numerals 1120 da9ash9ishriin (Audio)!! da9ash !2 thna9ash !1 tlatta9ash !4 arbaata9ash ! khmusta9ash !6 sitta9ash !7 sbaata9ash !8 thmunta9ash !9 tsaata9ash 20 9ishriin 6: ] i v s s o x 6Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)1. 9ala 9eeni, 9ala raasi with pleasure (lit., on my eye, on my head) !diomatic cxprcssions uscd to indicatc thc spcakcrs rcadincss and acccptancc ol what bcing is said or rcqucstcd.min ladlak, iltah ilbaab Please open the door. Rcply: 9ala 9ccni !ith pleasure. alla ykhalliik, saa9idni bijjuntaPlease, help me .ith the suitcase. Rcply: 9ala raasi !ith pleasure. ariid aruuh ilndiq irRashiidI .ant to go to the Fashid Hotel. Rcply: 9ala 9ccni, is9ad bissayyaara!ith pleasure, get in the car. min ladlich iltahi ishshubbaachPlease open the .indo.. Rcply: 9ala raasi !ith pleasure. 2. 9ala kra by the way9ala kra, shloona ilmat9am:By the .ay, ho. is the restaurant? 9ala kra, wccn raayih: By the .ay, .here are you going? 9ala kra, wccn sayyaartak: By the .ay, .here is your car? 9ala kra, shunu ismich: By the .ay, .hat is your name? 3. 9ala kull haal in any case, anyway9ala kull haal, huwwa raayih lil9iraqny.ay, he is going to Iraq. 9ala kull haal, huwwa maraayih lil9iraqny.ay, he is not going to Iraq. 8asma raayha lil8asra, 9ala kull haalBasma is going to Basra, any.ay. 9ala kull haal, ilbariid muu bi9iidny.ay, the post oce is not far. 9ala kull haal, Laylaa muu 9iraaqiyyaIn any case, Laylaa is not an Iraqi. Taking a Taxi ] 6 D R I L L SDrills tamaariin 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following statements:ariid aruuh ilndiq irRashiid wccn ilndiq, min ladlich: shgadd ilujra mnilmataar lilndiq: aku 9addaad bissayyaara: ilndiq giriib loo bi9iid