# INTRODUCTION

Aug 18, 2014

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#### electrical

Design of a Clap Activated Switch

ANNAMACHARYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCES, TIRUPATI. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL &ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

MINI PROJECT ON:

DESIGN OF CLAP ACTIVATED SWITCH

PROJECT GUIDE : Mr. Jakeer Hussain,B.TECH, M.E ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, Department Of E.E.E, A.I.T.S,TIRUPATHI.

PROJECT MEMBERS:1) K.SENTHIL KUMAR 2) R.NARENDRA 3) Y.SANDEEP KUMAR : : : 07AK1A0245 07AK1A0228 07AK1A0242

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Design of a Clap Activated Switch

ABSTRACT

This circuit can switch on and off a light, a fan, a radio or a T.V. etc., by a sound of a clap. The sound of clap is received by a small micro-phone (condenser) that is shown by resistor r1 in the circuit. The signal is further amplified by transistors Q1, Q2, Q3. The relay contact is connected to the power line and hence turns on/off any electrical device at output socket. The components included are

resistors 15k, 2M, 270K, 3K , 27K, 1K,10K,2K,Capacitors 0.01 F, 0.047 F, 1000F/16V. Transistors Q1234-BC

149, Diodes IN 4002, IN 4148. Transformer of 12v/300mA, condenser mic, 12v single charge over relay.

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Design of a Clap Activated Switch

Design of a Clap Activated Switch

INTRODUCTION 1.1. INTRODUCTION

This circuit can switch on and off a light, a fan or a radio etc; by the sound of a clap.

This components

circuit

is

constructed

using

basic

electronic

like

resistors,

transistors,

relay,

transformer,

capacitors. This circuit turns ON light for the first clap. The light turns ON till the next clap. For the next clap the light turns OFF. This circuit works with 12V voltage .Therefore a step-down transformer 12V/300mA is employed.

The working of this circuit is based on amplifying nature of the transistor, switching nature of transistor, and relay as an electronic switch.

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Design of a Clap Activated Switch

2.1 COMPONENTS USED: RESISTOR CAPACITOR SEMICONDUCTORS TRANSISTORS DIODE TRANSFORMER 12V/300mA CONDENSER MIC RELAY 12V single charge over relay

4

Design of a Clap Activated Switch

2.2 COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION OF RESISTOR:A electrical or electronic resistor that is a two-terminal an electric

component

resists

current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm's law: R=V/I The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through the resistor. Resistors are used as part of

electrical networks and electronic circuits.

Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic

equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a highresistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome).

5

Design of a Clap Activated Switch

The resistor voltage are and the the resistance, power rating.

primary

characteristics maximum

of

a

the

tolerance,

working include

Other

characteristics

temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor. Resistors can be integrated into

hybrid and printed circuits, as well as integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals) are relevant to

equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.

2.3 RESISTORS USED:R1 15K R2,5,12 2.2M

R3 270K

R4 3.3K

6

Design of a Clap Activated Switch

R6,10 27K R7,11 1.5K

R8,9 10K

R13 2.2K

3.1 INTRODUCTION TO CAPACITOR:An charge temporarily, electric consisting circuit in element of used two to store

general

metallic

plates separated and insulated from each other by a dielectric. Also called condenser.

A

capacitor

(formerly capacitor

known

as

condenser) of a pair When

is of a

a

passive

electronic separated

consisting

conductors potential

by

a

dielectric

(insulator).

difference (voltage) exists across the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and

7

Design of a Clap Activated Switch

produces a mechanical force between the conductors. The effect is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called plates.

An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential

difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the

dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage.

Capacitors

are

widely

used

in

electronic

circuits

to

block

direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power supplies , and for in many other purposes. They are to used select in resonant

circuits

frequency

equipment

particular

frequencies from a signal with many frequencies.

3.2 CAPACITORS USED:

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Design of a Clap Activated Switch

C1 0.01UF C2,3 0.047UF

C4 1000UF/16V

3.2.2 CAPACITORS

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS:semiconductor is a material that has an electrical conductivity between that of a conductor and an insulator. centimeter This to means 108 roughly in the range 103 Siemens per

S/cm.

Devices

from

semiconductor

materials are the foundation of modern electronics, including

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Design of a Clap Activated Switch

computers,

telephones,

and

many

other

devices.

Semiconductor devices include the various types of transistor, solar cells, many kinds of diodes including the light-emitting diode, the silicon controlled rectifier, and digital and analog integrated circuits. Similarly, semiconductor solar photovoltaic panels directly convert light energy into electrical energy. In a metallic conductor, current is carried by the flow of

electrons. In semiconductors, current can be carried either by the flow of electrons or by the flow of positively charged

"holes" in the electron structure of the material.

Common

semiconducting

materials

are

crystalline solids but amorphous and liquid semiconductors are known. These include mixtures of arsenic, selenium and tellurium in a variety of proportions. Such compounds share with better known semiconductors of intermediate with conductivity temperature, However, and as a rapid as

variation occasional

conductivity

well

negative

resistance.

such

disordered

materials lack the rigid crystalline structure of conventional semiconductors such as silicon and so are relatively insensitive to impurities and radiation damage. Organic semiconductors, that is, organic materials with properties resembling conventional semiconductors are also known.

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Design of a Clap Activated Switch

Silicon

is

used

to

create

most

semiconductors commercially. Dozens of other materials are used, including germanium, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide. A pure semiconductor is often called an intrinsic semiconductor. The conductivity, or ability to conduct, of common semiconductor materials can be drastically changed by adding other elements, called impurities to the melted intrinsic material and then allowing the melt to solidify into a new and different crystal. This process is called "doping.

4.1.1 SEMICONDUCTOR CHIPS 4.2 SEMI CONDUCTORS USED: TRANSISTORS AND DIODES 5.1 INTRODUCTION OF DIODE:

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Design of a Clap Activated Switch

1. An electronic device that restricts current flow chiefly to one direction . 2. An electron tube having a cathode and an anode .

3. A

two-terminal

semiconductor

device

used

chiefly

as

a

rectifier .

In

electronics,

a

diode

is

a

two-terminal

electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode, the most common type today. This is a crystalline piece of

semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode (now little used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum tube with two electrodes; a plate and a cathode.

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current, and to extract mo

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