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INTEREST GROUPS. Why are interest groups so common? Many kinds of ______________ in the country mean that there are many different interests. Constitution.

Dec 21, 2015



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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Why are interest groups so common? Many kinds of ______________ in the country mean that there are many different interests. Constitution provides many access points to the government (__________) Political parties are weak so interests work directly on ______________.
  • Slide 3
  • History of Interest Groups _______ of interest groups have an office in Washington D.C. 1800s- religious association, antislavery groups, _________________ 1900s- business associations, charitable organizations 1960s- environmental groups, consumer groups 1970s religious & _____________________ Moral Majority - Jerry Falwell Christian Coalition Pat Robertson
  • Slide 4
  • Factors explaining the rise of interest groups 1)Broad economic developments create new interests, redefine old interests 2)Government policies- ex: wars create ___________ who demand benefits 3)Emergence of strong leaders usually from a ______________________ Ex: civil rights, anti-war movements
  • Slide 5
  • Types of Organizations Interest group- any organization that seeks to influence _____________________ Types: Economic Interest Groups _________________ - most powerful unions and farmers- most declining Public Interest Groups ________, professional, charitable AARP Americans have great sense of efficacy, much more likely to join an interest group when compared to other nations.
  • Slide 6
  • Governmental Units State and local governments ________ federal government for funds Want their share of _________ and earmarks
  • Slide 7
  • Incentives to Join 1) solidary incentives- pleasure, ________________ Organized as coalitions of small local units Ex: NAACP, Rotary, Parent-Teacher Association, American Legion 2) material ____________- $$, services Ex: AARP, farm organizations
  • Slide 8
  • Incentives to Join __________ incentives- goal/purpose of the organization itself This group also benefits non- membersthese people are called _______________________. Public Interest groups- usually created to benefit those who are not represented by interest groups.
  • Slide 9
  • Social Movements Definition- a widely shared demand for change in the social or political order. Movements may spawn many ____________________. More extreme organizations will be smaller and more activist. More _____________ organizations will be larger and less activist.
  • Slide 10
  • Funds for interest groups 1) membership ________ 2) foundation/federal grants 3) direct mail a) unique to modern interest groups b) computers allow groups to _______________________. c) very expensive - need at least ___ return to be effective.
  • Slide 11
  • Direct mail techniques 1) teaser on envelope 2) letter arouses _______________ 3) famous-name endorsement 4) ______________________ of letter
  • Slide 12
  • Facts about interest groups 1) those who are more affluent are more likely to __________ and be active. 2) business/professional groups are more ___________ and better financed. 3) Minorities, consumers, and the disadvantaged are ___________ by the interest groups.
  • Slide 13
  • Interest Groups in Action The most important tactic of interest groups is to SUPPLY ______________ INFORMATION. Detailed, current information can build/destroy a legislator/lobbyist relationship. Most effective on _______, technical issues
  • Slide 14
  • Lobbying persuading political leaders to support the groups position ______________ activities include: Congressional testimony Provide expert information Executive so many potential access points Pres, staff, and bureaucracy The ____________ Direct sponsorship or filing of amicus curiae briefs Influence nominations to federal courts
  • Slide 15
  • Political Cues Officials need political cues regarding what ___________ are at stake and how that fits with their own political beliefs. So groups may establish informal _________ based on their general political ideology. Rating systems are intended to generate support or ______________ for legislators.
  • Slide 16
  • Public Support Face to face contact between lobbyist and __________ or staff most common. ____________ mobilization can impact policies passed/defeated in Congress. Politicians dislike ___________ so they tend to work with interest groups that they agree with.
  • Slide 17
  • Money and PACS Money is the _________ influential way to affect politics. FECA 1973/1974: 1) restricted amounts interests can give to _______________. 2) made it legal for corporations and unions to create __________.
  • Slide 18
  • Rapid Growth of PACS More money available to all candidates Members (Congress) are establishing their own PACS to further their own causes. Over 1/2 of PACS are sponsored by _________________.
  • Slide 19
  • Who gets the money? ___________ get the most PAC money. Labor PACS give almost exclusively to _______________. Business PACS are __________. Democrats usually receive more _____ money.
  • Slide 20
  • Revolving Door This term refers to those who work for the ____________ and then PACS and vice versa. Can sometimes lead to ______________.
  • Slide 21
  • Regulating Interest Groups They are protected by the _______ amendment. 1995 Lobbying Act: 1) requires _________ twice a year to include client names, expenditures, and issues 2) ______ Department may investigate.
  • Slide 22
  • Summary Interest groups have a _____________ influence on policy because the average citizen does not pay attention. The more narrow the issue, the more __________ they have, including being asked to help draw up legislation to be proposed to Congress, and aid in the carrying out of that ___________.