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Introduction to Undergraduate Medical Research UMR 101

Sep 11, 2014


Workshop conducted by Society for Undergraduate Medical Research &
Cancer Support Group, Pakistan at Ayub Medical College.

Slide 1

UMR - 101Society for Undergraduate Medical ResearchCancer Support Group, PakistanObjectivesAt the end of the workshop, each participant will:Have a written title, aims & objectives, references and introduction for a research projectBe able to explain research tools, methodology and tests of significanceBe able to enumerate basic principles of bioethics

Thinking vs. DoingMost people associate research with doing something: observing people, using equipment, or analyzing dataHowever, the most critical parts of the research process are those parts that are associated withthinkingnot doing

Topic vs. QuestionAfter one has become interested in an area of inquiry, and has studied the available literature, it is time to formulate a research question and develop hypothesesThis stage is the most crucial part of research. If one is not exactly clear about what one is studying, then the result is a very muddy researchResearch QuestionA research question is a formal statement of thegoal of a study

The research question states clearly what the study will investigate or attempt to prove

Research QuestionResearch QuestionFINER Analysis


Research Question AnalysisWhat do I need to know and how is my topic different from what is already done in this area? (Literature search)How am I going to answer my question? (Methodology)Why is my work important to others? (Significance)

TYPES OF RESEARCHQuantitativeBasicAppliedDescriptiveCo relationalExperimentalQualitative

S.M.A.R.T ObjectivesSpecific, Significant, Stretching, SimpleMeasurable, Motivational, Manageable, MeaningfulAttainable, Appropriate, Achievable, Agreed, Assignable, Actionable, Adjustable, Ambitious, Aligned, Aspirational, Acceptable, Action-focusedRelevant, Result-Based, Results-oriented, Resourced, Resonant, RealisticTimely, Time-oriented, Time framed, Timed, Time-based,Time-boxed, Time-bound, Time-Specific, Timetabled, Time limited, Trackable, TangibleSMART-ER ObjectivesEvaluate, Ethical, Excitable, Enjoyable, Engaging, EcologicalReevaluate, Rewarded, Reassess, Revisit, Recordable, Rewarding, ReachingSatisfactory, Satisfies Strategic Vision

S. SPECIFICNeed for a specific goal over and against a more general oneThis means the goal is clear and unambiguous; without vagaries and platitudesTo make goals specific, they must tell a team exactly what is expected, why is it important, whos involved, where is it going to happen and which attributes are importantS. SPECIFIC (cont.)What: What do I want to accomplish?Why: Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal.Who: Who is involved?Where: Identify a location.Which: Identify requirements and constraints.

M. MEASURABLENeed for concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of the goalThe thought behind this is that if a goal is not measurable, it is not possible to know whether a team is making progress toward successful completionMeasuring progress is supposed to help a team stay on track, reach its target dates, and experience the exhilaration of achievementM. MEASURABLEA measurable goal will usually answer questions such as:How much?How many?How will I know when it is accomplished?A. ATTAINABLEThe third term stresses the importance of goals that are realistic and attainable. While an attainable goal may stretch a team in order to achieve it, the goal is not extreme. When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true. You develop the attitudes, abilities, skills, and financial capacity to reach them. How: How can the goal be accomplished?

R. RELEVANT Relevant goals (when met) drive the team, department, and organization forward. A goal that supports or is in alignment with other goals would be considered a relevant goal.Does this seem worthwhile?Is this the right time?Does this match our other efforts/needs?Are you the right person?Is this acceptable for correction?

T. TIME BOUNDThe fifth term stresses the importance of grounding goals within a time frame, giving them a target date A commitment to a deadline helps a team focus their efforts on completion of the goal on or before the due dateThis part of the S.M.A.R.T. goal criteria is intended to prevent goals from being overtaken by the day-to-day crises that invariably arise in an organizationT. TIME BOUNDA time-bound goal is intended to establish a sense of urgency.A time-bound goal will usually answer the question:When?What can I do 6 months from now?What can I do 6 weeks from now?What can I do today?SMARTER ObjectivesAt the end of todays workshop, 50% participants will walk out with a research question40% will walk out with a research question, research hypothesis and preliminary tool30% will walk out with a research question, research hypothesis and preliminary tool and SMARTER objectives

Your distance from light does not matter in the process of your enlightenment. You do!