Top Banner
INTEREST GROUPS
26

INTEREST GROUPS. Learning Objectives 12. Identify the different incentives that motivate people to join interest groups. 13. Compare types of interest.

Dec 26, 2015

Download

Documents

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.
Transcript
  • Slide 1
  • INTEREST GROUPS
  • Slide 2
  • Learning Objectives 12. Identify the different incentives that motivate people to join interest groups. 13. Compare types of interest groups and different specific interest groups. 14. Compare interest groups, lobbying firms, and PACs. 15. Compare PACs and Super PACs. 16. Evaluate the way interest groups attempt to influence elections and government decision-making and the limits on their influence. 17. Describe how the federal government regulates interest groups. 18. Compare different theories on the influence of interest groups 19. Compare the goals of political parties and interest groups and explain how they support each others goals.
  • Slide 3
  • The Role of Interest Groups Interest group An organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals Interest groups and political parties promote U.S. democracy by linking citizens to the political process. Differences between parties and interest groups: Political parties fight election battles; interest groups do not field candidates for office but may choose sides. Interest groups are policy specialists; political parties are policy generalists.
  • Slide 4
  • Types of Interest Groups 1. Economic Interests Labor Agriculture Business 2. Environmental Interests 3. Equality Interests 4. Consumer and Public Interest Lobbies 5. Ideological interest groups appeal of coherent, and often controversial, principles 25,000 interest groups in the U.S.!
  • Slide 5
  • Q1: Why are interest groups so common in the U.S.? Diverse society Multiple access points to government Political parties are weak
  • Slide 6
  • Q2: Why do people join interest groups? 3 types of incentives Solitary Purposive Material
  • Slide 7
  • Why Join an Interest Group? Solitary Incentives Enjoyment, companionship Solitary incentives require organizations to structure themselves as coalitions of small local units Facilitated by the importance of local governments in the U.S. Examples: League of Women Voters (LWV), NAACP, Rotary, Parent-Teacher Association
  • Slide 8
  • Why Join? Purposive Incentives The goal or purpose of the organization itself Though this group also benefits nonmembers, people join because: They are passionate about the goal(s) of the organization They have a strong sense of civic duty Cost of joining is minimal
  • Slide 9
  • Why Join? Material Incentives Money, things, services Organization may also influence how laws are administered to bring benefits to members Examples: farm organizations, AARP
  • Slide 10
  • Slide 11
  • How Groups Try to Shape Policy 1. Lobbying Lobbyists try to influence government decisions Some are paid employees of a particular organization Interest groups, corporations, labor unions Others are for hire Often former legislators Why do members of Congress listen to lobbyists? Source of info Help with political & campaign strategy Provide ideas & innovation
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Industries big spenders on lobbying
  • Slide 14
  • How Groups Try to Shape Policy 2. Electioneering Aiding candidates financially Getting out the vote Political Action Committees (PACs): Political funding vehicles PACs are used by interest groups to donate money to candidates. Mainly support incumbents
  • Slide 15
  • How Groups Try to Shape Policy 3. Litigation Suing for enforcement Amicus curiae briefs submitted by a friend of the court to raise additional points of view and present information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties Class Action lawsuits permit a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similar situated.
  • Slide 16
  • How Groups Try to Shape Policy 4. Going Public Aka: grassroots lobbying/mass mobilization Public opinion influences policymakers Use media: marketing/advertising/PR Mobilize public opinion
  • Slide 17
  • a.Lobbying b.Litigation c.Electioneering d.Going public On what tactic do interest groups rely to influence policy when Congress is unsympathetic?
  • Slide 18
  • a.Lobbying b.Litigation c.Electioneering d.Going public On what tactic do interest groups rely to influence policy when Congress is unsympathetic?
  • Slide 19
  • Q3: Special interest groups including lobbyists and political action committees have been one of the most criticized components of the political process. Why?
  • Slide 20
  • Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralism and Group Theory Groups provide a key link between the people and the government. Groups compete so no one group will become too dominant. Groups play by the rules of the game. Groups weak in one resource may use another. i.e. all legitimate groups can affect public policy.
  • Slide 21
  • Theories of Interest Group Politics Elites and the Denial of Pluralism Real power is held by the relatively few. The largest corporations hold the most power. Groups are unequal in power because elites prevail when it comes to big policy decisions.
  • Slide 22
  • Theories of Interest Group Politics: Elitism
  • Slide 23
  • Theories of Interest Group Politics The Hyperpluralist Critique Groups become too powerful when government tries to appease every interest. Trying to please every group results in contradictory policies. Iron triangles Consist of interest groups, government agencies, and congressional committees that handle particular policies Exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas. Also known as subgovernments or issue networks
  • Slide 24
  • a.Elitism b.Hyperpluralism c.Pluralism d.None of the above Which theory of interest group politics views interest groups positively?
  • Slide 25
  • a.Elitism b.Hyperpluralism c.Pluralism d.None of the above Which theory of interest group politics views interest groups positively?
  • Slide 26
  • Closure Questions: Interest Groups & Parties 1. How do their goals differ? 2. How do they support one anothers goals?